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84 Cards in this Set

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learning is relatively permamnemt change in behavior or mental processes resulting from practice or experience.
Classical Conditioning
most basic form of learning. It is the process of learning associations between enviromental stimuli and behavioral responses.
Ivan Pavlov
awarded nobel prize for his work on the role of salivia in digestion with dogs. He wanted to know whether dry food required more salivia than moist food and whether nonfood objects required varying amounts of salivia, depending on how hard it was to spit them out.
John Watson and Rosalie Rayner
there contribution to classical conditioning was with the infant little Albert and his conditioned fear of rats.
Unconditioned Stimulus
stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response with out previous conditioning (learning). With Pavlov's experiement this would be the food.
Unconditioned Response
unlearning reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs with out previous conditioning. This would be salivia of the dogs.
Neutral Stimulus
a stimulus that, before conditiong, does not naturally bring about the response of interest. This would be the sound of the bell.
Conditioned stimulus
previously neutral stimulus that, through repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus, now causes a conditioned response. The sound of the bell, now becomes the CS
Conditioned response
learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus. The unconditioned response, after conditoning, becomes the conditioned response.
Stimulus Generalization
learned response to stimuli that are like the original conditioned stimulus. ex. being afraid of police cars with lights on the roof, then being afraid of all cars with lights on the roof... you generalize to all cars
Stimulus Discrimination
learned response to a specific stimulus but not to other, simular stimuli. ex. knowing the sound of your ring tone, but not noticing the sound of others.
gradual weakening or suppresion of a previously conditioned response
Spontaneous Recovery
Reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response.
Higher-Order Conditioning
A neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus through repeated pairings with a previously conditioned stimulus. ex. Mcdonalds golden arches.
Operant Conditioning
Learning in which voluntary responses are controlled by their consequences
strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur. (primary, secondary) and (positive and negative)
weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur
Law of effect: and what theorist?
Thorndikes rule that the probability of an action being repeated is strengthened when it is followed by a pleasant or satifying consequence
Primary Reinforcers:
stimuli that increase the probability of a response because they satisfy a biological need, such as food, water, and sex.
Secondary Reinforcers
Stimuli that increase the probablity of a response because of their learned value, such as money and material possesions
Positive Reinforcement
adding (or presenting) a stimulus, which strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur.
Negative Reinforcement
taking away (or removing) a stimulus, which strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur.
Continuous Reinforcement
every correct response is reinforced. Leads to faster learning. Not an efficient way for long term behavior learning, therefore move on to partial reinforcement when task is well learned.
Partial Reinforcment
some, but not all, correct responses are reinforced. Move to partial reinforcement when a task is well learned.
Who are the two theorists for operant conditioning?
Thorndike and Skinner
Edward Thorndike
was among the first to examine how voluntary behaviors are influenced by their consequences. He put a cat inside a puzzle box. This led to Thorndikes Law of effect
B.F. Skinner
he extended Thorndikes law of effect to more complex behaviors. He says to understand behavior we must consider only observable, external, or enviromental stimuli and responses. He conducted symatic research. He trained a rat to push a lever to recieve a food pellet.
Shaping Process
In operant conditioning. Reinforcement delivered for successive approximations of the desired response.
What is the major difference bewtween operant and classical conditioning?
Classical learning is based on paired associations and is Involuntary, the subject is passive. Operant is learning based on consequences, and it voluntary, the subject is active.
Cogntive Social Learning Theory
Emphasizes the roles of thinking and social learning in behavior
Kohler posed different types of problems to Chimps and see how they learned to solve them. Monkey seemed to think about the situation of the banana for a bit, and then acted. Insight means a sudden understanding of a problem that implies the solution.
Cognitive map
a mental image of 3 dimensional space that an organism has navigated, a mental representation.
Who studied Cognitive Map?
Edward Toleman. His experiment was with rats placed in mazes seemed to pause at certain intersections as if they were deciding which route to take, no food reward.
Learned Helplessness
this is a side effect of punishment. Research shows that if you repeatedly fail in your attempt to control your environment, you aquire a general sense of powerlessness or learned helplessness,and you may make no further attmepts to escape.
Observational learning
learning new behavior or information by watching others (also known as social learning or modeling)
4 processes of Observational Learning
-Retention: carefully note and remember all directions and demonstrations
-Motor Reproduction: ob learning cannot occur if we lack motor skills to imitate our model.
-Reinforcement: we decide if we want to repeat the modeling behavior.
Albert Bandura
experiment to show if children are more aggresive by watching others be aggresive. The Bobo doll. "monkey see, monkey do"
Prejudice:Operant and Classical Learned?
it can be classically conditioned by seeing a parent become upset with blacks. Can be learned through operant because demeaning others can gain attention and sometimes approval from others, as well as increasings ones self-esteem(at victims expense)
an internal record or representation of some prior event or experience. It allows us to learn from our experiences and adapt to ever changing environment.
Memory is a what..?
It is a constructive process
Constructive Process
organizing and shaping of information during processing, storage, and retrieval of memories. This process leads to serious errors and biases discussed.
What are the flaws of memory?
our memories are highly falliable. they are not faithful storehouses or exact recordings of events.
What are the four models of memory?
-Information Processing Approach
-Parallel Distributed Processing Model
-Levels of Processing Approach
-Traditional Three-stage memory model
Information-Processing Approach (model)
memory is a process, like a computer it goes through 3 basic processes which are, encoding, storage, and retrieval.
