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118 Cards in this Set

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Brainstem
the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions
medulla
the base of brainstem controlls heartbeat and breathing
retuicular formation
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an importatn role in controlling arousal
thalamus
the brains sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the snesory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellus and medulla
cerebellum
the little brain- attched to the rear of the brainstem, it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance.
Note: the lower brain functions all occur w/o any concsious effort
or brain processes most info outside our awareness
limbic system
a doughnut shaped system of neural structures at hte border of the brainstem and cerebral hem. associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex. Includes the hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus. THe hippocampus processes memory
amygdala
two almond shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion (fear/aggression)
hypothalamus
maintenance- eating drinking body temp. Helps govern the endocrine system via pituitary and is linked to emotion
cerebral cortex
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells tha tcovers the cerebral hemispheres, the bodys ultimate control and info processing center.
frontal lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead, involved in speaking and muscle movements and making plans and judgements
parietal lobes
includes sensory cortex
temporal lobes
includes auditory areas, each of which recieves aud. infor primarily form the opp ear
sensroy cortex
the areas at front of parietal lobes that registers and processes body sensations
motor cortex
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
association areas
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensroy functions they are involved in higher mental fns such as learning, remembering, thinking and speaking
aphasia
impairment of language usually caused by left hem. damage either to braocas or wernicks area
Broca's area
controls language expression- an area of the frontal loe, directs muscle movements involved in speech
Wernicke's area
controls language reception- a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression (usually left temp lobe)
corpus callosum
large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages btw them
left
interpreter
An exp. flashes the word heron acros the visual field HER to the right hemi and ON to the left when asked to indicate what he saw?
Says he saw on but points to HER
biological psychology
a branch ofpsychology concerned with the links bw bio and behavior
neuron
a nerve cell, the basic building block of the nervous system
axon
extension of neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, thru which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
action potential
neural impulse a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. the action potentail is generate by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axons membrane
threshold
the level of stimulaion required to trigger a neural impulse
myelin
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasingthe fivers of many neurons, enables vastly greater transmision speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next
synapse
the junction betwn the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
neurotransmitters
chem messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps btw neurons. when released by the sending neuron they travel across the synapse and bind to the receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencin whether that neuron wil generate a neural impulse.
acetylcholine
enables muscle action learning and memory (undersupply- alzheimers)
dopamine
influences movemt learning attention and emotion- (parkinson- schizo)
serotonin
affects mood, hunger sleep and arousal (prozac)
norepinephrine
helps control alertness and arousal (depress)
endorphins
morphine within- natural opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
nervous system
the bodys speedy electrochem comm.
CNS
the brain and spinal cord
PNS
the sensory and motor neurons that connect hte cns to the rest of the body
interneurons
cns neurons that internally communicate and intervene btw the sensory inputs and motor outputs
sensory neurons
carry incoming info from the sense receptors to the cns
motor neurons
carry outgoing infor from the cns to muscles and glands
somatic nvs system
controlls the bodys skeletal muscles
autonomic nvs system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscle of the internal organs (such as the heart) its symp arouses and para calms
sympathetic
arouses the boy, mobilitzing energy in stressful situations- dialate pupil accel heart inhibit digestion glucose release by liver
parasympathetic
calms body conerves energy- contract pupils slows heart stimulates digestoin contracts bladder
endocrine system
chemical communication system a set of glands that secrete horomones into the bloodstream
horomones
chemical messengers that are produced in one tissue and affect another
adrenal glands
pair of endocrince glands above kidneys. secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine which help to arouse the body in times of stress
pituitary gland
endocrines most influential gland. Regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in a naturally occuring situation w/o trying to manipulate and control the situation
correlation coefficient
a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated the vaiable whose effect is being studied.
dependent variable
the experimental factor- in psychology, the behavior or mental process- that is being measured; the varible that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
motor neurons
carry outgoing infor from the cns to muscles and glands
somatic nvs system
controlls the bodys skeletal muscles
autonomic nvs system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscle of the internal organs (such as the heart) its symp arouses and para calms
sympathetic
arouses the boy, mobilitzing energy in stressful situations- dialate pupil accel heart inhibit digestion glucose release by liver
parasympathetic
calms body conerves energy- contract pupils slows heart stimulates digestoin contracts bladder
endocrine system
chemical communication system a set of glands that secrete horomones into the bloodstream
horomones
chemical messengers that are produced in one tissue and affect another
adrenal glands
pair of endocrince glands above kidneys. secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine which help to arouse the body in times of stress
pituitary gland
endocrines most influential gland. Regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in a naturally occuring situation w/o trying to manipulate and control the situation
correlation coefficient
a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated the vaiable whose effect is being studied.
dependent variable
the experimental factor- in psychology, the behavior or mental process- that is being measured; the varible that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
chromosomes
thread like structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
genes
the biochem units of heredity that make up the chromosomes, a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
mutation
rando error in gene rep that leads to a genetic change
evolutionary psychology
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natura selection
gender
in psych. the characteristics, whether biologically or socially influenced, by which people define male or female
behavior genetics
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic nd environmental influences on behavior
environment
every momgenetic influenc, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us
identical twins
twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms
temperament
a persons characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
interaction
the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity).
culture
the enduring behaviour, ideas, attitudes and traditons shared by a large group of people and transmitted fro one generation to the next
gender role
a set of expected behviour for males and for females
gender identity
ones sense of being male or female
gender typing
the acqustion of a traditonal masculine or feminine role
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rearded or punished
gender schema theory
the theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly.
social psychology
the scientific st of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
attribution theory
the theory that we tend to give a causal explanation for someones behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the persons dispostion
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing anothers behavior to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
attitude
a belief and feeling that predisposes one to respond in a particuar way to objects, people and events
foot in the door phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
role
a set of expectations about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
cognitive dissonance theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting disonance by changing our attitudes.
social psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
conformity
adjusting ones behaviour or thinking to coincide with a group standard
normative social influence
influence resulting from a persons desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
informational social influence
influence resulting from ones willingness to accept others opinions about reality
social facilitation
improved performance of tasks in the presnce of others, occurs with simple or well learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered.
social loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
deindividuation
the loss of self awareness and self restraint occurring in group siturations that foster arousal and anonymity
group polarization
the enhancement of a groupls prevailing attitudes thru discussion within the group
groupthink
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision making group overrrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
prejudice
an unjustifiable (usually negative) attitude toward a group and its memebers. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, megative feelings, and a predispostion to discriminatory action
stereotype
a generalized belief about a group of people
discrimination
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members
ingroup
"us" people wit whom one shares a common identity
outgroup
them- those perceived as different or apart from ones ingroup
ingroup bias
the tendency to favor ones own group
scapegoat theory
theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
just world phenomenon
the tendenc of peope to believe that the world is just and people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
aggression
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
frustration aggression principle
the principlethat frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger, which can generate aggression
conflict
percieved incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
social trap
a situation in which the conflicting parties by rationally pursuring their self interests become caught in mutually destructive behavior
mere exposure effect
the phenom that repeated exposure to novel stimul increases liking of them
equity
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
self-disclosure
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
altruism
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
bystander effect
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
social exchange theory
the theory that our social behavior is anexchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize cost
superordinate goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
GRIT
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension- Reduction- a strategy designed to decrease international tensions