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449 Cards in this Set

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Wundt
Founder of psychology, number one, introspection
Introspection
describe stimuli, quality, intensity
Structuralism
Titchner, clearness also, structure of consciousness
Functionalism
James, consciousness guides
Gestalt
Wertheimer, total experience
Psychoanalysis
Freud, unconscious
Behaviorism
Watson
Humanist Approach
Maslow, Rogers, individual choice and free will
Psychodynamic Approach
unconscious
Biological Approach
biological processes
Evolutionary Approach
Natural selection
Behavior Approach
conditioning, behavior
Cognitive Approach
how we interpret events
Social-Cultural Approach
how things vary between cultures
Eclectic Approach
no one approach can explain all
Applied Research
clear, practical applications
Basic Research
not intended to have real applications
Valid
accurate
Reliable
consistent
Dependent Variable
measure
Independent Variable
manipulate
Operational Definition
exact definitions
Assignment
process of putting subject in groups
Random assignment
everyone has equal chance
Subject-relevant Confounding Variable
subject confounds
Stimuli-relevant Confounding Variable
stimuli may confound, need equal environment
Experimenter Bias
unconscious tendency to treat members differently
Double-blind
both are blind
Representative sample
must reflect the characteristics
Nonresponse error
not everyone will agree to participate
Survey
cheap, large data, but sample errors
Correlational studies
correlations, not causation
Naturalistic Observation
stalking
Case Study
focusing on one person
Positively skewed
extreme high score
Negatively skewed
extreme low score
Z score
measure difference in standard deviations
Correlation Coefficient
+1 is positive, -1 is negative, strong correlations
P value
smaller, more significant, .05 is statistically significant
Afferent neurons
from senses to brain
Interneurons
between afferent and efferent
Efferent neurons
from brain to body
Somatic Nervous System
voluntary control
CAT Scan
like an x-ray, 3d picture
PET Scan
sees what areas are active during certain tasks
fMRI
combines MRI and PET scans
Medulla
heart, blood, breathe
Pons
facial expression
Cerebellum
fine muscle
Midbrain
simple movements with sensory information
Thalamus
receives sensory signals and sends them
Hypothalamus
metabolic functions
Amgydala and Hippocampus
memory and emotion
Brain lateralization
functions of each hemisphere, split brain
Frontal Lobe
abstract though and emotional control
Broca’s Area
producing speech
Wernicke’s Area
interpret speech
Parietal Lobe
sensory cortex, signals
Occipital Lobe
back, eyes
Temporal Lobes
ears, sound
Brain Plasticity
Brain can adapt to perform other functions
Adrenal Glands
adrenaline, fight or flight
Transduction
signals into neural impulses
Fovea
highest concentration of cones
Ganglion cells
cells in the eye that fire
Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
Region in thalamus that does sight
Optic Chiasm
spot where nerves cross
Blind spot
where optic nerve leaves retina, no rod or cones
Feature detectors
cells that detect features
Trichromatic Theory
3 types of cones, blue, red, green
Opponent-Process Theory
red/green, blue/yellow, black/white, one stimulate other inhibited
Oval window
membrane connected to hammer anvil stirrup
Cochlea
fluid filled
Organ of Corti
has hairs that move
Place Theory
Hairs respond to different sound frequencies based on where they are
Frequency Theory
Lower tones sensed by the rate cells are fired
Conduction deafness
something wrong in system of conducting
Nerve deafness
hair cells are damaged
Gate-control Theory
when higher pain messenger activated, gate opens
Papillae
stuff on tongues
Olfactory bulb
receptor cells in nose linked
Olfactory receptor cells
receive stuff
Vestibular sense
how body is oriented
Kinesthetic sense
position of body parts
Absolute Threshold
smallest amount we can detect
Subliminal
under absolute threshold
Difference threshold
defines change, jnd, smallest amount of change needed to detect
Signal Detection Theory
perception thing
Response criteria
willingness to respond to a stimulus
False positive
we think something is there when it isn’t
False negative
we don’t see something that is there
Top-down Processing
fill in gaps with what we know
Perceptual Set
predisposition to perceiving something in certain way
Backmasking
hidden messages in songs backwards
Bottom-up Processing
feature analysis, use features of object to build complete perception
Figure-Ground
