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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The process of organizing and transforming incoming information so that it can be entered into memory, either to be stored or to be compared with reviously stored information
the process of retaining information in memory
the process of accessing information stored in memory
memory store
a set of neurons that serves to retain information over time
sensory memory (sm)
a memory store that holds a large amount of perceptual input for a very brief time, typically less than 1 second
short-term memory (stm)
immediate memory
a memory store that holds relatively little information for only a few seconds (as long as 30 seconds)
the process of repeating information over and over to retain it in STM
a unit of information, such as a digit, letter, or word
working memory (wm)
the system that includes two specialized STMs (auditory loop and visuospatial sketchpad) and a central executive that operates on information in them to plan, reason, or solve a problem
central executive
the set of processes that operates on information in one or another of two specialized STMs; part of working memory
long-term memory (LTM)
a memory store that holds a huge amount of information for a long time (from hours to years)
primacy effect
increased memory for the first few stimuli in a set, reflecting storage of information in LTM
Recency effect
increased memory for the last few stimuli in a set, reflecting storage of information in STM
a type of mental representation, an internal "re-presentation" (such as in words or images) of the stimulus or event
the process of converting information stored dynamically in LTM into a structural change in the brain
depth of processing
the number and complexity of the operations involved in processing information, expressed in a continuum from shallow to deep
transfer appropriate processing
processing used to retrieve material that is the same type as was used when the material was originally studied, which improves memory retrieval
breadth of processing
processing that organizes and integrates information into previously stored information, often by making associations
elaborative encoding
encoding that involves great breath of processing
intentional learning
learning that occurs as a result of trying to learn
incidental learning
learning that occurs without intention
flashbulb memory
an unusually uvid and detailed memory of a dramatic event
modality-specific memory stores
memory stores that retian input from a single sense, such as vision or audition, or from a specific processing system, such as language
semantic memories
memories of the meanings of words, concepts, and general facts about the world
episodic memories
memories of events that are associated with a particular context: a time, place and circumstance
explicit(declarative) memories
memories that can be retrieved at will and represented in STM; verbal and visual memories are explicit if they can be called to mind as words or images
implicit (nondeclarative) memories
memories that cannot be voluntarily caleld to mind, but nevertheless influence behavior or thinking
a well-learned response that is carried out automatically (without conscious thought) when the appropriate stimulus is present
controlled processing
processing that requries paying attention to each step of an action and using working memory (wm) to coordinate the steps
automatic processing
processing that allows you to carry out a sequence of steps without having to pay attention to each one or to the relations between the steps
the result of having just performed a task that facilitates repeating the same or an associated task
repetition priming
priming that makes the same information more easily accessed in the future
the act of intentionally bringing explicit information to awareness, which requires transferring the information from LTM to STM
the act of encoding an input and matching it to a stored representation
stimuli that trigger or enhance remembering; reminders
state-dependent retrieval
recall that is better if it occurs in the smae psychological state that was present when the information was first encoded
false memories
memories of events or stituations that did not, in fact, occur
reality monitoring
an ongoing awareness of the perceptual and other properties that distinguish real from imagined stimuli
forgetting curve
a graphic representation of the rate at which information is forgotten over time: recent events are recalled better than more distant ones, but most forgetting occurs soon after learning
encoding failure
a failure to process to-be-remembered information well enough to begin consoidation
the fading away of memories with time because the relevant connections between neurons are lost
the disruption of the ability to remember one piece of information by the presence of other information
retroactive interference
interference that occurs when new learning imairs memory for something learned earlier
proactive interference
interference that occurs when previous knowledge makes it diffilcult to learn something new
a loss of memory over an enire time span, resulting from brain damage caused by accident, infection, or stroke
retrograde amnesia
amnesia that disrupts previous memories
anterograde amnesia
amnesia that leaves consolidated memories intact but prevents new learning
repressed memories
real memories that have been pushed out of consciousness because they are emotionally threatening
mnemonic devices
strategies the improve memory, typically bu susing effective organization and integration