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138 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
social learning
learning through TV, the outside, etc
individuals who have characteristics of both genders
advantages of androgyny
healthier, flexible, higher self-esteem, more positive outlook in life, more tolerant, not as rigid
how can androgyny be learned?
by parents behaviors
angrogyness is more liked by
male prefer women who are more
infants can sometimes sense what ______ they are
Ericcson's theory focuses on
oral sensory stage is what stage? when does it occur?
first stage
birth to 1 year
muscular-anal stage is what stage? when does it occur?
second stage
2-3 years
locomotor-genital stage is what stage? when?
third stage
4-5 years
latency stage is what stage? when?
fouth stage
6-12 years
adolescence stage is what stage? when?
fifth stage
13-19 years
young adulthood is what stage? when?
sixth stage
mid adulthood is what stage? when?
seventh stage
late adulthood is what stage? when?
eighth stage
trust vs mistrust
is mother there?
mother-child bonding
oral-sensory strength
autonomy vs shame and doubt
develope exploration
muscular-anal strength
guilt vs initiative
ability to set goals
tying shoes
locomotor-genital strength
industry vs inferiority
school age
doing homework
latency strength
identity vs role confusion
changes physiologically
often confused about who they are and what they want
adolescence strength
young adulthood
intimacy vs. isolation
how much time do you want to spend with people?
who do you want to date?
deeper love develops
young adulthood strength
mid adulthood
generativity vs stagnation
most productive years
mid adulthood strength
late adulthood
ego integrity vs despair
review your life
late adulthood strength
epigenetic principle
stages build on each other, one step must come after another
harmonious experience
disruptive experience
Freud says during early childhood this forms....
superego- have a concious
sum total of abilities, attributes, and attitudes/ values that an individual believes are who they are
preschoolers think very
around age 3 children start using
negative feedback could harm a childs
self esteem
how good we can do something, are we likable?
preschoolers start
watching peoples reactions and predict others feelings
understanding of what others are feeling ex. kindness, helpful
peer relations
associative play with siblings
cooperative play
day care setting
develop first friendships around what age?
sensitivity is the foundation for
family trains aggressiveness through
abuse (child or parent)
preschoolers have difficulty making sense of
more than one emotion at a time (conflicting emotions)
preschoolers that have families that talk about feelings are better at
understanding and predicting feelings later in life
an example of advanced emotional understand
playing make believe with siblings
this group likes to have an audience
children act towards others the way their
parents act towards them
functional play is common during
the first 2 years
functional play examples are
running around, rolling, playing cars back and forth
constructive play is common around
ages 3-6 years
constructive play includes
legos, building blocks, creating or building something
make believe play is common between ages
three step process in peer sociability:
1. nonsocial activity- playing alone, looking on
2. parallel play-children play near each other with similar toys but do not interact with each other
3. highest level play- preschoolers engage in separate activities but exhchange toys
associative play
do separate activities but share toys
cooperative play
children play towards a common goal
children who have peer difficulties misinterpret
others behaviors
social problem solving improves between
preschool and early school years
freud believes moral devolopment is complete by ages
5-6 years with the formation of superego
if parents use threats, commands or physical force with children they are more likely not to
feel guilty after harming someone
authoritarian parenting
absolute obedience, high control, working class, physical force. children are less cheerful, moody, vulnerable to stress
permissive parenting
child's freedom of expression/ autonomy is valued. parent's rely on reasoning, more middle class families
authoritative parenting
postive reinforcement and infrequent use of punishment, awareness of child's feelings and capabilities
effects of punishment
promotes momentary compliance, not lasting- changes in children's behavior
harsh punishment serves to>
provide adult models of aggression
teach children to avoid the adult
offer immediate relief to adults who re then reinforced for using coercive discipline
alternatives to harsh punishment
time out
withdraw privledges
effectiveness of punishment increases when
it is consistant
there is a warm parent/child relationship
Doting Father/Mother
give you whatever you want, protective, can do whatever you want
problem with doting father/mother
expect to get everything, can't do anything for themselves
distant father/mother
if both are distant= problems with future relationships, handle problems on their own, can't blease father and mother, very quiet child
absent father/mother
sibling rivalry

