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24 Cards in this Set

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Fixed ratio
a set number of correct responses is required to receive a reinforcer, regardless of time
Nuetral stimulus
a stimulus that generally does not evoke a response
Punishment
process of presenting an undesirable or noxious stimulus, or removing a desirable stimulus, to decrease the probability that a preceding response will recur.
Consequences
effects that follow a response
Positive reinforcement
occurs when a response is followed by a reward in order to increase the likelihood that it will recur
Conditioned response
a learned response elicited by a conditioned stimulus
Variable interval
a reinforcer is given for the first correct response after a varying amount of time
Shaping
is the gradual process of selectively reinforcing behaviors that come closer an closer to a desired response
Fixed interval
a feinforcer is given following a correct response after a set amount of time
Classical conditioning
conditioning process in which an originally neutral stimulus, by repeated pairing with a stimulus that normally elicits a respponse, comes to elicit a similar/same response
Negative reinforcement
removal of a stimulus after a particular response to increse the likelihood that the response will recur
Desensitization
reducing fear or anxiety by repeatedly exposing a person to emotional stimuli while the person is deeply relaxed
Variable ratio
a reinforcer is given after a varying number of correct responses
Antecedents
events which precede a response
Variable interval
a reinforcer is given for the first correct response after a varying amount of time
Extinction
the weakening of a conditioned response through the removal of reinforcement
Law of effect
learning is strengthened by reinforcement. Responses which produce desirable results are repeated: those which produce undesirable results are not.
Unconditional response
an innate reflex response elicited by an unconditional stimulus
Phobia
an intense and unrealistic fear of some specific object or situation
Conditioned stimulus
neutral stimulus that, through repeated association with an unconditioned stimulus, begins to elicit a conditioned response
Reinforcement
any event that increases the probability that a particular response will occur
Operant conditioning
conditioning in which an increse or decrease in the pobability that a behavior will recur is affected by the delivery of reinforcement or punishment as a consequence of the behavior
Unconditioned stimulus
a stimulus innately capable of eliciting a response
Learning
any permanent change in behavior which can be attributed to experience