easy stuff
Proximity
close things are together
Similarity
similar things are together
Continuity
continuous things are together
Closure
things that make up a recognizable image are together
Size constancy
Objects closer are bigger but we’re smart
Shape constancy
Objects from different angles are different but we’re smart
Brightness constancy
Objects are constant color even when light changes
Linear Perspective
converging things
Relative Size Cue
far things are small
Interposition Cue
Objects blocking are closer
Texture Gradient
Further things are blurrier
Shadowing
shading
Binocular Disparity
eye sees different angle, more disparity as closer
Convergence
eyes move together as it gets closer
Dualism
humans are thought and matter
Monism
same substance
Mere-exposure effect
we prefer stimuli we’ve seen over new ones
Priming
Respond faster to things we know
Blind sight
blind people can see
Nonconscious
body processes we don’t know
Preconscious
info we aren’t thinking about
Sleep Onset
period when we are falling asleep
Paradoxical Sleep
REM sleep, brain waves are as we’re awake
Manifest content
literal content of dreams
Latent content
unconscious meaning of manifest content
Activation-synthesis Theory
dreams are biological phenomena
Information-processing theory of dreaming
between Freud and activation-synthesis, stress increases number and intensity of dream
Posthypnotic Amnesia
forget things when hypnotized
Posthypnotic Suggestion
suggesting thing while hypnotized
Role theory
not alternate state of consciousness, being hypnotized
Hypnotic Suggestibility
easily hypnotized than others
State theory
Altered state hypnosis
Dissociation Theory
Hypnosis causes us to divide consciousness voluntarily
Blood-brain barrier
brain has thicker walls of bloodstream
Agonist
mimic neurotransmitter
Antagonist
Block neurotransmitter
Unconditioned Stimulus
original stimulus that elicits a response, eg meat
Unconditioned Response
response that is unconditioned, eg drool
Conditioned Response
response that is conditioned, eg drool
Conditioned Stimulus
stimulus conditioned, eg bell
Acquisition
learning by CC
Delayed conditioning
Acquisition fastest if bell is rung and food presented while still ringing
Trace conditioning
CS, break, US
Simultaneous conditioning
same time CS and US
Backward conditioning
US then CS, useless
Extinction
loss of learning
Spontaneous Recovery
Spontaneously Recovers
Generalization
respond to similar CSs
Discriminate
Tell difference
Aversive conditioning
hating something
Second order conditioning/higher-order conditioning
Uses CS as a US for a new thing
Learned Taste Aversions
hating tastes
Operant conditioning
consequences of behavior
Law of effect
if consequences are good, S-R connection will be strengthened
Reinforcer
makes behavior more likely
Positive reinforcement
adding good
Negative reinforcement
removing bad
Punishment
makes behavior less likely
Positive punishment
adding bad
Negative punishment
removing good
Escape learning
terminate aversive stimulus
Avoidance learning
avoid unpleasant stimulus
Shaping
reinforce steps used to reach behavior
Chaining
responses consecutively
Primary reinforcers
rewarding
Secondary reinforcers
things we learned to like
Generalized Reinforcer
money
Token economy
when you do something good, you get a token which you can trade for any other reinforce
Premack principle
whichever of two activities is preferred can be used to reinforce activity that is not preferred
Continuous Reinforcement
keep doing it each time
Partial reinforcement effect
behavior more resistant to extinction if not reinforced continuously
Fixed-ratio
every set number
Variable Ratio
number varies
Fixed interval
every set time
Variable interval
time varies
Instinctive drift
tendency to forego rewards to pursue typical behavior patterns
Contiguity model
more times two things are paired, greater learning
Contingency model
Presence of one predicts presence of other
Observational Learning
watching families of others, observation and imitation
Latent learning
obvious only when reinforcement is given for demonstrating it
Abstract learning
understanding concepts
Insight Learning
suddenly realizing how to do something
Three-box model
sensory, short term, long term
Sensory memory
split second holding of memory
Echoic memory
equally perfect split second memory for sounds
Iconic memory
equally perfect split second memory for pics
Short term memory
Visual codes, acoustic codes, semantic codes
Selective attention
dividing attention
Rehearse
repeating to memorize
Episodic Memory
specific events