ex. traveling for work, divorce
seductive father/mother
ex. alcoholics, step parents

make comments that make you uncomfortable
good father/ mother
expectations are high, supportive, strict, but fair, intrested in activities
demanding father/mother
violence or threat of physcical violence, strict
middle childhood issues:
gain more independence
parents expect more
new identity
self esteem not yet est
start excluding people
start making own friends
Freud's Latency stage:
industry vs inferiority
develope competence
sense of pride when things done well
gains self understanding
make social comparisons
inspect your appearance
become better at recieveing messages
peer influence comes important
self respect starts
develope self concious emotions (pride/guilt)
motivates you to take on challenges
helps you fix things and stive for self improvement
realize you can have more than one emotion around age
kids can understand and manage their emotions around age
if they have poor social skills they
have a hard time imagining the feelings of others
everyone has their own definition of
peer groups usually have the same
dress code, vocabulary, etc.

ex. boy scouts, girl scouts
peer acceptance is an indicator of
later life situations
agression, withdrawal, controversial is
not accepted easily
attachment: secure type
feels secure when mother is out of site but returns after exploring the world
attachment: anxious/ambivalent type
unpredictable mother, infant has inconsistent mother, tempermental, and unsure of the world
avoidant type
parents not emotionall demonstrative, dont show emotion, hug, kiss, laugh, smile, likely to avoid social interactions, trouble making friends
secure type
not clingy to friends
ambivalent type
friends for security has a hard time being alone
likes being alone
positive model of self
positive model of other
secure and comfortable with intamacy and autonomy
positive of self
negative of others
dismissing of intimacy
counter dependence
have positive veiw of self, negative vew of others- dont let others get close to them, dont want a relationship
negative view of self
positive view of others
preoccupied with relationships
negative view of self
negative view of others
fearful of intimacy
socially avoidant
wants a relationship but can't trust it
divorce children have lower
self esteem
older children help the younger children
siblings close in age =
lots of fighting
siblings sometimes stive to be
different from one another
most divorces occur within the first ____ years of marraige
minimal parenting
no same routine, discipline becomes harsh, and inconsistant, children may blame themselves for divorce
divorce can trigger
regression, depression, children start to shut down
girls: long term consequences of divorce
depend on temperment very reactive, more likely to have long term affects
boys: long term consequences of divorce
sometimes do better when dad has custody
parental alienation syndrome
when one parent is alienating the child from the other

ex. put downs, etc.
there is no specific age when a
child can be left unattended
what type of parenting is self care children
authoritative child rearing
problems of development:
1. anxiety about school
2. child sexual abuse
most abuse occurs up to age
3 because they are often defenseless
most prisoners are victims of
child abuse
trouble learning through conventional instruction

write backwards
trouble reading
motor disorders
fails to give close attention to details

does not seem to listen
starts things but doesn't finish
difficulty organizing tasks
loses things/forgetful
girls better at _____ tests
boys better at ______ test
difference between genders ______ as they go through school
high achievement influences:
authoritative parenting
join decision making (parent/child)
peer influences
high level thinking
student participation
vocational education
ericcson's theory of adolescence

identity begins, commitment to jobs, friends, sexual orientation, ideals

goal: resolve identity crisis
ericcson's theory of adolescence

Identity confusion
lack of direction and definition of self
restricted exploration adolscence

goal: prepare for adulthood
factors that affect identity development:
authoritative, attached
peers, friends
larger context: culture, historical time period
depression increased _____ times from the 60s
depression due to:
higher divorce rate
less physically active
more drug use
people more aware of diagnosing depresion
more demands of society is on
parents help kids fit in by
teaching htem a new skill

ex. sports, musical instrument
self esteem
self concept
how you see yourself
clique is
small group of 5-7
crowd is
larger, several cliques
pressures to conform:
dress, grooming, social activity, proadult behavior, misconduct
factors influencing depression:
child rearing practices
learned helplessness
leading cause of death among youth
greatest risk of suicide
white males, AA males, gay, lesbian, and bi
early onset for delinquicy
biological risk factors and child rearing practices combined
late onset for delinquicy
around puberty- peer influences