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255 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the science of metal processes and behavior
mental processes
what the brain does when a person stores, recalls, or uses information or has specific feelings
the outwardly observable acts of an individual
events that involve the stucture and prperties of the organ iself, braincells and their connections the chemical soup in which they exist, and the genes
level of the person
events that involve the nature of the belief, desires, and feelings, the content of the mind
level of the group
events that involve relationships between people
rules and circumstances that combine to form structures: what mental processes and how they operate - introspection
process of looking within
how the mind functions in the world - natural selection: why the brain thinks *level of the group
key structuralists
wilhelm wundt
edward titchener
maragret washburn
key functionalists
william james
influenced by charles darwin
gestalt psychology
whole is greater than the sum of its parts
key gestalt psychologists
max weirtheimer
outside conscious awareness and not able to be brought to consciousness at will
psychodynamic theory
how thoughts and feelings affect behavior; refers to the continual push and pull interaction among conscious and unconscious forces *sigmund freud
how a specific stimulus, object, person, or event evokes a specific response
key behaviorialists
John Watson
BF Skinner
humanistic psychology
assumes that people have positive values, free will, and deep inner creativity - leads to personal growth. Therapist as a mirror
key humanists
Carl Rogers
Abraham Maslow
cognitive psychology
the approach in psychology that attempts to characterize how information is stored and operated on internally
cognitive neuroscience
the blending of cognitive psychology and neuroscience that aims to specify how the brain stores and processes information
evolutionary psychology
the approach in psychology that assumes that certain cognitive strategies and goals are so important that natural selection has built them into our brains
clinical psychologist
the type of psychologist who provides psychotherapy and is trained to administer and interpret psychological tests
the process of helping clients learn to change so they can cope with troublesome thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
counseling psychologists
the type of psychologist who is trained to help people with issues that naturally arise during the course of life
a physician who focuses on mental disorders, can prescribe drugs; not trained to research and intrepret results
social worker
a mental health professional who uses psychotherapy to help families, individuals, and teaches clients to use the social services in their communities
psychiatric nurse
a nurse with a master's degree and clinical specialization, works with MD
Academic psychologist
a type of psychologist who focuses on teaching and conducting research
applied psychologist
the type of psychologist who studies how to imporve products and procedures and cunducts research to help solve specific practial problems
scientific method
specify a problem, systematically observing events, forming a hypothesis, using evidence to form a theory, testing the theory
objective observations
collecting the smae observations or measurements and finding the same results as were found previously
an aspect of a situation that can vary/change specifically a characteristic of a substance that is measurable
a tentative idea that might explain a set of observations
operational definition
a definition of a variable that specifies how it is measured or manipulated
an interlocking set of principles that explain a set of observations
an expectation about specific events that should occur in particular circumstances if the theory or hypothesis is correct
case study
a scientific that focuses on a single instance of a situation, examining it in detail
a set of questions, typically about beliefs, attitudes, preferences or activites
correlation coefficient
an index of how closely interrelated two sets of meausred variables are related (+/- 1) The higher the correlation, the better we can predict the value of one type of measurement when given the other
the difference in the dependent variable that is due to the changes in the independent variable
the independent variable that varies along with the ones of interest and could be the actual basis for what you are measuring
meta analysis
a statistical technique that allows researchers to combine results from different studies- can determine whether there is a relationship among variables that transcends any one study
a group that is drawn from a larger population and measured or observed
the entire set of relevant people or animals
same results when repeated
measure what it's supposed to measure
beliefs, expectations effect how a researcher conducts a study
experimenter expectancy effects
effects that occur when an investigator's expectations lead him/her to treat participants in a way that encourages them to prouce the expected results
