Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/46

Click to flip

46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Structuralism
The study of the structure of mind and behavior. Based on the presumption that all human mental experience could be understood as the combination of basic components. (redustionistic, elemental, mentalistic)
-Formulated by Titchener
Functionalism
William James
Gave primary importance to learned habits that enable organisms to adapt to their environment and to function effectively. "What is the function or purpose of the behavioral act?"
Current Psychological Perspectives
Seven of them as follows
Psychodynamic Perspective
-Behavior is driven, or motivated, by powerful inner forces (inherited instincts, biological drives)
-Main purpose of action is to reduce tension
-Developed fully by Sigmund Freud who viewed a person as pulled and pushed by complex network of inner and outer forces
Behaviorist Perspective
Seek to understand how particular environmental stimuli control particular kinds of behavior
-Study antecedent environment conditions then behavior response, then consquences after response
-Pioneered by John Watson
-Expanded by B.F.Skinner to study consquences of behavior
Humanistic Perceptive
People are neither driven by the powerful, instinctive forces of Freud nor manipulated by their environments like behaviorists believed, but are active creatures who are innately good and capable or choice
Carl Rogers- humans have natural tendency toward psychological growth and health
Abraham Maslow - self-actualization - "drive" towards fullest potential
Cognitive Perspective
Human thought and all processes of knowing (attending, understanding, thinking, remembering)
Biological Perspective
Guides psychologists who search for behavior in fuctioning of genes, the brain, nervous system, endocrine system
-Behavioral neuroscience (attempts to understand the brain processes underlying behaviors such as sensation, learning, and emotion)
-Cognitive neuroscience (memory, language)
Evolutionary Perspective
Seeks to connect psychology to Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection
-Suggests that mental abilities evolved over millions of years to serve particular adaptive purposes
Sociocultural Perspective
Cross-cultural differences in the causes and consequences of behavior
-Comparisons of groups within the same national boundaries
Rene Descartes
(1596-1650) Proposed human body as "animal machine" that can be understood scientifically - by discovering natural laws through empirical observation
-Developed reflex theory and the concept that the pineal gland is the "seat of the soul"
-pineal gland singular and not duplicated in the brain
-pineal gland = endocrine gland
(neuroscience)
Neuron
-Cell specialized to receive, process, and transmit info to other cells within the body
-Dendrite: part of neuron that receives incoming signals
-Soma: Cell body - contains nucleus and cytoplasm. Integrates info and passes on to axon
-Axon: Conducts info
-Terminal buttons: End of axon, stimulate nearby glands
-Sensory neurons: Sense receptor cells toward central nervous system
-Motor neurons: away from central nervous system toward muslces and glands
-Interneurons: sensory neurons to other interneurons or motor neurons (in brain)
Action/ Resting Potential
Resting state: 10x as many potassium ions inside membrane
-Sodium potassium pumps leave fluid inside slightly negative, slightly polarized (-70 millivolts)
Action potential: -55 millivolts
-Sodium rushes in, inside becomes positive, depolarized (domino effect)
Refractory Period: after action potential when neuron cannot be restimulated
Kinds of neurotransmitters
Acetylcholine - excitatory, causes muscle contraction
GABA - inhibitory, inhibits neural activity, anxiety causer
Catecholamines -
-Domapine + Norepinephrine - mood disturbance (depression)
-Serotonin - brainstem, arousal, autonomic processes
Parts of the nervous system
Central nervous system - all neurons in the brain and spinal cord
-integrates and coordinates all bodily functions, processes incoming neural messages, and sends out commands to the body
Peripheral nervous system - all neurons forming nerve fibers that connect the CNS to the body
-Somatic nervous system: regulates actions of skeletal system
-autonomic nervous system: sustains basic life processes
--sympathetic division-responses to emergency situations
--parasympathetic division-routine operations of body's internal functions (monitors)
Brain structures and their functions
Brain stem (contains medulla) - autonomic - heart rate, breathing, swallowing, etc.
Pons - above medulla - provides input to brain stem + cerebellum
Reticular formation - dense network of nerve cells that serves as the brain's sentinel, arouses cortex and keeps brain alert
Thalamus - Channels sensory info to appropriate area of cerebral cortex where information is processed
Cerebellum - attached to the brain stem - coordinates movements, controls posture, and maintains equilibrium - also ability to learn and perform sequences of body movements
Limbic system - envelopes central core
-mediates behaviors, emotions, memory, body temperature, blood pressure
Contains: Hippocampus (acquisition of memories), Amygdala (emotion control and formation of emotional memories), Hypothalamus (maintains homeostasis)
The Cerebrum
-2/3 of brain
-regulates brain's higher learning/ emotional functions
-Outer surface -> cerebral cortex
-Divided into halves called cerebral hemispheres
-Two hemispheres connected by thick mass of nerve fibers called corpus callosum
-Frontal lobe - motor control, cognitive activities, Broca's area
-Parietal lobe - touch, pain, temperature
-Occipital lobe - final destination for visual information (located at back of head)
-Temporal lobe - hearing
-Motor cortex - controls body's voluntary muscles
-Somatosensory cortex - processes information about temperature, touch, position, pain (lips, tongue, thumb mostly)
