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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
scientific study of the behavior of individuals and their mental proccesses.
key words- behavior, individual, mental, scientific
Scientific Method
set of orderly steps used to analyze and solve problems. factual basis for drawling conclusions
means by which orgainsms adjust to their enviroment. action.
Behavioral Data
reports of observations about the behavior of organisms and the conditions under which the behavior occurs
Goals of Psychology
1. describing what happens
2. Explaining what happens
3. Predicitiong what happens
4. Controlling what happens
How does each of teh four components of the definition of psychology contribute to the fields unique identity?
behavior- subject matter
indicidual- subjuct of psycho analysis
mental procces- working of human mind, most imp. inquiry
scientific- based on evidence collected
Hermann Ebbinghaus
one of the first experimental psychologists
Wilhelm Wundt
critical figure in the evolution of moder psychology. born in Germany, founded first formal lab devoted to experimental psychology. wanted to discover sensation and perception
Edward Titchener
one of the first psyychologist in the US. founded a lab at cornell
William James
wrote The Principles of Psychology (consider most important text)
Psychodynamic Perspective
behavior is driven, or motivated, by powerful inner forces. actions stem from inherited instincts, biological drives, and attmepts to resolve conflicts b/w personal needs and society's demands. Believes sex and childhood are important but not everything (not full follower of Frued)
Extremelly faithful to Frued
Sigmund Freud
emphasis on early childhood, personality formed in childhood (6 yrs- personality set)
Behaviorist Perspective
seek to understand how particular enviormental stimuli control particular kinds of behavior.
John Watson
argued that psychological research should seek the laws that govern observable behavior across species. Baby Albert experiment
B.F. Skinner
extended teh influence of behaviorism by expanding its analyses to the consequences of behaviors. Classical Conditioning Behaviorist
Operant Conditioning
focuses on consequences of behavior.
Cognitive Conditioning
study perception, memory, language use, decision making
Clinical Psychologists
how ppl cope with everday problems, need phd
Counceling Psychologists
how ppl cope with everday problems, need phd
how ppl cope with everday problems, need medical degree (7 years)
no board determinging therapists. can cousel without a license
Personality Pyschology
study what makes people different from each other
Industrial Psychology
study why job makes person depressed
Forensic Psyhologist
Determines if person was insane when person commited the crime
Developmental Psychologists
Studies what babies know about the world.
Cognitive Psychologists
Studies memory and thought
Expectancy Effects
occurs when a researcher or observer subtly communicates to the research participans the behaviors he or she expects to find- thereby producing the disered reaction. Under these circumstances, the experimenter's expectations, rather that the independent variable, actually help trigger the observed reactions
Placebo Effect
experimental participants change their behavior in the absense of any kind of experimental maniuplation.
Independent Variable
the factor that the researcher manipulates; it functions as the casual part of the relationship.
Dependent Variable
what the experimenter measures
Double-Bind Control
bias can be eliminated by keeping both the experimental assistants and participants unaware of, or blind to, which participants get which treatment.
Correlational Methods
used when they want to determine to what extent two varialbes, traits, or attributes are related.
Placebo Effect
occurs when experimental participants change thier behavior in the absence of any kind of experimental manipulation.
Correlation Coefficient
to determine the precise degree of correlation that exists b/w two variables, psychologists compute a statistical measure called CC. Value between 1 (perfect correlation) and -1 (perfect negative correlation). 0 no correlation at all.
Self- Report measures
verbal answers, either written or spoken, to questions researchers pose.
Naturalistic Observations
naturally occuring behavior is viewed by a researcher which makes no attempt to change or interfere with it
Case Study
focus on a small group or on individual. use because otherwise situationwould be unethical
Biological Psychology
study of never, brain development and how they interact including biological features, do things based on our biology. behavior linked to brain.
amplified tracing of teh breain activity. study relations between psychological activites and brain response.
PET scans
subjects are given different kinds of radioactive substances taht evetually travel to the brain, where they are taken up by active brain cells.
gives picture of the structure of the brain
shows activity AND structure
Phineas Gage
3 ft. pole went through frontal lobe of brain, become irritable
Nervous System
composed of billions of highly specialized nerve cells, or neurons, that constitue the breain and the nerve fibers found throughout the body.
(CNS) Central Nervous System
Composed of all the neurons in the brain and spinal cord
(PNS) Perpheral Nervous System
made up of all the neurons forming the nerve fibers that connect the CNS to the body
Somatic nervous System
regualtes the actions of the body's skeletal muscles. voluntary muscles
Autonomic Nervous System
Sustain Basic Life Process. Controls involuntary muscles.
Sympathetic Dvision
governs responses to emergency situations
Parasympatetic Division
monitors the routine operation of the body's internal functions
located at the very top of the spinal cord, in the center for breathing, blood pressure, and beating of the heart.
channels incoming senosry infomration to the appropriate area of the cerebral cortex, where info is processed
coordinates bodily movements,controls posture, and maintains equilibrium
limbic system
mediates movtivated behaviors, emotional states, and memory processes.
largest of limbic system stuctures, plays an important role in the acuisition of memories and learning.
plays a role in emotional control and the formation of emotional memories
smallest structures in the brain, yet in plays a vital role in many of your most imporant daily actions, eating, body temp, homeostasis, sex
2/3 of brain mass. regulate the brain's higher cognitive and emotional functions.
frontal lobe
involved in motor control and cognitive activities, such as planning, making decisions and setting goals
temperal Lobe
responsible for the processes of hearing
occipital lobe
final destination for visual information
Broca's Area
speech, motor movement
controls hert beat, breathing, blood pressure
Wernicke's Area
speech, hearing, understanding
cell specialized to receive, process, and/or trasmit info to other cells within the body
receive info from neuron,
cell body, keeps cell alive
Mylen Sheath
speeds up ions
ion channel
terminal buttons
sends info
space b/w neurons
biochemical substances that stimulate other neurons
neurotransmitter for learning, memory, movement
inhibitory nerobtransmitter, suspends a lot of msgs so you can focus, bad anxiet if not enough gaba
all neutrons prodcue
for mood, depression
class of chemical sustances including dopamine, norepinephrine
too little- depression
too much- schizophrenia
too little- parkinsons
too much-Huntingtons
alertness, response to challenge
too little- depression
control of emotional behavior and pain, originates w/i body
changes in proformance of brain
process that results in realtiely consistent change in behavior or behavior potential and is based on experience
Classical Conditioning
type of learning, a basic form of learning in which one stimulus or event predicts the occurrence of another stimulus or event. learning by association, Ivan Pavlov (dog and bells), John Watson (little albert)
UCS (unconditioned stimulus)
any stimulus that natually elicits a reflexive behavior
UCR (unconditioned response)
behavior elicited by the unconditioned stimulus
CS (Condiitoned Stimulus)
the neutral stimulus paired with the UCS
CR (Conditioned Response)
the CS will produce at CR
the process by which the CR is first elicited and gradually increase in frequency over repeated trials.
when the CR no longer appears in the presence of the CS (and the absense of the UCS)
Spontaneous Recovery
sudden reappearance of the CR after a rest period without further exposure to the UCS
law of effect
a response that is followd by satisfaying consequences becomes more probable and a response that is followed by dissatisfying consequences become less probable