double-blind design
the participant is unaware of the predictions of the study and the experimentor is blind to the condition assigned to the participant
theories or statements that are superstition or unsupported opinion pretending to be science
informed consent
the requirement that a potential paritcipant in a study be told what he/she will be asked to do and advised of possible risks and benefits before taking place
and interview after a study to enure that the participant has no negative reactions as a result of participation and understands why the study was conducted
basic unit of the nervous system
sensory neuron
a neuron that responds to input from sense organs
motor neuron
a neroun that sends signals to muscles to control movement
a neuron that is connected to other neurons
brain circuit
a set of neurons that affect one another
cell body
the central part of a neuron, controls the cell's metabolic activities and integrates inputs
conducts the nerve impulse away from the cell body
receive information from other neurons or from the environment
terminal buttons
release chemicals into the space between neurons when thier neuron has been triggered
resting potential
the negative change in charge that moves down the axon
all-or-none law
neuron fires or not; action potential or not
a fatty substance that helps impulse travel down the axon more efficiently
the place where an axon of one neuron can send signals to the membrane of another neuron
a chemical that carries a signal from the terminal button on one neuron to the dendrite or cell body of another neuron
a chemical that alters the effect of a neurotransmitter
endogenous cannabinoids
neuromodulators released by the receiving neuron that then influence the acivity of the sending neuron
a site on a dendrite or cell body where a messenger molecule attaches itself like a lock that is opened by one key
the process by which surplus neurotransmitter is reabsorbed back into the sending neuron so that the neuron can effectively fire again
a chiemical that mimics the effects of a neurotransmitter by activating a type of receptor
selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor
a chemical that blocks the reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin
a chemical that interferes with the effect of a neurotransmitter (blocks a receptor)
glial cell
surrounds the neuron, influences communication, 'care and feeding' of the neuron
transmitter at the neuromuscular junction (muscle contraction), memory, used in ANS
motivation, reward, movement, thought, learning
noradrenalin, norephinephrine
dreaming, attention
primary inhibitory neurotransmitter regulating mood, sleep, stress
GABA (gamma-amino butyric acid)
inhibits sending neuron
endogenous cannabinoids
memory, attention, emotion, movement control, appetite
the ANS and sensory somatic nervous system
controls the smooth muscles in the body, some glandular functions, many of the body's self-regulating activities, such as digesting and circulating
sympathetic nervous system
fight or flight
parasympathetic system
resting phase, counteracts sympathetic
SSNS (sensory-somatic)
neurons in the sensory organs that convey info to the brain, also trigger muscles and glands
skeletal system
consists of nerves taht are attached to striated muscles
spinal cord
the flixible rope of nerves that runs inside the bakcbone, or spinal column
spinal cord and the brain
an automatic response to an event
membranes that cover the brain
cerebral hemisphere
left or right half-brain
occipital, temporal, parietal, frontal
corpus callosum
the large band of nerve fibers that connects the two halves of the brain
cerebral cortex
the convoluted pinkish-grey outer layer of the brain, where most mental processes take place
visual memory and hearing
registering spatial location, attention, and motor control
somatosensory strip
located immediately located behind the central sulcus, registers sensation, and is organized by body part
planning, memory, motor control, and reasoning
motor strip
immediatly in front of the central sulcus, controls fine movements - primary motor cortex
cortex, thalamus, limbic system, and basal ganglia
receives inputs from sensory and motor systems and plays a crucial role in attention - switching center
a brain structure that sits under the thalamus and plays a central role in controlling eating and drinking and in regulating the body's temp, BP, and heart rate
key role in allowing new information to be sorted in the brain's memory banks
fear, anger, and other emotions
limbic system
hippocampus, amygdala, and other areas, fighting/fleeing, feeding, and sex
basal ganglia
planning and producing movement
set of neural structures at base of the brain, including pons and medulla
lowest part of the brainstem, breathing, swallowing, and blood circulation
reticular formation
small structures at the base of the brainstem, 'ascending' keeps person awake/alert, 'decending' is ANS rxns
bridge between the brainstem and the cerebellum that plays a role in functions ranging from sleep to control of the facial muscles