Auditory cortex - processes auditory information
Visual cortex - processes visual input - back of brain
Association cortex - planning and desicion making
Olfactory bulbs - smell
Da Vinci
Central canal system w/ ventricles carrying cerebral spine fluid (that cushions brain) - developed map of ventricular system
Michelangelo
Incorporated shapes/ images of brains into paintings, attempted to link neurology to humanity
Phrenology
the science which studies the relationship between a person's character and the morphology of the skull
Brain structures and their functions
Brain stem (contains medulla) - autonomic - heart rate, breathing, swallowing, etc.
Pons - above medulla - provides input to brain stem + cerebellum
Reticular formation - dense network of nerve cells that serves as the brain's sentinel, arouses cortex and keeps brain alert
Thalamus - Channels sensory info to appropriate area of cerebral cortex where information is processed
Cerebellum - attached to the brain stem - coordinates movements, controls posture, and maintains equilibrium - also ability to learn and perform sequences of body movements
Limbic system - envelopes central core
-mediates behaviors, emotions, memory, body temperature, blood pressure
Contains: Hippocampus (acquisition of memories), Amygdala (emotion control and formation of emotional memories), Hypothalamus (maintains homeostasis)
The Cerebrum
-2/3 of brain
-regulates brain's higher learning/ emotional functions
-Outer surface -> cerebral cortex
-Divided into halves called cerebral hemispheres
-Two hemispheres connected by thick mass of nerve fibers called corpus callosum
-Frontal lobe - motor control, cognitive activities, Broca's area
-Parietal lobe - touch, pain, temperature
-Occipital lobe - final destination for visual information (located at back of head)
-Temporal lobe - hearing
-Motor cortex - controls body's voluntary muscles
-Somatosensory cortex - processes information about temperature, touch, position, pain (lips, tongue, thumb mostly)
Auditory cortex - processes auditory information
Visual cortex - processes visual input - back of brain
Association cortex - planning and desicion making
Olfactory bulbs - smell
Da Vinci
Central canal system w/ ventricles carrying cerebral spine fluid (that cushions brain) - developed map of ventricular system
Michelangelo
Incorporated shapes/ images of brains into paintings, attempted to link neurology to humanity
Phrenology
the science which studies the relationship between a person's character and the morphology of the skull
Plasticity
Changes in the performance of the brain
-Mark Rosenzweig, demonstrated in rats/ their living conditions
-Brain gains more synapses per neuron
-Neurogenesis: new brain cells from naturally occuring stem cells
Perception
The overall process of apprehending objects and events in the environment
-Perceptual organization: the stage in which an internal representation of an object is formed and a percept is developed
Sensation
Process by which stimulation of sensory receptors produces neural impulses that represent experiences in or out of the body
Distal Stimulus
Physical object in the world (distant from observer)
Proximal Stimulus
Optical image on the retina (near to the observer)
Ambiguity
A single image at the sensory level can result in multiple interpretations -> instability
Tendency to transfrom ambiguity and uncertainty into clear interpretation
Illusion
Ambiguous stimuli which your perceptual system deceived into experiencing a stimulus pattern in a manner that is incorrect
-shared by most people due to same perceptual situation + shared physiology in sensory system
Psychophysics
the study of the relationshipo between physical stimuli and behavior or mental experiences the stimuli evoke (Gustav Fechner)
-Absolute threshold: the minimum amount of physical energy needed to produce a sensory experience (1/2 the time)
-Sensory adaptation - the diminishing responsiveness of sensory systems to prolonged stimulus input
-Difference threshold - smallest physical different between two stimuli that can still be recognized as a difference
--Just Noticeable Difference - quantitative unit for measuing magnitude of psychological difference between two sensations
---Ernst Weber: JND between stimuli is a constant fraction of the intensity of the standard stimulus
The Visual System
Lens - reverses and inverts light patterns
Retina - converts information about the world from light waves into neural signals. (performed by rods and cones, photoreceptors) (rods - dark, cones - light)
-Three types of cones, blue short, green middle, red long & different combinations of cone activity = different sensations of color
-Fovea - center of retina, densely packed cones, sharpest vision
-Optic disk - blind spot, no receptor cells, where optic nerve leaves eye
Vision in the brain
David Hubel & Torsten Wiesel - study receptive fields of cells in visual cortex
-Receptive fields: the area in the visual field from which it receives stimulation (simple cells - light, complex - moving, hypercomplex - moving & length, angles, or corners
LightWaves
Amplitude - brightness (intensity)
Wavelength - hue (different colors), most relevant for understanding
Complexity - purity (saturation)
Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic Theory
-Three cones, blue, green, red
-Not whole story, Hurvich & Jameson (Ewald Hering?) - Opponent-process theory - all color experiences arise from three underlying systems, each of which includes two opponent elements (red vs. green, blue vs. yellow, black vs. white)
Sound
-Creates vibrations which move air molecules to form sine waves with frequency
-Amplitude -> Loudness
-Frequency -> Pitch
-Complexity -> Timbre
Anatomy:
-Outer ear: cone for collecting sound
-Middle ear: parts that vibrate to transmit the wave
-Inner ear: some way to note amplitudue and frequency (cochlea) (translates energy to neural for hearing)

