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29 Cards in this Set

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What is Introspection?
Careful systematic self-observation of one's own conscious experience. The subject must be more aware and exposed to certain stimuli under various conditions.
Look inward
What is Structuralism?
It was based on the notion that the purpose of Psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related.
Sensations, Feelings, Images.
What did Wilhelm Wundt do?
He established the first formal laboratory for research in psych. He believed psych's main focus was consciousness and the sci study of conscious experience.
What is Functionalism?
Based on the belief that psych should investigate the function/purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure.
What is Natural Selection?
Characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely to be passed on over time than alternative characteristics. They become more selected.
Charles Darwin!
Who is Sigmund Freud?
He treated people with Psychoanalysis. He created the "unconscious." Freudian Slip! (UNCONSCIOUS!) SEXUALITY is important!
What is the unconscious?
It contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are SUPER below the surface of conscious awareness but it has great influence on behavior.
What is the Psychoanalytic Theory?
It explains personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on the unconscious determinants of behavior.

SIGMUND FREUD
CARL JUNG
ALFRED ADLER
What is Behaviorism?
Founded by JOHN B. WATSON.
It conflicted with psychoanalysis. It was a theoretical orientation based on the premise that sci psych should study only observable behavior. We should just DROP the idea of "study of consciousness." Went hand in hand with verifiability.

IVAN PAVLOV
JOHN B. WATSON
B.F. SKINNER
Who was John B. Watson?
Nature vs. Nurture. He thinks it is nurture over nature (environment more than hereditary.) He created behaviorism.
Who was Ivan Pavlov?
Dogs could be trained to salivate in response to an auditory stimulus (like a bell.) Stimulus-response bonds. GOOD for behaviorists. Stimulus-response psychology.
Who was B.F. Skinner?
Behaviorist. Strongly agreed with Watson's ideas. He thinks environment molds behavior. Did not think internal events could be studied. He thought that things tend to repeat responses that cause positive outcomes, and tend not to repeat when it leads to neutral or negative outcomes.
People are controlled by environment.
Free Will = illusion
What is Humanism?
Theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth. (Blend of psychoanalytic theory and behaviorism.) OPTIMISTIC VIEW of human nature. People are not pawns to environment, they have control over their personal growth and they are not like animals. Human behavior and freedom and potential for personal growth.

CARL ROGERS
ABRAHAM MASLOW
What is Cognitive Psychology?
It deals with thoughts and mental processes. The idea that human behavior cannot be fully understood without examining how people acquire, store, and process info.

JEAN PIAGET
NOAM CHOMSKY
HERBERT SIMON
What is Biological Psychology?
Deals with Psychological bases of behavior in humans and animals. It is the idea that an organisms' functioning can be explained in terms of the bodily structures and biochemical processes that underlie behavior.

DAVID BUSS
MARTIN DALY
MARGO WILSON
LEDA COSMIDES
JOHN TOOBY
What is Evolutionary Psychology?
It deals with the evolutionary bases of behavior in humans and animals. It is the idea that behavior patterns have evolved to solve adaptive problems. Natural selection favors behaviors that enhance reproductive success.

DAVID BUSS
MARTIN DALY
MARGO WILSON
Applied Psychology
The branch of psych that is concerned with everyday, practical problems. This is when psychologists provide their services to the public.
Clinical Psych
A form of applied psych. It is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders.
Cognition
Mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge. Jean Piaget - interest in children cognitive development.
Ethnocentrism
Tendency to view one's own group as superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways.
Positive Psychology
Uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human existence. Study of positive subjective experiences and positive individual traits.
Psychology
The science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it. It is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems.
Developmental Psychology
Looks at human development across the life span. It once focused only on child development but today has a lot of research with adolescence, adulthood, and old age.
Social Psychology
Focuses on interpersonal behavior and the role of social forces in governing behavior. Typical topics include attitude formation, attitude change, prejudice, conformity, attraction, aggression, intimate relationships, and behavior in groups.
Experimental Psychology
Includes the traditional core of topics that psych focused on heavily in the beginning as a science: sensation, perception, learning, conditioning, motivation, emotion.
Physiological Psychology
Examines the influence of genetic factors on behavior and the role of the brain, nervous system, endocrine system, and bodily chemicals in the regulation of behavior.
Cognitive Psychology
Focuses on the higher mental processes such as memory, reasoning, information processing, language, problem solving, decision making, and creativity.
Personality
Interested in describing and understanding individuals' consistency in behavior, which represents their personality. This area of interest is also concerned with the factors that shape personality and with personality assessment.
Psychometrics
Concerned with the measurement of behavior and capacities, usually through the development of psychological tests. Psychometrics is involved with the design of tests to asses personality, intelligence, and a wide range of abilities. It is also concerned with the development of new techniques or statistical analysis.