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122 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
language
system of symbols, sounds, meanings, and rules of combination that allows for communication among humans
4 basic characterstics of language
sybolic, semantic, generative, structured
properties: 1. creative, 2. structured, 3. meaningful, 4. referential, 5. interpersonal
1. rarely repeats the same sentece; 2. obeys strict guidelines; 3 expresses an idea; 4. refers to world events; 5. a social activity
structure of language
phonemes-->morphemes-->words-->phrases-->sentences
phonemes: what are they and how are they produced?
*smallest unit of speech; distinct sounds; humans can produce about 100 distint ones
* they are produced by forcin air from the lungs through the mouth; varyin movements in the voal apparatus result in the prduction of different phonemes;
segmentation problem
not percieving clear boundaries b/t words; no break in pysical signal or we do percieve them
mcgurk effect
hear +see = percieve
morphemes
smallest units of meaning in langauge; english contains about 50,00; mainly contenten morphemes (base words) and funcction morphemeses (pre and suffixes)
definitional theory
suggests that meaings of words are organized in our minds similar to the manner of a dictionary; each word is assiciated with a number of semantic features
protoype theory
suggests that the mind carries a mental prototype of each word, wichi is learned from experience and can be considered a mental average of instances in the category
what is the earliest stage of language?
children begin to vocalize at birth; at this point it is similar across all languages; involves all phonemes and can produe all phonemes; can discriminate between them
what happens at 6 months?
babbling: pattern of languages spoken by parents; consonant vowel combos
how does language start to change at 18-24 months?
vocab. spurt occurs; fast mapping--> single exposure allows children to map a word to a concept
what happens at 3 yrs?
children can mostly speak and understand language
critical period
an organism must develop a function within a limited time frame or else it will not develop at all
behavorist: who founded this and what is it? how does it effect langauge? what is wrong with it?
BF Skinner founded it; proposed that langauge is learned through imitation and conditioning--> children imitate parents; prob: children usually dont correct grammatical mistakes in young kids
nativist theory: who proposed it? what is it?
proposed by Chomsky; arugued that language acquisition appears to be universal across cultures; humans are inborn with a language acquisition device
interactionist theory: what is it?
proposes that both biological predisposition and a supportive environment contribute to language development; nature vs nurture
in most right handed people, where is language in the brain?
the left
what are the two major areas in the brain that deal with language?
brocas area, wernicke's area
broca's aphasia (non fluent)
damage to the the broca's area in the left frontal lobe; patient can understand speech but has a hard time producing it
wernicke's aphaisa (fluent)
damage to the wernicke's area in the left temporal lobe results in the patient having difficulty understanding speech and produce fluent but nonsense speech
in the 1970s, what animal was did scientists try to get speak english? was it successful?
chimps; no
which one of this animals relatives was successuful at learning english? who taught it?
bonobo; taught by sue saage-rumsbaugh; bonobo names kanzi
directed thinking
the mental activities used to solve a problem or make a decision
mental representation
a mental model of a stimulus or category of stimuli
what are the two types of mental reprentations? what is their definition?
analogical rep.: rep. that shares some phyiscal charateritic of the object --> a picture, for example
symobolic rep: rep: that does not correspond to the physical characteristics of what it represents --> a word, for example
what are some two aspects of symobolic reps?
language: definitional prototype of theories or word meanings; describes how concepts ar represented
memory: semantic networks and PDP models; descrie organization of structure
what are two aspects of analogical representations?
mental images: internal visual images
introspection: careful observations of ones own concious experience
how is visual imagery studied?
mental rotation: what it is?
mental rotation: subjects mentally rotate an image in order to correctly identify attributes about it; reation time is measured
reaction time of mental rotation?
the farther it must be rotated from 0, the longer it takes the subject to react
how is visual imagery studied?
mental scanning: what is it?
subjects are required to memorize landmarks on a visual stimulus; later they are asked to imagine a dot moving from one point to another, reaction time is measured
reaction time of mental scanning?
r.t. increases as dot is farther from landmark
evidence of visual imagery in the brain?
* fMRI shows visual cortical areas are active during visual imagery --> even in V1
* appliction of TS to visual cortical areas disrupts visual imagery
problem solving
refers to active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily available
steps of problem solving
initial state --> problem solving --> goal state
ill defined problem
dont know the goal and it is not obvious
well-defined problem
know what the goal is that needs to be acheived
3 categories of problems according to greeno
problems of inducing structure
problems of arrnagement
problems of transformation
what is a problem of inducing structure? give an everyday example
they require people to discover relations among numbers, words, symbols, or ideas
ex.: analogies; number series completion
what is a problem of arrnagement?
give and everyday example
they require people to arrage the parts of a problem in a way that satisifies some critera
ex.: anagrams/unscrambling words
problems of transformation?
give an example
they require people to carry out a sequence of transformations in order to reach a specific goal
ex.: water jar prob.; tower of hanoi???
obstacles to effective problem solving?
irrelevant info
functional fixedness
mental set
unnecessary constraints
irrelevant info.
sometimes probems involve too much info. most of which can lead you astray
ex.: string prob
functional fixedness
the tendency to percieve an item only in terms of its most common use
mental set
exists when people persist in using problem solving stragies that have worked in the past
ex.: water prob.
unneccessary constraints
effective prob. solving requires specifying all the constraints governing a prob. w/out assuming any constraints that dont exist
3 approaches to prob. solving
trials and error
algorithm
heuristic
trial and error
try possible solutions until you find one that works
algorithm
methodical step by step procedure for trying all possible alternatives in searching for a solution to a prob. --> gaurentees solution
heuristic
