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99 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Language Learning Milestones
12 months: First word
12 - 18 months
One-word stage: One word = sentence
“Out!” “No!”
18 - 24 months
Vocabulary “explosion”
Telegraphic speech
Two words, like a telegraph: “Want cookie!”
2 - 4 years
Initial sentence construction, even few words are syntactically correct.
More verbose sentences
4 - 5 years -- beyond that, refinement
Joint Attention
"show be the blicket" and baby can remember whether the parent was talking about the object or something across the room
Mutual Exclusivity
Pewter Cup vs Pewter tongs
Linguistic Context
bowl of confettii - can you see the seb? can you any seb? can you see any sebbing?
mental rotation
takes longer to rotate something more degrees - like those blocks you have to rotate to tell if they are the same
mental scanning
takes longer to get to mental places if it is a long way in real life, think the picture of the island
Mental Set
Tendency to stick to solutions that have worked in the past.
Functional Fixedness
lamp out of matchbox - assign certain uses for obejcts, hard to imagine them being used a differnt way
Illusory Correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists, or perception of a stronger relationship than actually exists, who is more good? group a or b? Librarians are quiet - more likely to remember things that are distictive
Out-Group Homogeneity
Tendency to perceive more diversity within one’s in-group than in an out-group. “They’re all alike.”
In-Group Favoritism
Tendency to favor individuals within one’s in-group
Stereotype threat
when knowledge of the “threat” of being stereotyped affects someone’s behavior
Realistic conflict theory
Competition for limited resources fosters prejudice
Social identity theory
Prejudice stems from a need to to enhance self-esteem
syntax
– rules that govern the order of words
generativity
the symbols of a language can be combined to generate an infinite number of messages that have novel meaning
displacement
language allows us to communicate about events and objects that are not physically present
surface structure
symbols that are used and their order
deep structure
underlying meaning of the combined symbols
phoneme
the smallest unit of sound that is recognized as separate in a given language
morphemes
smallest units of meaning in a language
discourse
sentences are combined into paragraphs, conversations and so fourth
pragmatics
a knowledge of the practical aspects of using language
language acquisition device (LAD)
an innate biological mechanism that contains the general grammatical rules common to all languages
Language acquisition support system (LASS)
to represent factors in the social environment that facilitate the learning of a language
Linguistic relativity hypothesis (whorf)
language not only influences but also determines what we are capable of thinking
Propositional thought
expresses proposition or statement
o Concepts – basic units of semantic memory metal categories into which we place objects, activities, abstractions and events that have essential features in common
o Prototypes – the most typical and familiar members of a category or class
Imaginal thought
consists of images that we can see hear or feel in out mind
Motoric thought
related to mental representations of motor movements
Deductive reasoning vs Inductive reasoning
Deductive reasoning – we reason from the top down, that is, from general principals to a conclusion about a specific case
Inductive reasoning - we reason from the bottom up, starting with specific facts and trying to develop a single principal
Belief bias
tendency to abandon logical rules in favor of our own personal beliefs
Four steps to problem solving
- Understanding or framing the problem
- Generate potential solutions
- Test the solutions
- Evaluate results
Mental set
tendency to stick to solutions that have worked in the past
Algorithms
formulas or procedures that automatically generate the correct solution
Heuristics
general problem solving strategies that we apply to certain classes of situations
Means-ends analysis
identify differences between the present situation and the desired state or goal and them make changes that will reduce these differences
Sub goal analysis
formulating sub goals or intermediate steps toward a solution
Representative heuristic
infer how closely something or someone fits our prototype for a particular concept or class and therefore how likely it is to be a member of that class
Availability heuristic
causes us to base judgments and decision on the availability of information in memory – easier to remember things that stand out in our mind
Confirmation bias
tending to look for evidence that will confirm what they currently believe rather than looking for evidence that could disconfirm their beliefs
Script
is a mental framework concerning a sequence of events that usually unfolds in a regular, almost standardized order – the sentence “going to a movie” reminds you of the entire process
Meta-cognition
your awareness and understanding of your own cognitive abilities
Fundamental attribution error
we underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the role of personal factors when explaining other people’s behavior
 We often make assumption that are situations when dealing with ourselves and personal when referring to others
Primacy effect
refers to our tendency to attach more importance to the initial information that we learn about a person
Self serving bias
tendency to make personal attributions for success and situational attributions for failures
Self fulfilling prophecy
occurs when people’s erroneous expectations lead them to act toward of them in a way that brings about the expected behaviors, thereby confirming their original impression
Theory of planned behavior
out intention to engage in a behavior is strongest when we have a positive attitude toward that behavior, when subjective norms (our perceptions of what other people think we should do) support our attitudes, and when we believe that the behavior is under our control
Self perception theory
we make inferences about our own attitudes in much the same way: by observing how we behave
Central route to persuasion
occurs when people think carefully about the message and are influenced because they find the arguments compelling
Peripheral route to persuation
occurs when people do not scrutinize the message but are influenced mostly by other factors such as a speaker’s attractiveness or a message’s emotional appeal
Social facilitation
an increased tendency to perform one’s dominant responses in the mere presence of others
Informational social influence
– following the opinions of behavior of other people because we believe that they have accurate knowledge and that what they are doing is right
Normative social influence
conforming to obtain the rewards that come from being accepted by other people while at the sane time avoiding their rejection
Norm of reciprocity
involves the expectation that when others treat us well, we should respond in kind
Door in the face technique