-Cochlea - inside is the basilar membrane which increases in thickness and decreases in stiffness from one end to the other, bulged by waves in fluid
-tiny hairs attached to receptors bend according to place and frequency of waves
-Place theory: wave depends of frequency of sound, high frequency at beginning, moderate in the middle, etc. (low moves whole thing)
-size of wave depends of amplitutde of sound
Perception
Nativism - knowing how to perceive from the start
Empricism - learning to perceive
Associations - become cues (clues) about the world
-Proximal Stimulus - relative size, interposition (one object hiding another), linear perspective, texture gradient
-Become associated with distal stimulus through experience in the world
-Binoculur disparity - absolute distance, relative distance, Binocular cue - convergence (muscle tension)
-Motion parallex - objects in foreground move faster than those in background, moving and you moving appear the same
-Filter Theory - selection occurs early on in the process, before input's meaning is accessed
-Bottom-up processing: taking sensory data in from environment and sending it to brain for extraction and and analysis
-Top-down processing: expectations affect perception (past experiences, cultural backgrounds)
Perception continued
Helmholtzian Solution: Principle of likelihood, unconcious inferences
Gestaltism: Principles of perceptual grouping
-Proximity: things grouped together are perceived together
-Similarity: similar things perceived together
-Good continuation: Tendency to view things are continuous and unbroken
-Closure: Tendency to see things as a whole
-Common fate: Tendency to group things together that are moving in the same direction
Consciousness
The body of information of which you are aware
Nonconscious-actions accomplished without awareness (breathing, etc.)
Preconcious-memories accessible to consciousness only after something calls your attention to them
Unconcious-processes that operate below the level of conciousness

Uses of conciousness:
1. Aiding survival
-make sense of environment
-selective focus/ storage
-planning function
2. Unique interpretations
Learning and Memory
Learning - acquisition of knowledge
Memory - retention of knowledge
Simple Forms of Learning
1. Habituation - gradual decrease in the behavioral response to a stimulus (non-associative)
2. Sensitization - gradual increase in behavioral response to a stimulus (non-associative)
Classical/ Pavlovian Conditioning
-A basic form of learning in which one stimulus or event predicts the occurence of another stimulus or event
-Ivan Pavlov-discovered classical (Pavlovian) conditioning by accident in dog gland investigation
-Unconditioned stimulus-elicits reflex (food)
-Unconditioned stimulus-elicited by unconditioned stimulus (saliva)
-Conditioned stimulus-neutral stimulus paired with unconditioned stimulus (sound)
-Conditioned response-response after conditioned stimulus (saliva)
Extinction: CR no longer appears in presence of CS
Spontaneous recovery: sudden reappearance of CR after a rest period

Temporal relations:
Delay: CS then US, CR appears at start of CS (most effective)
Simulatneous: CS and US at the same time, no CR
Trace: CS then gap (trace) then US, CR appears sparingly then stronger
Backward: US before CS, no CR
-Stimulus generalization - automatic extension of responding to stimuli that have never been paired with the original UCS
-Stimulus discrimination-the process by which an organism learns to respond differently to stimuli that are distinct from the CS on some dimension
Watson -> Little Albert
Operant Conditioning
Edward Thorndike: used rats in puzzle box, learning is associated between stimuli in situation and a response that an animal learned to make, learning through trial and error
-Law of Effect - response followed by satisfying consquences more probable and vice versa.

B.F.Skinner - developed operant conditioning - manipulated consequences of an organisms behavior in order to see what effect had on subsequent behavior
-Operant - any behavior that has an observable impact on the environment

-Reinforcer - any stimulus that increases probability of a behavior over time
--positive reinforcement: delivery of appetitive stimulus
--negative reinforcement: removal of aversive stimulus
-Punisher: any stimulus that decreases the probability of the response in time
--positive punishment: delivery of aversive stimulus
--negative punishment: removal of appetitive stimulus
Donald Hebb
Propsed idea that learning can occur at the level of the cell and learning via the strengthening of existing synapses
=> more neurotransmitters
or
=> more channels/ receptors