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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
motivation
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned.
instinct
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
drive-reduction theory
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level.
homeostasis
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
incentive
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active.
hierarchy of needs
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.
glucose
hormones secreted by pancreas; controls blood glucose
insulin
protein secreted by fat cells; when abundant, causes brain to increase metabolism and decrease hunger.
leptin
hunger-triggering hormone secreted by hypothalamus
orexin
hormone secreted by empty stomach; sends "i'm hungry" signals to the brain
ghrelin
digestive tract hormone; sends "i'm not hungry" signals to the brain
PYY
the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.
set point
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure.
basal metabolic rate
an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15% or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
bulimia nervosa
the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson-excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
sexual response cycle
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm
refractory period
a problem that consistently impairs sexual arrousal or functioning.
sexual disorder
a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity.
estrogen
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
testosterone
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation)
sexual orientation
a completely involved, focused state of conscioiusness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills
flow
the application of psychological concepts & methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology
a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development
personnel psychology
a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change.
organizational psychology
interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales
structured interviews
a desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard
achievement motivation
goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals
task leadership
group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
social leadership