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29 Cards in this Set

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Cultural Influences- The Internet Culture
1)Limits restrictions with geography.
2)Evoking changes, as in the first encounters. Cyber pen-pals evoke disclosure in anonyminity.
3)Progression from cyberspace through more traditional means, regular mail, telephone calls, personal meetings.
4)Self-Disclosure dynamics change when communication is not face-to-face.
Self-Disclosure
The voluntary act of verbally communicating private information about yourself to another person.
Three factors which draw strangers together
1)Proximity- geographic, residential and other forms of spatial closeness. People become acquainted with and attracted to people who live and work nearby.
2)Familiarity- Mere exposure effect, or an increase in positive feelings towards a novel stimulus (person) based on frequent exposure to them. Positive feelings generate as a result not solely out of interaction, but also seeing someone frequently. Generally, the more familiar someone is, the more you will like them.
3)Physical Attractiveness- Plays a role in romantic and friendly relationships, especially with men, who like to have attractive male friends.
Attractiveness
Facial features and physique are very important. There seems to be a crosscultural agreement on the general perameters for an attractive face.
Matching Hypothesis
Proposes that people of similar levels of physical attractiveness gravitate towards one another.
Parental Investment Theory
Theory of evolutionary psychology in which maintains that a species' mating patterns depend on what each sex has to invest- in a way of time, energy, and survival risk- to produce and nurture offspring. According to this model, members of the gender that makes the smaller investment will compete with each other for mating opportunities with the gender that makes the larger investment, and the gender with the larger investment will tend to be more discriminating in selecting its partners.
Reciprocal Liking
Refers to liking those who show that they like you. Reciprocity is better strategy than hard to get, because people tend to dislike those who reject them.
Similarity
Despite increasing diversity, people still tend to be gravitated towards those who are similar to them. Additionally, those with personalities that have similar levels of needs are more likely to be attracted to each other than are those with dissimilar or ocmplementary needs.
Social Exchange Theory
Postulates that interpersonal relationships are governed by perceptions of the rewards and costs associated with a relationship.
Sexual Orientation
A person's preference for emotional and sexual relationships with individuals of the same gender, the other gender, or either gender.
Heterosexism
The assumption that all inividuals and relationships are heterosexual
Passion
Intense feelings, both positive and negative, experienced in love relationships, including sexual desire.
Commitment
The decision and intent to maintain a relationship in spite of the difficulties and costs that may arise.
Attachment styles
Typical ways of interacting in close relationships
Actor-observer Effect
The tendency to attribute one's own behavior to situational factors and the behavior of others to personal factors.
Loneliness
Occurs when a person has fewer interpersonal relationships than desired or when these relationships are not as satisfying as desired.
Shyness
Discomfort, inhibition, and excessive caution in interpersonal relations.
David Buss
Evolutionary social psychologist who suggests that gender similarities and differences in the tactis of attraction are based on reproductive strategies that have been sculpted over thousands of generations by natural selection.
Cindy Hazan and Phillip Shaver
Suggested that romantic love can be conceptualized as an attachment process, with similarities to the bond between infants and caregivers.
Harold Kelley and John Thibaut
Developed Social Exchange Theory, which postulates that interpersonal relationships are governed by perceptions of the rewards and costs associated with the relationships
Heterosexism
The assumption that all inividuals and relationships are heterosexual
Passion
Intense feelings, both positive and negative, experienced in love relationships, including sexual desire.
Commitment
The decision and intent to maintain a relationship in spite of the difficulties and costs that may arise.
Attachment styles
Typical ways of interacting in close relationships
1)Secure- Warm and responsive
2)Avoidant) Never really close to anyone else
3)Anxious/Ambivolent- need or preoccupied

People with the last two attachment types are much more likely to be vulnerable to interpersonal relationship problems than the securely attached people.
Actor-observer Effect
The tendency to attribute one's own behavior to situational factors and the behavior of others to personal factors.
Lonliness
When one has fewer relationships or less satisfying relationships than one would wish. Three Types:
1)Chronic
2)Transitional
3)Transient
Typically caused by: Sociological trends such as dissolution of the nuclear family, poor self concepts, negativism and poor social skills, segative self-talk
Endogamy
Partaking in relationships with someone else within ones own social group
Homogamy
Relationship between two people who are, in some important way, culturally in the same status or position relative to one another.
Stimulus-Value Role Theory
We select our friends and close partners through a three-stage model, filtering out those who do not fit at each stage. All elements may well be important throughout the relationship, but their relative importance changes.

In the stimulus stage, we evaluate the other person in terms of physical attributes. A man, for example, may be struck by the beauty of a buxom, blonde woman. We are generally attracted to people of a similar age, appearance and ethnicity.

In the value stage, we compare their values with ours and decide whether we are sufficiently compatible to continue the relationship. In particular, we look at attitudes towards religion, sex, careers, families and gender differences.

In the role stage, we share out the activities to build a working relationship. It helps if preferences for these are complementary (you do this and I’ll do that), although role attitudes need to be similar.