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120 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Psychology
The scientific behavior and mental processes
Things psychologists study
dreams, behavior, reachions, emotions, development, etc
verifiable
you can confirm/verify results .. seen in research
reliability
same info over time with different obserevers
vailidity
measure is valid if it says what its supposed to
cumulative
builds on past research
purblic
the results need to be available to science and society
parsimonious
simplistic - keep things simple
variable
any aspect of a situation that can change or vary
descriptive research
summarize and organize large things of data
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control
laboratory observation
research and do behavior in controlled settings use more precise stuff for results
participant reactivity
observers presence may alter behavior
experimenter expectancy effects
person in charge interperts data to fit there own expectations
case study
descriptive research - individual or a small group in depth over a period of time
Survey
Information about some behavior across large populations
Population vs. sampling
group of people you want to make a statement about
sampling- the people you actually want to test
random sampling
a sample that fairly represents a population cuz each member has an equal chance of inclusion
meta analysis
procedure for statistically combining the result of many different research studies
correlational research
describing strengh of relationship
correlation
systematic change in one by change in another
magnitude
how strong is the relationship. closer to one -its stronger.
independent variable
expiriment factor that is manipulated; the variables whose effect is being studied
dependent variable
the outcome facor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
empiricism
the view that knowledge comes from sense and science flourishes the observation and experience
structuralism
an early school of psychology that used inrospection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind.
functionalism
a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable organisms to adapt, flourish and survive.
singmund frued
famous personality theorist and therapist whose ideas influence humanities self understanding
humanistic pyschology
historically significan perspective that emphasized growth potential, healthy people used methods to study personal in hopes of fostering personal growth
basic research
pure science that aims to increase scientific knowledge base
basic research
pure science that aims to increase scientific knowledge base
applied research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
clinical psychologists
a branch of psychology that studies assesses and treats ppl with psychological disorders
counseling psychologists
branch of psychology that assists people with problems often living conditions
psyschiatrist
branch of medicine dealing with psycological disorders practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as therapy
standard deviation
computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
statistical significance
statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occured by chance
nuerons
specialize in communication - exchange signals, link senses, organs, muscles and glands to brain
glial cells
give to hold nervous system together nourish nuerons and get rid of waste
dendrites
short branches - recieve info from nearby nuerons
soma or cell body
where message is interperted
axon
single long fiber that transmits message
terminal buttons
storage where chemical substance and nuerotransmitters
snyapse
gap between cells
myelin sheath
fatty covering that coats length of axon
nodes of ranvier
speeds up rate of traveling message. unmylinated
sensory nuerons
make initial contact with the environment carry message inward toward spinal cord and brain
internuerons
make no contact with environment convey into from one internal process sight to another
motor nuerons
carry message away from the brain and spinal cord take to muscles and glands that produce response.
threshold
level of stimulation needed to trigger nural impulse
resisting potential
inactive and holds slightly negative charge - fires impulse
action potential
elecrtical impulse that travels along axon. speed of transmission depends on number of factors
reuptake
total buttons reabsorb/take up nuero transmitters
agonists
excitye by mimicing a certain nuerto transmitter or blocking reuptake
antagonists
oppose or block the action of nuerotransmitters inhibit affects
serotonin
affects mood hunger sleep and arousal
dopamine
influences movement attention and arousal
norepinphrine
helps control alertness and arousal
acetycholine
enables muscle action learning and memory
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
sensory and motor nuerons that connect central nervous system to rest of body
somatic system
division of peripheral nervous system that controls bodys skeletal muscles
autonomic systerm
controls glands and muscles of internal organs
sympathetic division
division of autonomic nervous system - arouses body during stress
parasympathetic divison
calms body - conserving energy
corpus collosum
fiber connecting two cerebral hemispheres
frontal lobe
involved in speaking muscle movements and judgement
parietal lobes
recieves input for touch and body position
temporal lobes
auditory area that recieves info primarily from other ear
occipital lobes
recieves visual info
medulla
base of brain stem that controls hearbeat and breathing
pons
relay sensory info between cerebellum and cerembrum - dreams?
reticular formation
nerve network in breainstream that plays important part in arousal
cerebellum
processing sensory input and coordination movement output and balance
amygadala
components of limbic system linked to emotion
right hemispher
spacial
left hemisphere
verbal
split brain patients
corpus collosum severed - seizures
endocrine system
set of glands that secretes hormones into blood stream "slow"
adrenal glands
secrete hormones ephinphrene and norphinene which arouses body in times of stress
pituitary gland
most influencial gland, regulates growth and controls endocrine glands
lesion
tissue destruction. - of brain tissue
behavior genetics
study of the relative power and limits of genetic environmental influences on behavior
chromosome
threadlike structures made up of dna molecules that contain genes
dna
complex molecule containing genetic info that makes up chromosomes
genes
make up chromosomes, a segment of dna capable of synthesizing protein
genome
complete instructions for making an organism consisting of all genetic material in organsims chromosomes
temprament studies
a persons characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
heritability
proportion of variation amoung individuals that we can attribute to genes. varys on range of pop. and environment studied
gene-environment interactions
effect one another - environment effects another factor such as heredity
evolutionary psychology
study of evolution behavior and mind using principals of natural selection
natural selection
principal that among the range of inherited trait, variations those that lead to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
mutation
a random error in gene replication that leads to change
sensation
process where sensory receptors in nervous system recieve and represent stimulus energies from our environment
perception
process of organizing and interperting sensory info
psychophysics
relationship between sensation and perception
detection
actively sensing a stimulus
absolute threshold
minimum intensity necessary for a stimulus to detect the time its present
method of limits
start with weak stimulus
discrimination
difference threshold being able to detect the difference between a stimuli and another
difference threshold
amount of change needed in order for us to detect the difference
weber's law
strong the original stimulus is youd need to produce jnd
visual transduction
physical energy strikes receptor cells in the eye which sends nueral impulse to brain
wavelength
physical distance from one energy cycle to the next
amplitude
height of wave
frequency
rate at which wave peaks move past a given point
cornea
transparent outercovering that protects the eye
iris
ring of colored tissue
lens
flexible piece of tissue that helps focus light on the back of eye
accomodation
focusing on things by change the shape of lens
retina
thin layer of tissue in the back of the eye
rods
120 million receptor cells - register shades of gray, more sensitive, useful at night, along sides of retina
cones
6 million receptor cells - color vision - high level of light - give better sharpness in center of retina
optic nerve
where optic nerve leaves eye
dark adaptation
might takes eyes 30 minutes or more to adapt to darkness
short wavelengths
blue
medium wavelengths
greens
long wave length
reds
trichomatic theory
retina has 3 types of color receptors
opponent process theory
blue-yellow
green-red
white-black