a guiding principle or rule of thumb used in solving probs. or making decisions
useful heuristics in problem solving
forming subgoals
working backward
finding an analogy
changing representation
subgoals
intermediate steps towards a solution
ex.: tower of haoi
finding an analogy
if you can spot an anology b/t probs., you may be able to use the solution to a previous prob. to solve a current one
reasoning
process by which people generate and evaluate arguments and beliefs
decsion making
involoves evaluating alternatives and making choices among them
inductive reasoning
reason from specific observations to general problems
deductive reasoning
drawing a conclusion from a set of assumptions
syllogism
representativeness hueristic
involves basing the estimated prb. of an event on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event
conjunction fallacy
occurs when people estimate that the odds of 2 uncertain events happening together are greater than the odds of either happening alone
availability heuristic
used to jusdge likelihood or frequency of event or occurrence; ppl tend to biased about info that is easy to recall;
anchoring and adjustment
used to estimate value or size of quantity; start from intial val. and adjust to final estimate
framing effects: risk averse
a deicision is framed in terms of risk averse it is in terms of gains: protect the smaller gain rather than gamble the larger gain
framing effects: risk seeking
if in terms of loss: they will gamble riskily rather than accept a smaller loss
basis of piagets theory
children are active explorers creating theories about the world around theml stage theory
schemas
organized patterns of thought and behavior
assimilation
apply an old schema to a new object
accomodation
old ideas are modified to fit new situations
equilibrium
more assimilation than accomodation
disequilibrium
more accomodation tha assmilation
stage 1: sensorimotow (birth-2yrs.)
use senses and movements to explore the world; behabior is primarily simple motor responses to sensory stimuli; no mental rep.; realize diff. b/t self and outside world; imitation, categorization, prob. solving
preoperational (2-7 yrs.)
symbolic but illogical thinking; make believe play emerges; egocentrism; unable to accept conservation; basic level categories are formed;
concrete operational (7-11 yrs.)
logical and organized thinking; pass conservation tasks; reason logically about concrete info.; not capable of abstract though;
formal operational (11 yrs. an up)
abstract and hypothetical; not everyone reaches this stage
violation of expectation
babies are habituated to a physical event; then see if babie look longer at impossible events than possible events
deferred imitation
when the adult stuck her tongue out at the baby, the baby repsonded doing the same thing to the adult 24 hrs. later
conservation
understanding that some physical characteristics stay the same even if they outward appearance changes
is development discontinous, as piaget though?
no
basis of piagets theory
children are active explorers creating theories about the world around theml stage theory
postformal reasoning
increases with age
schemas
organized patterns of thought and behavior
assimilation
apply an old schema to a new object
accomodation
old ideas are modified to fit new situations
equilibrium
more assimilation than accomodation
disequilibrium
more accomodation tha assmilation
stage 1: sensorimotow (birth-2yrs.)
use senses and movements to explore the world; behabior is primarily simple motor responses to sensory stimuli; no mental rep.; realize diff. b/t self and outside world; imitation, categorization, prob. solving
preoperational (2-7 yrs.)
symbolic but illogical thinking; make believe play emerges; egocentrism; unable to accept conservation; basic level categories are formed;
concrete operational (7-11 yrs.)
logical and organized thinking; pass conservation tasks; reason logically about concrete info.; not capable of abstract though;
formal operational (11 yrs. an up)
abstract and hypothetical; not everyone reaches this stage
violation of expectation
babies are habituated to a physical event; then see if babie look longer at impossible events than possible events
deferred imitation
when the adult stuck her tongue out at the baby, the baby repsonded doing the same thing to the adult 24 hrs. later
conservation
understanding that some physical characteristics stay the same even if they outward appearance changes
is development discontinous, as piaget though?
no
postformal reasoning
increases with age
vygotskys sociocultural theory
interaction b/t individual and their surroundings; guided participation; zone of proximal development; scaffolding
private speech
self directed speech that children use to plan and guide their behavior; helps kids master hard tasks
make believe play
learn that thought is seperate from action; practice social norms; goal setting and self regulation
info.-processing framework
"mind as computer"; applies cog psychfrom adult studies to children; focuses on underlying processes that drive development
attention
increases with age; older kids are less distracable and better at shiftin attention
episodic memory
concious memory of info from specific points in time; older adults are worse than younger adults
metcognition
awareness of ones own conitive abilities; young children arent really aware of their thought processes or the thoughs of others, preschoolers are aware of envrionmental influences on memory
accumualted knowledge
expert children ccan have more knowledge than adult novices
expertise as organized knowledge
experts knowledge is better organized than novices knowledge; relationship b/t chinking stragies is strongr for experts than for novices
infantile amnesia
why?
fronal lobes arent mature
child must have sense of self before autobio. memory can persist; discussing narratives facailitates autobiogrpahical memory
in old age..
memory that is impaired involves control processes
fluid intellegce (Gf)
ability to process info., reason abstractly, and solve novel problems
crystallized intellegnce (Gc)
accumulated knowledge and verbal skills
dementia
marked by cognitive decline; loss of abiliy to care for onesself; lose the ability to recognize familiar people and surroundings;
alzhiemer's
most common typ of dementia; loss of episodic memory; diorientation; changes in personality; unclear what causes this right now
alzheimer's and vascular dementia: factors that can lower the risk
hearly diet and exercise
low cholesterol
avoiding smoking
increased intake of vitamins
approaces to intellegence
-information processing
-psychometric
-multiple intellegences
psychometric approach
-fator anaylsis
statistical techniques are used to define intellectual skills and abilities
-one statistical approach in psychometics is factor analysis
--looks for common factors -->items that correlate
--factors are named based on how the correltation pan out
factor analyisis and different theories of intellegence
SPEARMAN
factor analysis allows for extraction of a factor that is shared among a variety of intellegence taks

