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88 Cards in this Set

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Cognitive viewpoint/theory
Controlled (conscious) processing – the conscious use of attention and effort
Automatic (uncontrolled) processing – can be performed without conscious awareness of effort
Visual agnosia
not perceive that shape, size or orientation of objects, but she had little trouble performing complex motor and perceptional tasks
Prosopagnosia
visually recognize objects but not faces
priming
exposure to a stimulus influences (primes) how you consequentially respond to that same or another stimulus
Suprachiasmatic (SCN)
located in the hypothalamus – attached to the pineal gland which releases melatonin - - which has a relaxing effect of the body
 The SCN becomes active during the day and blocks off secretion of melatonin and is inactive in the evening, which allows melatonin and makes you tired
stages of sleep
Stage one: theta waves, not a lot of time 5% of sleeping time – not really asleep, but not really awake
Stage two: sleep spindles are bundles of rapid high amplitude waves – also most of bodily functions slow down – like being asleep
Stage three: Delta waves - jerking motions – might be necessary for body to relax – mind misinterprets signals and thinks you are falling
Stage four: All delta - slow high amp waves of activity to non activity – hard to wake someone in three of four
REM: Rapid eye movement – Alpha waves - same brain activity in a waking mind – body is entirely paralyzed

 Stages three and four are referred to as slow wave sleep
REM-sleep behavior disorder (RBD)
sleep paralysis during REM sleep is absent I often harmful and destructive
Sleepwalking
happens in stages 3 or 4 of sleep – person cam be completely coherent or be unresponsive, waking someone sleepwalking is not harmful
Nightmares and night terrors
 nightmares are bad dreams and everyone has them eventually
 night terrors happen in stages 3 and 4 (short wave sleep) – physical arousal, may raise heart rate 2-3 times normal – sleeper normally has no memory of it
Activation synthesis theory
 Dreams do not have any particular function, by product of REM neural activity – brain stem sends messages and cortex tries to interpret thing into things that makes sense
Social-cognitive theories
Hypnotic experiences result from expectations of people who are motivated to take on the role of being hypnotized
Analgesia
Absence of pain in response to stimulation which would normally be painful
Behaviorists
think that all animal come into the world as a blank slate
Ethologists
viewed the organism as anything but a blank slate, animals evolved and are biologically prepared to act in a certain way
 Focused on function of behavior, particularly it’s adaptive significance – how a behavior influences an organism’s chances of survival and reproduction in its natural environment
Fixed action pattern
an unlearned response automatically triggered by a particular stimulus
Habituation
A decrease in the strength of response to a repeated stimulus
Acquisition
refers to the period of time in which the response is being learned
Neutral stimulus
one that does not cause a reaction – like the bell to the dogs before they were conditioned
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
stimulus that elicits a response without prior conditioning
Unconditioned response (UCR)
the response to the UCS without prior learning
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
a stimulus that, through association with the UCS comes to elicit a conditioned response similar to the original UCR
Conditioned response (CR)
a response elicited by a CS
Forward-short delay paring
learning usually occurs most quickly this way, the CS (tone) appears first and is still present when the UCS (food) appears.
Forward trace pairing
tone sounds, then stops, and after that the food is presented
Stimulus generalization
organism is likely to react to similar stimuli, like different tones for the dogs
Discrimination
when alarm reaction occurs to one stimulus, but not
Exposure therapies
expose the person to what makes them afraid a bit at a time and slowly cause extinction of the fear to occur
Aversion therapies
pairing an unwanted action with something noxious – like pedophiles
Law of effect
in a given situation, a response followed by a satisfying consequence will become more likely to occur and a response followed by an annoying consequence will become less likely to occur
Operant conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is influenced by the consequences that follow it
negative punishment
responce cost
Positive punishment
averse punishment
Shaping
using a method of successive approximations toward a final response
Operant generalization
An operant response occurs to a new antecedent stimulus of situation that is similar to the original one
Operant discrimination
means that an operant response will occur to one antecedent stimulus but not to another
Escape conditioning
organism learns a response to terminate an aversive stimulus
Avoidance conditioning
organism learns a response to avoid an aversive stimulus
Preparedness
through evolution, animals are biologically predisposed to learn some associations more easily than others
Instinctive drift
the tendency for a conditioned repose to drift back toward instinctive behavior
Role of awareness
have to be aware of what you are being rewarded for in order for conditioning to work
Latent learning
refers to learning that occurs but is not demonstrated until later when there is an incentive to perform
Law of Effect
In a given situation, a response followed by a satisfying consequence will become more likely to occur and a response followed by an annoying consequence will become less likely to occur.
