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20 Cards in this Set

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Psychology
the science that studies behavior and the psysiological and cognitive processses that underlie it, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to pratical problems.
What are the primary questions of psychology?
How do people think, feel, and behave?

Why do people think, feel and behave the way they do?

What can we do with this knowledge to make the world a better place?
Who founded psychology? When?
William Wundt 1879
Structuralism
analyze conciousness into it's basic elements
Functionalism
investigate the function of conciousness
Clinical Psychology
Concerened with the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of individuals with psychological disorders, as well as treatment of less severe behavioral and emotional problems
Counseling Psychology
Clientele different from that of clinical psychology in that these psychologists deal with everyday, moderate severity problems, often specializing in family, marital, and career counseling
Industrial/Organizational Psychology
applies strategies based on psychological principles to improve business and industry
Educational/ School pyschology
applies strategies based on psychological principles to improve educational processes
Cognitive Psychology
study of people's ability to aquire, organize, remember, and use knowledge to guide behavior. Interested in memory, reasoning, information processing, language development, problem solving, decision making, and creativity.
Developmental Psychology
study of changes in individuals' abilities and dispositions as they grow older.
Personality Psychology
Interested in describing and understanding an individuals consistency in thoughts, feelings, and behavior which represent their personality
Psychometrics
concerned with the measurement of the pychological phenomena usually through development of psychological tests
Psychological Psychology
attempt to understand the biological mechanisms that organize and control behaviors
Social Psychology
attempt to understand how thoughts, feelings and behavior are influenced by actual or implied presence of others
What are the goals of the scientific method?
- Measurement and description

-Understanding and prediction

-application and control
Steps of the scientific method?
1. Formulate testable hypothesis

2. Select the method and design the study.

3. Collect Data

4. Analyze the data and draw conclusions

5. Report the findings
What are the strengths and weaknesses of the experimental method?
Strengths: Permits conclusion about cause and effect relationships

Weaknesses: Manipulations and control often make experiments artificial. Pratical realities and ethical concerns make it impossible to conduct experiments on many issues.
What are the strenths and weaknesses of descriptive/correlational methods?
Strength: Broadens the scope of phenomena that psychologists can study (can explore issues that could not be examined with experimental methods)

Weakness: Cannot demonstratethat two variables are casually related
Case study
in-depth investigation of single participant, typically involving data from many sources