a large structure at the base of the brain that is concerned in part with physical coordination, estimating time and paying attention
the midulla, pons,cerebellum, and pars of the reticular formation
brainstem structures that lie between forebrain and hindbrain including parts of the reticular formation
a chemical that is produced by a gland and can act as a neuromodulator
a hormone produced by the outer layer of the adrenal glands that helps the body cope with stress by breaking down and converting protein and fat to sugar
pituitary gland
the 'master gland' that regulates other glands but it iself is controlled by the brain, primary by hypothalamus
hypotyalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA)
the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal glands, which work together to fight off infection
a region of impared tissue
blockage where blood cannot reach a portion of the brain; that part dies
a machine that records electrical currenct produced by the brain
a recording from the scalp of electrical activity in the brain over time, which produces a tracing of pulses at different frequencies
a technique fro assessing brain activity that relies on recording magnetic waves from outside of the head
a tiny probe inserted into the brain to record the electical activity of induvidual neurons
CT/CAT scan
3D xrays to image the brain
localizes activity via hemoglobin
detects the amount of O2 while a task is performed
Transcrainial magnetic simulation (TMS)
a technique in which the brain is stimulated from outsied by putting a wire coil on a person's head and delivering a magnetic pulse
prozac, zoloft, and paxil block reuptake of serotonin
broca's area vs. wernicke's area
speech production vs speech comprehension
limbic system
hypothalamus, pituitary gland, amygdala, hippocampus
the awareness of properties of an object ore event that occurs when a type of receptor is stimulated
the act of organizeing and interpreting sensory input ans signaling a particular object or event
the study of the relation between physical events and the corresponding experience of those evens
the point where stimulation is strong enough to be noticed
absolute threshold
the smalles amound of a stimulus needed in order to detect that the stimulus is present
the size of the difference in a stimulus property needed fro the observer to notice that a change has occurred
weber's law
the rule that a constant percentage of a magnitude change is necessary to detect a difference
signal detection theory
a theory explaining why people detect signals independently of bias; the theory is based on the idea tha signals are always embedded in noise and thus the challenge is to distinguish signal from noise
in signal detection theory, the threshold level for distinguishing between a stimulus and noise; the lower the threshold, the greater the sensitivity
a person's willingness to report noticing a stimulus
the process whereby physical energy is converted by as sensory neuron into neural impulses
the opening in the eye through which light passes
the circular muscle that adjusts the size of the pupil
the transparent covering over the eye, which serves partly to focus the light onto the back of the eye
occurs when muscles adjust the shape of the lens so that it focuses light on the retina from objects at different distances
a sheet of tissue at the back of the eye containing cells athat convert light to neural impulses
the small, central region of the retina with the hightest density of cones and with the highest resolution
rod shaped retal cells that are very sensitive to light but register only shades of gray
cone shaped retial cells that respond most stronly to one of three wavelengths of light; the combined outputs from cones that are most sensitive to different wavelengths play a key role in producing color vision
otic nerve
the large bundle of verve fibers carrying impules from the retina into the brain
dark adaptation
the process whereby exposure to darkness causes the eyes to become more sensitive, allowing for better vision in the dar
trichomoatic theory of color vision
the theory that color vision arises from the combination of neural impulses from three different kinds of sensors, each of which responds maximally to a different wavelenght
opponant process theory of color vision
the theory that if a color is present, it causes cells that register it to inhibit the perception of the complemantry color
the image left behind by a previous perception
opponent cells
cells that pit the colors in a pair , most notably blue/yellow, red/green against eachother
color blindness
an inablility to perceive certain hues (aquired or inherited)
in perception, a set of characteristics that corresponds to an object
in perception, the background, which must be distinguished in order to pick out figures
gestalt laws of organization
a set of rules describing the circustances, such as proximity, good continuation, similiarity, closure, and good form, under which marks will be grouped into perceptual units
perceptual constancy
the perception of characteristics that occurs when an object or quality looks the same even though the sensory info striking the eyes changes