Sensory memory
briefly holds incoming information – the type that takes a fast picture of what was seen, like with the flashing numbers experiment we did in class – the image that is kept in the mind is called an ionic image
Working memory
last longer than the above, which fades rapidly – temporarily holds a limited amount of information
Phonological loop
stores mental representations of sounds – like when listening to spoken words
Visuospatial sketchpad
briefly stored visual and spatial information – face, layout of a room
Episodic buffer
storage area for two things above while they are connected to things in long term memory – when you as you must use the above two and also retrieve information on how to add from long term memory
Central executive
directs overall action
serial position effect
where when presented with a list of numbers or words, you can remember the first and last ones – correlated with the transfer of the early words into long term memory, and the later ones into short term, and the middle ones shoved out
maintenance rehearsal
involves simple, rote repetition
elaborative rehearsal
involves focusing on the meaning of the into or expanding on it in some way
Dual coding theory
encoding information using both verbal and visual codes enhances memory because the odds improve that at least one of the codes will be available later to support recall
Method of loci
a memory aid that associated information with mental images of physical locations – like pairing words with locations
Schema
mental framework – an organized pattern of though – about some aspect of the world : this works with those paragraphs in which you don’t know what it is talking about and cannot recall very well until you are given the context, then you can recall things from it much better – in the book it was washing clothes – helps give a basis to associate information to
Mnemonist (or memoirist)
someone with extraordinary memory skills
associative netork
just arranging knowledge in a web
Priming
the activation of one concept b another – like being able to associate fire truck and red
Declarative memory
involves factual knowledge
Episodic memory
is our store of knowledge concerning personal experiences: when, where, and what happened in the episodes of our lives – favorite movie what you ate this morning
Semantic memory
represents general factual knowledge about the world and language, including memory for words and concepts - e=mc^2
Procedural (nondeclarative) memory
reflected in skills or actions – typing, bike riding
Explicit memory
involves conscious or intentional memory retrieval as when you consciously recognize or recall something – must retrieve information on own
Implicit memory
occurs when memory influences our behavior without conscious awareness – walking, riding a bike
Retrieval cue
is a stimulus whether internal or external that activated information stored in long term memory – if someone asks if you have seem ‘Sonia’ today, that is a retrieval cue
Encoding specificity principal
memory is enhanced when conditions present during retrieval match those that were present during encoding
Mood congruent recall
we tend to recall information or events that are congruent with our current mood - when we are happy we are more likely to remember happy events, when sad, we are more likely to remember sad ones
decay theory
with time and disuse the long term physical memory trace in the nervous system fades away – but there is objection to whether this is true or not
Proactive interference
material learned in the past interferes with recall of newer material
Retroactive interference
newly acquired information interferes with the ability to recall information learned at an earlier time
Prospective memory
concerns remembering to perform an activity in the future
Retrograde amnesia
represents memory loss for events that took place sometime in life before the onset of amnesia
Anterograde amnesia
refers to meme loss for events that occur later the initial onset of amnesia – like H.D. in the book, remember nothing after operation
Where are memories stored and formed?
 Sensory and working memory - frontal lobes and prefrontal cortex
 Long term memory – hippocampus – processed in different places, but stored in the hippocampus, this hypothetical and gradual binding process in called a memory consolidation, various components are store across the brain as well
 Procedural memory – cerebellum
Procedural (nondeclarative) memory
reflected in skills or actions – typing, bike riding
Explicit memory
involves conscious or intentional memory retrieval as when you consciously recognize or recall something – must retrieve information on own
Implicit memory
occurs when memory influences our behavior without conscious awareness – walking, riding a bike
Retrieval cue
is a stimulus whether internal or external that activated information stored in long term memory – if someone asks if you have seem ‘Sonia’ today, that is a retrieval cue
Encoding specificity principal
memory is enhanced when conditions present during retrieval match those that were present during encoding
Mood congruent recall
we tend to recall information or events that are congruent with our current mood - when we are happy we are more likely to remember happy events, when sad, we are more likely to remember sad ones
decay theory
with time and disuse the long term physical memory trace in the nervous system fades away – but there is objection to whether this is true or not
Proactive interference
material learned in the past interferes with recall of newer material
Retroactive interference
newly acquired information interferes with the ability to recall information learned at an earlier time
Prospective memory
concerns remembering to perform an activity in the future
Retrograde amnesia
represents memory loss for events that took place sometime in life before the onset of amnesia
Anterograde amnesia
refers to meme loss for events that occur later the initial onset of amnesia – like H.D. in the book, remember nothing after operation
Where are memories stored and formed?
 Sensory and working memory - frontal lobes and prefrontal cortex
 Long term memory – hippocampus – processed in different places, but stored in the hippocampus, this hypothetical and gradual binding process in called a memory consolidation, various components are store across the brain as well
 Procedural memory – cerebellum
dissociation theories
theories the view hypnosis as an altered state involving a division of consciousness
social cognitive theoriey
hypnotic expericence s result fomr the exectations of pple who are motivated to take on the role of being hypnotized