spearman proposed that one factor best described an individuals intellegence
-->general intellegence (G): general mental ablility

2 factor theory (g+specific)
factor analyisis and different theories of intellegence
THURSTONE (1938)
there is no g

there are 7 underlying factors of intellegence called primary mental ablities (word fluency, vernal comprehension, spatial ablity, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning, memory)
factor analyisis and different theories of intellegence
GUILFORD (1956)
proposed 150 distinct mental abilities
there mental abilities were characterized into terms of operations, contents, products
factor analyisis and different theories of intellegence
CATTELL and HORN
-fluid and crystalized intellegence
propsed that speamans g should be divided into fluid and crystalized intellegence

-gf: reasoning ability, memory, capacity, and speed of information processing
-gc: ability to apply acquired knowledge acquired knowledge and skills in problem solving
aging, gc and gf
gc increases with age
gf decreases with age
cognitive approach
simple cognitive sontructs like spped, memory, and attention have been used to explain the basic components of intellegence

althought many explanations exist, differences in basic cognition seem to be the most fruitful
reaction time and intellegence
high and low intellegences differ in reaction time

high intellegences have lower/better reactiont time
working memory, attention, and intellegence
--active span tasks
performance in tasks assessing working memory and attention correlate well with intellegence scores

--active span tasks: asses the ability to hold info online and manipulate it simulatanesouly
Gardner (1983)
THEORY OF MULTIPLE INTELLEGENCES
-gardener prosposed that there are 8 human intellegences
-looked at cognitive abilities in normal, brain damaged, and special populations
-claimed that 8intellegences were not correlated
-gardener notes that mental abilities appear to be independent
-brain damage alters one mental ability, but not others
-savants have differing levels of intellegence
-there are differing courses of developmental abilities
8 intellegences
musical
bodily/kinesthetic
spatial
verbal
mathematical
intra-personal
social (inter)
naturalist