size constancy
seeing an object as being the sam size when viewed at different distances
shape constancy
seeing objects as having the same shape even when the image on the retina changes
color constancy
seeing objects as having the same color in different viewing situations
binocular clues
cues to the distance of an object that arise from both eyes working together
the degree to which the eyes are crossed when a person fixates on an object
retinal disparity (binocular disparity)
the difference between the images striking the retinas of the two eyes
monocular static cues
information that specifies the distance of an object that can be picked up with one eye with out movement of the object or eye
texture gradient
progressive change in texture that signals distance
motion cues
information that specifies the distance of an object on the basis of its movement
bottom-up processing
processing that is initiated by stimulus input
top-down processing
processing that is guided by knowledge, expectation, or belief
perceptual set
the sum of your assumptions and belifs taht lead you to expect to perceive certain objects or charateristics in particular contexts
the act of focusing on particular information, which allows it to be processed more fully than what is not attened to
selective attention
the process of picking out a particular quality, object, or even for relatively detailed analysis
phenomenon that occurs when a stimulus is sufficiently different from the ones around it that it is immediately evident
repetition blindness
the inablilty to see the second occurrence of a stimulus that appears twice in succession
attention blink
a rebound period in which a person cannot pay attention to one thing after having just paid attention to another
how high/low a sound seems; higher frequencies of pressure waves produce the experience of higher pitches
the strength of a sound; pressure waves with greater amplitude produce the experience of louder sound
a measure of loudness on a base-10 logarithmic sace, the threshold for hearing is set at 0dB
hair cells
the cells with stiff hearis along the BM of the inner ear, that when moved, produce nerve impulses that are sent to the brain; these cells are the auditory equivalent of rods and cones
frequency theory
the theory that higher frequencies produce higher rates of neural firing
place theory
the theory that different frequecies activated different places along the BM
conduction deafness
casued by physical impairment of the external or middle ear
speech-segmentation problem
the problem of oragnizing a continuous stream of speech into separate parts taht correspond to induvidual words
categorical perception
identifying sounds as belonging to distinct categories that correspond to the basic untis of speech
cocktail party phenomenon
the effect of not bein aware of other people's conversations until your name is mentioned, and then suddenly hearing it
dichotic listening
a procedure in which participants hear stimuli presented separately to the two ears and are instructed to listen only to sounds presented in one ear
chemical senses
taste and smell, rely on sensing of specific chemicals
chemicals that function like hormones but are released ouseide the body in urine and sweat
taste buds
microscopic structures on the bumps on the tongue surface at the back of the throat, and inside the cheeks; different types of taste buds are sensitive to sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and glutamate
somasthetic senses
senses that have to do with perceiving the body and its position in space; kinesthetic sense, vestibular sense, touch, temperature sensitivity, pain sense, and possibly magnetic sense
kinesthetic sense
the sense that registers the movement and position of the limbs
vestibular sense
the sense that provides information about the body's orientation relative to gravity
paradoxical cold
the sensation of cold that occurs when certain nerves in the skin are stimulated by something hot
double pain
the sensation that occurs when an injury first causes a sharp pain, and later a dull pina; the two kinds of pain arise from different fibers sending teir messages at different speeds
painkiling chemicals produced naturally in the brain
a medically inactive substance that is presented as though it has medicinal effects
gate control (of pain)
the top-down inhibion of interneurons that regulate the input of pain signals to he brain
extrasensory perception (ESP)
the ability to perceive and know things without using the ordinary senses
a relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience
the learning taht occurs when repeated exposure to a stimulus decreases an organism's reponsiveness to the stimulus
classical conditioning
a type of learning that occurs when a neurtral stimulus becomes paried with a stimulus that causes a reflexive behavior and is sufficient ot produce that behavior
Unconditioned stimulus
a stimulus that elicits an automatic response without requiring prior learning
unconditioned response
the reflexive response elicited by a particular stimulus
conditioned stimulus
