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15 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Evaluation of a good Theory
Good theories must:
1)Accuratley reflect current facts.
2)Be clear and understandable
3)Predict future events
4)Be applicable
5)Be consistant
6)Be based on few unproveable assumptions.
An individual's unique constellation of consistant behavioral traits.
-Does not include temporary states, these are emotions
Five Big Personality Trait Clusters
2)Neuroticism- high anxiety, negative emotionality
3)Openness to experience-Flexibility, sensitivity, creativity.
4)Agreeableness- Sympathetic, trusting, helpfulness.
5)Conscientiousness- Self-disciplined behavior.
Six Main Theoretical Orientations for Personality
1)Psychoanalytic (Freud)
2)Cognitive (Piaget)
3)Behavioristic (Skinner)
4)Biological (Wilson)
5)Humanistic (Maslow)
6)Interactionist/Ecological (Bronfenbrenner)
Psychodynamic Theories
Refers to any theories that share off of Freud.
1)Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud)
2)Analytical Psychology (Jung)
3)Individual Psychology (Adler)
4)Psychosocial Theory (Erikson)
5)Gynocentric Psychoanalytic Theory (Horney)
Psychoanalytic Theory
Sigmund Freud developed in late 1800's. Conceptualized personality structures of the id, ego, superego.
--Stresses the subconcious
--Our attempts to resolve seres after series of conflicts drives us, motivates our choices of behavior with the objective to restore balance within our psyche.
Psychodynamic Principles
From Freud's original theory:
Personality is a predictable structure involving unconscious processes.
-Developmental value of childhood in determining how we behave as adults.
-Personality is shaped how we each deal with sexual urges.
Structures of Psychoanalytic Theory
1)Id- invoves pleasure principle, controls primary process thinking.
2)Ego- Reality principle operates the decision-making portion of the personality.
****Mediates between the Id and Superego.****
3)Superego- The moral compas, conscience- incorporates moral standards for what is right and wrong.
Stages of Psychoanalytic
3)Phallic--Oedipal &/or Elektra complexes with wanting to kill parent of same sex and sex up the parent of the opposite sex.
***Cannot successfully move on and cope with the next stage until you have fully resolved the stages that come before it.
Defense Mechanisms
1)Disadvantages--Self Deception
-Not as likely to reduce source of true anxiety
-Delays or diverts energy
-Distorts reality
2)Advantages-We save face, if only with ourselves
--Optimal margin of illusion--seems like it is refering to a balance between it confronting the potential problem, but in a manner that doesnt distort ones view on reality.
Psychoanalytic Theory
-Horney countered rejection of the female role and the Phallocentric(penis envy/rejection by males due to initial identification) bias of Freud's theory.
Gynocentric Theory
1)Fear of penetration-guilt that results
2)Societal dangers- devaluation of females, sexualization of females.
3)Maternal feminisms
Examples of Defense Mechanisms
1)Rationalization-Creating excuses for our behavior
2)Repression-Burial below the level of conscious thought.
3)Projection-What you feel unconsciously, you attribute to someone else as feeling.
4)Displacement-When unable to act on certain feelings towards one, we act them out onto another (pissed at boss, beat wife)
5)Reaction Formation- Behaving exactly the opposite of one's unconscious feelings
6)Regression-A return to earlier "Safer" times and the less mature behavior of that time.
7)Identification-Attempt to increase one's self-esteem by affiliation with an admired person or group.
Analytical Psychology (Jung)
1)Personal unconscious- same as Freud's unconscious
2)Collective Unconscious- Deeper subconscious that is a storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people's ancestral past that is shared with the entire human race.
3)Archetypes-Emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meanings show this collective unconscious.
Individual Psychology (Adler)
1)Social striving--striving for superiority, in failure, we compensate for it, which are normal attempts to overcome weakness.
2)Overcompensation-Superficial attempts to conceal, not master weakness.
3)Inferiority feelings- Inadequacies excessively perceived.--integrated and intensely held feelings, person feels like they should be hidden, not needed to overcome.