Semantic memory
knowledge of world
Procedural memory
how to do things
Explicit Memory
what we think of first
Implicit Memory
unintentional memories
Eidetic memory
photographic memory
Deeply Processed
studying deeply
Shallowly Processed
shallowly processed memory
Recognition
matching current event with something in memory
Recall
retrieving memory with external cue
Primacy effect
beginning of list we remember
Recency effect
we remember end of list
Serial position effect
we remember things in beginning and end
Tip of the tongue phenomenon
we know something but don’t say it
Semantic network theory
brain forms new memories by connecting them with things already in memory
Flashbulb memories
importance of event encodes context surrounding it, but inaccurate
Mood-congruent memory
mood matches mood
State-dependent memory
states of consciousness
Constructed memory
fake memories
Interference
new things interfere
Retroactive interference
new interferes with old
Proactive interference
old interferes with new
Anterograde Amnesia
can’t remember new things
Long-term potentiation
neurons can strengthen connections between each other
Phonemes
smallest units of sound
Morphemes
smallest unit of meaningful sound
Language Acquisition
babbling stage
Telegraphic speech
Combine words into commands
Overgeneralization
grammar is wrong
Language Acquisition Device
ability to learn language rapidly as children
Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis
theory that language we use might control thinking
Concepts
concepts
Prototypes
most typical concept
Algorithm
Rule that guarantees right solution by some formula
Heuristics
rule of thumb to make judgment
Availability Heuristic
Based on examples of similar situations
Representative Heuristic
Based on how similar aspect is to prototypes
Belief bias
illogical conclusions in order to confirm preexisting beliefs
Belief perseverance
tendency to maintain belief after evidence is contradicted
Rigidity
tendency to fall into established thought patterns
Functional fixedness
inability to see new use for object
Confirmation Bias
look for evidence that confirms our beliefs
Framing
way problem is presented
Convergent thinking
one solution
Divergent thinking
many solutions
Lateral hypothalamus
destruction of it destroys hunger
Ventralmedial
causes it to stop eating when stimulated
Set-point theory
hypothalamus wants to maintain certain body weight
Garcia effect
Nausea paired with food
High Achievement Motivation
challenge yourself
Extrinsic motivators
rewards we get for accomplishments from outside ourselves
Intrinsic motivators
internal rewards
Theory X
Employees will work if benefited or punished
Theory Y
employees naturally motivated to do good work, should encourage this
James-Lange
emotion because of biology
Cannon-Bard
Biological change and cognitive awareness happen at same time
Two-Factory Theory
Schacter, people who are already physiologically aroused experience more intense emotions, depends on interaction between biology and cognition
General adaptation syndrome
general response to stress
Alarm reaction
first step, heart pumps etc.
Resistance
we’re ready to face this stress
Exhaustion
returns to normal, more vulnerable
Cross-sectional
different ages
Longitudinal
long period of time
Teratogen
crap that can screw us up
Rooting reflex
baby turns head to side where touched and wants to put it in mouth
Sucking reflex
object in mouth, will suck
Grasping reflex
object in hand, will grasp
Moro reflex
started, flings out limbs, then retracts to make small
Babinski reflex
foot stroked, will spread toes
Harlow theory
monkeys, attachment, preferred the soft mother
Ainsworth theory
strange situations of babies
Secure attachment
explore new environment with parents and return to parents
Avoidant Attachment
resist parents
Anxious/ambivalent attachments
stress when leave but no comfort
Authoritarian
strict
Permissive
pussy
Authoritative
reasonable
Trust vs. mistrust
babies first, trust or no?
are you my mommy? trust vs mistrust.
None
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Toddlers, control self, no!
i peed my pants, i'm ashamed.
None
Initiative vs. guilt
no! to why?, children
i lied, i'm guilty.
None
Industry vs. inferiority
formal education, can we do as well?
preteen, i'm flat, i am inferior
None
Identity vs. role confusion
adolescence, who am I?
cheerleader or jock?
None
Intimacy vs. isolation
young adults, balance sex and work
sex?
None
Generativity vs. stagnation
old age, want something to last after we die
Integrity vs. despair
gonna die soon, worthwhile life?