an orginally neurtral stimulus that acqires significance through pairings with an unconditioned stimulus
conditioned response
a response that depends or is conditional on pairings of the conditioned stimulus, once learned, the conditioned reponse occurs when the conditioned stimulus is presented alone
in classical conditioning, the initial learning of the conditioned response
avoidance learning
in classical conditioning, learing that occurs when a CS is paired with and unpleasant US that leads the organism to try to avoid the CS
conditioned emotional response (CER)
an emotional response elicited by a previously neutral stimulus
an irrational fear of a specific object or situation
biological preparedness
a built-in readiness for certain CS to elicit particular CR, so less training is necessary to produce learning
a built-in disinclination for certain conditioned stimuli to elicit particular CR
in classical conditioning, the process by which a CR comes to be eliminated through repeated rpresentations of the CS without the presence of the US
spontaneous recovery
in classical conditioning, the event that ocurs when the CS again elicits the CR after extinction has occurred
stimulus generalization
a tendency for the CR to be elicited by neurtal stimuli that are like, but not identical to, the CS; in other words, the response generalizes to similiar stimuli
stimulus discrimination
the ability to distinguish among stimuli similiar to the CS and to repond only to the actual CS
food (taste) aversion
a classically conditioned avoidance of a certain food or taste
operant conditioning
the process by which a behavior becomes assiciated with its consequences
law of effect
actions that subsequently lead to a satisfying state of affairs are more likely to be repeated
the process by which consequences lead to an increase in the likelihood that the response will occur again
response contingency
the relationship that occurs when a consequence is dependent on the organism's emitting the desired behavior
an object or even that comes after a response and that changes the likelihood of its recurrence
positive reinforcement
occurs when a desired reinforcer is presented after a behavior, thereby increasing the likelihood of a recurrence of that behavior
negative reinforcement
occurs when an unpelasant event or circumstnace that follows a behavior is removed, thereby increasing the recurrence of the behavior
positive punishment
ocurs when a behavior leads to an undesired consequence, thereby decreaisng the likelihood of a recurrence of that behavior
negative punishment
occurs when a behavior leads to the removal of a pleasant event or circumstnace thereby decreasing the likelihood of a recurrence of the behavior
primary reinforcer
an event or object, such as food, water, or relief from pain, that is inherently reinforcing
secondary reinforcer
and event or an object, such as attention, priase, money, a good grade, or a promotion, that is reinforcing but that does not inherently satisfy a physical need
behavior modification
a technique that brings about therapeutic change in behavior though the use of secondary reinforcers
the ability to emit a learned behavior in response ot a similar stimulus
the ability to engage in a learned behavior in response to a particular stimulus but not in response to a similiar one
discriminative stimulus
the ue that tells the organism whether a specific resonse will lead to the expected reinforcement
in operant conditioning, the fading out of a response following an initial bust of that behavior after the withdrawal of reinforcement
spontaneous recovery
in operant conditioning, the process by which an old response reappears if there is a period of time after extinction
the gradual process of reinforcing an organism for behavior that gets closer to the desired behavior
successive approximations
the series of smaller behaviors involved in shaping a complex behavior
continuous reinforcement
reinforcement given for each desired resonse
partial reinforcement
reinforcement given only intermittently
interval schedule
partial reinforcement schedle based on time
ratio schedule
partial reinforcement schedule based on a specified number of emitted reponses
fixed interval schedule
reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is given for a response emitted after a fixed interal of time
variable interval schedule
reinfocement schedule in which reinforcemetn is given for a resonse emitted after a variable interval of time
fixed ratio schedule
reinforecement eschedule in which reinforcemtn is given after a fixed number of responses
variable ratio schedule
reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is given after a variable number of responses
cognitive learning
the aquisition of information that often is not immendiatly acted upon but is stored for later use
latent learning
learning that occurs without behavioral signs
insight learning
learning that occurs when a person or animal suddenly grasps what something means and incorporates taht new knowlege into old knowledge
observational learning
learning that occurs through watching others, not through reinforcement