a persuader makes a large request expecting you to reject, then presents a smaller request
Foot in the door technique
a persuader gets you to comply with a small request first and later presents a larger request
Lowballing
a persuader gets you to commit to some action and then before you actually perform the behavior the increase the cost of that same behavior
Social loafing
the tendency for people to extend less individual effort when working in a group than when working alone
Social compensation
working harder in a group than when alone to compensate for other member’s lower output
Group polarization
when groups of like minded people discuss a situation the average opinion of the group members tend to be more extreme
Groupthink
the tendency of group members to suspend critical thinking because they are striving to seek agreement
deindividuation
a loss of individuality that leads to dis-inhibited behavior
Matching effect
most likely to have a partner who has a level of physical attractiveness similar to our own
Social exchange theory
the course of a relationship is governed by rewards and costs that the partners experience
Realistic conflict theory
competition for limited recourses fosters prejudice
Stereotype threat
stereotypes create self-consciousness among stereotyped group members and fear that they will lice up to other people’s stereotypes
Equal status contact
prejudice between people is most likely reduced when they engage in sustained close contact, have equal status, work to achieve a common goal that rewords cooperation and are supported by broader social norms
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic motivation
Motivated because you are going to get something out of the action (extrinsic, get a good grade) and that it has a value (intrinsic. Within you)
Ironic Processing Model
Unconscious Monitor: Sweeps through thoughts, signaling when it comes across forbidden thought (e.g., "eat the donut"). NO EFFORT REQUIRED
Conscious Monitor: Directs thoughts towards intended topics (e.g., "No, no, eat the carrot instead"). REQUIRES LOTS OF EFFORT
When we're tired, the conscious monitor shuts down, and we're left with our unconscious monitor making us notice our forbidden thoughts.
drive theory of motivation
psychological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives – states of internal tension that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce this tension
Behavioral attraction system (BAS)
is roused to action by signals of potential reward and positive need gratification – produces emotions of hope elation and happiness.
Behavioral inhibition system (BIS)
responds to stimuli that signal potential pain, non-reinforcements and punishment – produces fear inhibition of behavior and escape and avoidance behaviors
Expectancy x value approach
goal directed behavior is jointly determined by the person’s expectation that particular behaviors will lead to a goal and by the incentive value the individual places on that goal
Maslow’s need hierarchy
at the top there are growth needs and at the bottom there are deficiency needs – the bottom needs to be satisfied before the top
Self determination theory
– focuses on three fundamental needs: competence, autonomy and relatedness – master new challenges, greater freedom and regulation by the self, self desire to form meaningful bonds with one another, respectively
Satiety
state in which we no longer feel hungry
Set point
a biologically determined standard around which body weight is regulated
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
a peptide – type of hormone – that helps produce satiety
Leptin
hormone secreted by fat cells that enters the blood stream and reaches the brain and decreases appetites and increases energy expenditure
Hypothalamus and the lateral hypothalamus
“hunger on” switch
ventromedial hypothalamus
“hunger off” switch
Paraventricular nucleolus (PVN)
cluster of neurons packed with receptor sites for various transmitters that stimulate or reduce appetite
Sexual strategies theory (and related parental investment theory)
mating strategies and preferences reflect inherited tendencies, shapes over the ages in response to different types of adaptive problems there men and women faced.
 the more women a man mated with, the more children, passing genes, plus a young woman is most likely to be fertile and healthy
 if a female mates with too many men, then the father may be unwilling to give up resources because he is uncertain that it is his
Social structure theory
men and women display different mating preferences because society directs them into different social roles.
 Because women are less powerful in society, it makes sense to choose a man that will be successful
 Older men are more likely to be successful an younger women more economically dependant – fits with our social structure
low and high need achievers
low need has more of a fear of failure – high need achievers are more likely to go for intermediate difficult tasks because they are most sure of success, low, are more likely to go for easy or hard, where success is either ensured or not expected
Achievement goal theory
focuses on the manner in which success is defined by both the individual and within the achievement situation itself
Mastery orientation
the focus on personal improvement, giving maximum effort and perfecting new sills
Ego orientation
the goal is to outperform others – with as little effort as possible
 Ego approach goals – Focus on being judged favorably when compared to others
 Ego avoidance goals – focus on avoiding negative judgments by others
Approach - approach conflict
occurs when we face two attractive alternatives and selecting one means losing the other
Avoidance – avoidance conflict
occurs when we much choose between two undesirable alternatives
Approach – avoidance conflict
being attracted to and repelled by the same goal
 Grow stronger as we approach a goal
Eliciting stimuli
trigger cognitive appraisals and emotional responses, can be in response or related to ones self of another person
Cognitive appraisals
interpretations and meanings that we attach to sensory stimuli
Expressive and instrumental behaviors
if you are insulted, clenching your fist would be behavioral and yelling would be instrumental
James-Lange theory
our bodily actions determine the subjective emotion we experience
Cannon-bard theory
– proposed that the subjective experience of emotion and physiological arousal do not cause one another but instead are independent responses to an emotion arousing situation
Facial feedback hypothesis
feedback from the facial muscles to the brain plays a key role in determining the nature and intensity of emotions that ewe experience
 So we may be afraid partly because the message of our facial expressions
Two factor theory of emotion
intensity of physiological arousal tells us how strongly we are feeling something, but situational cues give us the information we need to label the arousal and tell ourselves what we are feeling – fear, anger, love or some other emotion
Subjective well-being (SWB)
people’s emotional responses and their degree of satisfaction with carious aspects of their life