Assimilation
incorporate experiences into existing schema
Sensorimotor stage
babies experience world through senses, object permanence
Preoperational stage
symbols used, language
Concrete Operational
conservation, more logically about relationships
Formal operational
adult reasoning, abstract thought
Metacognition
thinking about the way we think
Information-processing model
Abilities to interpret, memorize and perceive develop as we age than in distinct stages
Preconventional
avoid punishment
Conventional
Look through others’ eyes
Postconventional
moral reasoning, universal ethics principles, justice
Carol Gilligan
Kohlberg based it on boys, girls care about situational factors
Biopsychological theory of gender
biological differences make gender differences, differences exist, women have bigger corpus callosums
Psychodynamic theory of gender
Competition
Social-cognitive theory of gender
Boys are encouraged to be rougher than girls, gender schemas
Type A
time pressure, easily angered people
Type B
relaxed, easy going
Stage theories
development is discontinuous
Identification
emulate and attaches self to individual who you believe threatens you
Fixation
undergratified or being overgratified
Anal expulsive personality
messy, disorganized
Anal retentive
meticulously neat, compulsive
Repression
repressing
Denial
denying
Displacement
redirecting to another person or object
Projection
believing that feelings one has for someone else are held by other person to them
Reaction formation
opposite of how one feels
Regression
returning to earlier comforting form of behavior
Rationalization
beneficial result of undesirable occurrence
Intellectualization
undertaking academic, unemotional study of a topic
Sublimation
changing frustration to a different goal
Personal unconscious
similar to Freud’s view of unconscious
Complex
memories that person does not wish to confront
Collective unconscious
passed through species, contains archetypes
Factor analysis
allows researchers to use correlations between traits to see which cluster together as facts
Idiographic theorists
same set of terms to classify all is impossible, each needs to be seen in terms of what few best characterize
Cardinal disposition
traits that influence people
Central disposition
large influence
Secondary disposition
not as influential
Temperaments
emotional style and characteristic way of dealing with world
Somatype theory
Sheldon, endomorphs, mesomorphs, ectomorphs
Reciprocal Determinism
triadic reciprocality, each of a person’s traits, environment and behavior influence the other two in a loop
Personal-construct theory
Kelly, people develop own individual systems of personal constructs
Fundamental postulate
people’s behaviors are influenced by their cognitions
Determinism
belief that what happens is dictated by what happened in the past
Third force
arose in opposition to determinism, free will
Self-concept
person’s global feeling about himself and herself
Self-actualize
requires things from interactions from other, unconditional positive regard, blanket acceptance
Valid
test measures what it’s supposed to measure
Equivalent-form reliability
correlation between performance on different forms of test
Face validity
superficial measure of accuracy
Content validity
how well a measure reflects entire range of material it tests
Criterion-related validity
concurrent and predictive
Concurrent validity
how much of a characteristic a person has now
Predictive validity
measure of future performance
Construct validity
Correlations between performances on a measure and another measure
Speed test
lots of questions, little time
Power test
difficulty level of problems is tested
Fluid intelligence
ability to solve problems and pick up new information and skills
Crystallized intelligence
intelligence accumulated over time
S
specific abilities that people regard as intelligence
G
single factor of intelligence
Multiple intelligences
large range, linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal, naturalist, intelligence
EQ
emotional intelligence
Sternberg’s triarchic theory
three types of intelligence, componential or analytic intelligence, experiential intelligence, contextual or practical intelligence,
Flynn effect
performance on tests increases through a century, environmental factors play a role
Characteristics of abnormality
harmful or disturbing to individual, disturbing to others, unusual, irrational
Intern’s Syndrome
tendency to see in oneself the characteristics of disorders
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
constantly nervous people
Panic disorder
acute episodes of intense anxiety without apparent provocation
Somatoform Disorders
person manifests psychological problem through physiological symptom
Hypochrondriasis
physical complaints for which medical doctors can’t locate cause
Conversion disorder
people say existence of severe physical problem and can’t do it
Dissociative Disorders
disruption in conscious processes
Psychogenic Amnesia
can’t remember things and no basis for disruption in memory
Organic Amnesia
biologically induced amnesia
Fugue
psychogenic amnesia, also find selves in unfamiliar environment
Dissociative identity disorder
several personalities
Major depression
more than two weeks, no reason
Seasonal affective disorder
sad at certain times of year, usually winter
Bipolar disorder
depressed and manic episodes
Cognitive triad
depression from negative ideas that people have about themselves, their world, their futures
Schizophrenia
distorted thinking
Delusions
beliefs that have no basis in reality
Delusions of persecution
people are out to get you
Delusions of grandeur
belief that you enjoy greater power and influence than you do
