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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Anchoring and adjustment heuristic
a mental shortcut through which people begin with a rough estimation as a starting point and then adjust this estimate to take into account unique characteristics of the present situation
Attribution theories
theories designed to explain how people determine the causes of behavior
Augmenting principle
The judgemental rule that states that if an event occurs depite the presence of strong opposing forces, we should give more weight to those possible causes that lead toward the event
Availability heuristic
a mental shortcut through which one estimates the likelihood of an event by the ease with which instances of that event come to mind
Cognitive heuristic
a mental shortcut used to make a judgement
Correspondence bias (fundamental attribution error)
the tendency for observers to overestimate the causal influence of personality factors on behavior and to underestimate the causal role of situational influences
Correspondent inference theory
the theory that proposes that people determine whether a behavior corresponds to an actor's internal disposition by asking whether 1) the behavior was intended, 2) the behavior's consequences were foreseeable, 3) the behavior was freely chosen, and 4) the behavior occured despite countervialing forces
Covariation model
the theory that proposes that people determine the cause of an actor's behavior by assessing whether other people act in similar ways (consensus), the actor behaves similarly in similar situations (distinctiveness), and the actor behaves similarly in the same situation
Discounting principle
the judgmental rule that states that as the umber of possible causes for and event increases, our confidence that any particular cause is the true one should decrease
Dispositional inference
the judgment that a person's behavior has been caused bu an aspect of that person's personality
Downward social comparison
the process of comaparing ourselves with those who are less well off
False consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others agree with us
Representative heuristic
a mental shortcut through which people classify something as belonging to a certain category to the extent that it is similar to a typical case from that category
Self-fulfilling prophecy
when an initially inaccurate expectation leades to actions that cause the expectation to come true
Self-serving bias
the tendency to take personal credit for our sucesses and to blame external factors for our failures
Social cognition
the process of thinking about and making sense of oneself and others
Upward social comparison
the process of comparing ourselves with those who are better off