Parallel Distributed Processing Model
memory is distributed across a wide network of interconnected neurons located throughout the brain. when activated, this networks simultaneously (in parallel fashion) to process information.
Levels of processing approach
shallow processing leads to little memory, whereas deeper processing adds meaning and greater memory.
Traditional 3 stage model
memory requires 3 different storage boxes or stages to hold and process info for vairous length of time. Sensory-hold info for very short interval.
short term-retains info for 30 sec or less
and long term provides relatively permanent storage.
translating information into neural codes (language)
Retaining neurally coded information over time
recovering info from memory storage
How can you increase the duration of short term memory
If you consciously and repeatedily repeat information over and over again which is called MAINTENANCE REHEARSAL. And also by CHUNKING- grouping seperate pieces of information into a single unit (or chunk)
What are the 3 parts to the Short Term (working) Memory?
-Visuospacial Sketchpad
-Phonological rehearsal loop
-Central executive
Parts of our Long term Memory are..
2 components in long term memory: Explicit, and Implicit.
Parts of our Explicit (declarative) memory are..and definition
Explicit is memory with conscious recall. 2 components: Semantic:facts and general knowledge, and Episodic: personal experiences and events.
What is Implicit (Nondeclarative) memory and its components?
Implicit is memory without conscious recall. 3 components: Procedural: motor skills, and habits (how to ride bike). Classically Conditioned: conditioned responses to conditioned stimuli.(phobias) Priming: earlier exposure facilitates retrieval (fear after reading a scarey book)
What are ways of improving long term memory?
Oranganization, Elaborative Rehearsal, Retrieval Cues
Encoding specificity Principle
retreival of info is improved when conditions of recovery are similar to the conditions when info was encoded.
3 important research findings related to the encoding principle may help you improve your exam scores.
-Context and retrieval(same place, same everything)
-Mood Congruence: a mood tends to evoke memories that are consistent with that mood .
-State dependant retrieval: if you take a drug and learn, then take again, and you will remember info more easily.
What did Herman Ebbinghass do?
did an experiment to measure memory performance by calculating how long it took him to learn a list of non syllables.
What are the 5 key theories to forgetting?
-Decay theory (memory degrades with time)
-Interference Theory (caused by one memory competing with or trying to replace another memory.
-Motivated Forgetting Theory
-Encoding Failure Theory: failure to remember the details
-Retrieval Failure Theory: (blanked out during a test, and remembered it later)
Factors that contribute to fogetting
-Serial Position Effect: remembering words at beginning and end better than in the middle.
-Source Amnesthia:forgetting the true source of memory(sourse confusion)
-Sleeper Effect:
-Spacing of practice: distributed practice-taking breaks between studying so it can help you remember. Massed practice means you crammed information which will cause you to forget.
What are two types of Amnesthia?
Retrograde:loss of memory for events before a brain injury; backward acting amnesthia.
Anterograde Amnesia: Inability to form new memories after a brain injury; forward acting amnesia.
What is Alzheimers
a progessive mental deterioration that occurs most commonly in later life.
How can we improve our memory?
-Pay attention and reduce interference
-Use rehearsal techniques
-Improve your organization
-counteract the serial position effect(spend more time with info in the middle)
-Manage your time
-Use the encoding specificity principle
Mental activities involved in acquring, storing, retrieving, and using knowledge
3 basic components of Cognition
1. Mental images
2. concepts
3. language
Three major strategies of Concept:
-Artificial Concept
-Natural Concepts/prototypes
Artificial Concept
we group together and classify all three sided geometric forms as triangles. Rules for conclusion are sharply defined.
Natural concepts/prototypes
Prototype: a representation of the "best" or most typical example of a category. (ex. baseball is a prototype of the concept of sports
in which specific concepts are grouped as subcategories within broader concepts.
mental representation of a group or category that shares similar characteristics. (ex. the concept of river groups together the Nile, etc. )
3 steps to problem Solving
1. Preparation
2. Production
3. Evaluation
What are the barriers to problem solving?
-mental sets
-functional fixedness
-confirmation bias
-the availability beuristic
-the representative beuristic
Mental Set
Persisting in using problem solving strategies that have worked in the past rather than trying new ones.
Functional Fixedness
Tendency to think of an object functioning only in its usual or customary way
Confirmation Bias
Preferring information that confirms preexisting positions or beliefs, while ignoring or discounting contradictory evidence
Availability Heuristic
Judging the likelihood or probability of an event based on how readily available other instances of the event are in memory.
Representative Heuristic
Estimating the probability of something based on how well the circumstances match (or represent) our previous prototype.
the ability to produce valued outcomes in a novel way
Creative thought is characterized with three special characteristics
Divergent Thinking
thinking that produces many alternatives or ideas; a major element of creativity (ex. finding as many uses as possible for a paper clip)
Convergent Thinking
Narrowing down a list of alternatives to converge on a single correct answer (ex. standard academic tests generally require convergent thinking)
Form of communication using sounds and symbols combined according to specified rules.
The building blocks of language
-Phonemes(smallest unit of sound that make up every language)
-Morphemes(smallest unit that carry meaning; are created by combining phonemes)
-Grammar(system of rules)
Syntax:a sysem of rules for putting words in order
Semantics:A system of using words to create meaning