Hallucinations
perceptions in absence of any sensory stimulation
Disorganized schizophrenics
odd uses of languages
Clang associations
nonsense words that rhyme
Inappropriate affect
might laugh in response of death
Flat affect
no emotion
Paranoid schizophrenia
delusions of persecution
Catatonic schizophrenia
odd movements
Waxy flexibility
allow body to move into any alternate shape
Undifferentiated schizophrenia
exhibit disordered thinking but no symptoms
Positive symptoms
excesses in behavior, thought or mood
Negative symptoms
deficits such as catatonia or flat affect
Dopamine hypothesis
dopamine high levels are associated with schizophrenia
Tardive dyskinesia
muscle tremors
Double bind
person is given contradictory messages
Antisocial personality disorder
little regard for others’ feelings
Dependent personality disorder
rely too much on others
Paranoid personality disorder
feel persecuted
Narcissistic personality disorder
seeing oneself as center of universe
Histrionic personality disorder
overly dramatic behaviors
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
overly concerned with certain thoughts
Paraphilias
sexual attraction to something
Autism
seek out les social and emotional contact than others
Trephining
making holes in skull
Deinstitutionalization
released people from mental institutions cus of drugs
Primary prevention
reduce incidence of societal problems
Secondary prevention
working with people at risk
Tertiary prevention
keep mental health issues from becoming more severe
Psychoanalysis
Freud, patient on couch
Symptom substitution
person experiences new psychological problem
Free associate
say whatever comes to mind without thinking
Resistance
when patients disagree with therapists’ interpretation
Transference
patients have strong feelings to therapists
Determinism
people have no influence over what happens to them
Client-centered therapy
therapists provides client with unconditional positive regard
Non-directive
help them not tell them what to do
Active listening
they listen actively
Gestalt therapy
encourage to explore feelings they aren’t aware of
Existential therapies
focus on helping clients achieve a meaningful perception of lives
Counterconditioning
Unpleasant conditioned response is replaced with pleasant one
Systematic desensitization
teaches client to replace feelings of anxiety with relaxation
Anxiety hierarchy
rank-ordered list of what the client fears
In vivo desensitization
have to confront actual items
Implosive therapy
imagine most frightening first
Extinguished
fear gone
Flooding
experiencing one’s peak fear
Aversive conditioning
pairing a habit with unpleasant stimulus
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
expose and confront dysfunctional thoughts of clients
Cognitive Therapy
trying to get clients to engage in pursuits that will bring success
Cognitive triad
people’s beliefs about themselves, worlds, futures
Self-help group
no therapist
Psychopharmacology
drug therapy
Electroconvulsive therapy
electrical current passed through both hemispheres, brief seizure
Psychosurgery
destroying brain
Attitude
set of beliefs and feelings
Mere exposure effect
more exposure, more liking
Cognitive dissonance theory
people are motivated to have consistent attitudes and behaviors
Compliance strategies
getting others to do things
Foot-in-the-door strategy
agree to small then big
Door-in-the-face strategy
Refuse big, agree to small
Norms of reciprocity
people do something nice when they receive something nice
Attribution theory
how people determine cause of what they observe
Disposition or person attribution
person’s fault, smart at math
Situational attribution
situation’s fault, easy test
Stable attribution, person-stable attribution
always the same person, always smart
Person-unstable attribution
one time situation, hard studying
Situation-stable attribution
situation, always, easy teacher
Situation-unstable attribution
situation, not the same, hard teacher, except this time
Consistency
how similarly individual acts in same situation over time
Distinctiveness
how similar situation is to others
Consensus
how does everyone else do
Self-fulfilling prophecy
expectations about others influence the way they behave
Fundamental attribution error
overestimate importance of dispositional factors, underestimate role of situational factors, you say that the person is just mean
False-consensus effect
overestimate number of people who agree with them
Self-serving bias
tendency to take more credit for good outcomes than bad
Just-world belief
misfortunes befall people who deserve them
Prejudice
undeserved attitude to a group
Discrimination
action of prejudice
In-group bias
preference for members of one’s own group
Instrumental aggression
aggressive act is to secure an end
Hostile aggression
no clear purpose
Prosocial behavior
behavior of helping someone else
Bystander intervention
people nearby are likely to help others
Diffusion of responsibility
larger the group, less responsible any one individual feels to help
Pluralistic ignorance
people look at others to decide what to do
Similarity
similar to you
Proximity
more exposure
Reciprocal liking
more someone likes you, more you will like that person
Self-disclosure
when one shares a piece of personal info with another
Social facilitation
presence of others improves performance
Social impairment
presence of others hinders performance
Conformity
tendency to go along with everyone else
Group polarization
tendency of a group to make more extreme decisions than group members would do alone
Deindividuation
loss of self-restraint
Groupthink
tendency for some groups to make bad decisisons