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107 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
psychology
the scientific study of behavior and mental process
critical thinking
the process of objectively evaluating,comparing,analyzing,and synthesizing
psycholgists have four goals
description tells what occurred, explanation tells why, predication which the behavior or event is to occurr, change prevent unwanted outcomes or bring a desirable goal
nature-nature controversy
ongoing dispute over the relative contributions of nature(heredity) and nuture(environment)to the development of behavior and mental process.
interaction
a process in which multiple factors influence one another and the outcome-as in the interaction between heredity and environment
psychanalytic/psychodynamic perspective
theoretical orientation that focuses on unconscious determinants of behavior and unresolved past conflicts.
behavioristic perspective
theoretical orientation that emphasizes objective,observable,environmental influences on overt behavior.
HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE
theoretical orientation that emphasizes free will,self-actualization,and human nature as naturally positive and growth seeking.
COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE
theoretical orientaion that focus on thought,perception,and information processing
NEUROSCIENCE/BIOPSYCHOLOGY PERSPECTIVE
theoretical orientaion that emphasizes genetics and biological process in the brain and other parts of the nervous system.
EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE
theoretical perspective that focuses on natural selection,adaptation,evolution of behavior and mental process.
SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
theoretical perspective that emphasizes social interaction and culture determinants of behavior and mental process.
BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL MODEL
a unifying theme of modern psychology that considers biological,psychological,and social process.
BASIC RESEARCH
research conducted to advance scientific knowledge rather than practical application.
APPLIED RESEARCH
research designed to solve practical problems.
THEORY
an interrelated set of concepts explains a body of data.
OPERATIONAL DEF
a precise description of how the variables in a study will be observed and measured.
META-ANALYSIS
statistical procedure for combining and analyzing data from studies.
DEBRIEFING
informing participants after the research about the purpose of the study.
EXPERIMENT
carefully controlled scientific procedure that determines whether variables manipulated by the experimenter.
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
variable that is manipulated to determine its casual effect on the dependent vaiable.
DEPENDENT VARIABLE
variable that is measured; it is affected by (or dependent on)the independent variable.
EXPERIMENTAL GROUP
group that recieves a treatment in an experiment.
CONTROL GROUP
group that recieves no treatment in an experiment.
EXPERIMENTER BIAS
occurrs when researcher influences research results in the expected direction.
DOUBLE-BLIND STUDY
a procedure in which both the researcher and the participants are unaware of who is in the experimental or control group.
PLACEBO
an inactive substance or fake treatment used as a control technique.
ETHNOCENTRISM
believing that one's culture is typical of all cultures also viewing one's own ethic group as central and correct.
SAMPLE BIAS
occurs when research participants are not representative of the larger population.
RANDOM ASSIGNMENT
assignment of participants to experimental conditions on the basis of chance.
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
research methods that observe and record behavior without producing casual explanations.
NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION
observation and recording of behavior in the participants natural state or habitat.
SURVEY
research technique that assesses behaviors and attitudes of a sample or population usually by asking or self-reporting.
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
any scientific studu in which the researcher observes or measures two or more variables to find the relationship between them.
CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
number that indicates the degree and direction of the relationships between the two variables.
BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH
scientific studies of the brain and other parts of the nervous system.
NEUROSCIENCE
an interdisciplinary field studying how biological processes relate to behavioral and mental process.
BEHAVIORAL GENETICS
the study of the relative effects of heredity and environment on behavior and mental process.
EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY
branch of psychology that studies the ways in which natural selection and adaptation can explain behavior and mental processes.
CHROMOSOME
threadlike molecule of dna that carries genetic information.
GENE
a segement of dna that occupies a specific place on a particular chromosome and carries the code for hereditary transmission.
METHODS FOR STUDYING INHERITANCED IN HUMANS
twin studies,family studies,adoption studies.
HERITABILITY
a measure of the degree to which a characteristic is related to genetic,inherrited factors.
NATURAL SELECTION
driving mechanism behind evolution that allows individuals with genetically influenced traits that are adaptive in particular environment to stay alive and produce offspring.
NEURON
cell of the nervous sys responsible for recieving and transmitting electrochemical information.
GLIAL CELLS
cells that provide structural,nutritional,and other support for the neurons,as well as communication within the nervous sys, also called glia
DENDRITES
branching neuron structures that recieve neural impulses from other neurons and convey impulses toward the cell body,also recieves sensory receptors.
CELL BODY
part of the neuron that contains cells nucleus as well as other structures that help the neuron carry out its function also known as soma.
AXON
long tubelike structure that conveys impulses away from the neuron's cell body toward other neurons or to muscles or glands.
MYELIN SHEATH
layer of fatty insulation wrapped around axon of some neurons,which increase the rate at which nerve impulses travel along axon.
ACTION POTENTIAL
neural impulse that carries information along axon of the neuron,the action potential is generated when positively charged ions move in and out through channels in axon membrane.
SYNAPSE
junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the recieving neuron,during an action potential,chemicals called neurotransmitters are released and flow across the synaptic gap.
NEUROTRANSMITTERS
chemicals released by neurons that affect other neurons.
SEROTONIN
affects mood,sleep,appetite,sensory perception,temp,pain suppression,implusivity,and aggression.
ACETYLCHOLINE
affects muscle action,cognitive functioning,memory,rapid eye movement.
DOPAMINE
affects movement,attention,memory,learning,and emotion,too much DA is associated with Schizophrenia,too little Parkinson
EPINEPRINE
affects emotional arousal,memory storage,and metabolism.
GABA (GAMMA AMINOBUTYRIC ACID)
neural inhibition in central nervous sys,tranq valium increases anxiety
ENDORPHINS
elevate mood,reduce pain,and affect memory,learning
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
collection of glands located throughout the body that manufacture and secrete hormones into bloodstream. ex.pineal glands,hypothalamus,pituitary,parathyroid,thyroid,thymus,adrenal,stomach,pancres,ovary,testes
HORMONES
chemical manufactored by endocrine glands and circulated in the bloodstream to produce bodily changes or maintain normal bodily functions.
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
the brain and spinal cord..
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
all nerves and neurons connecting the central nervous system to rest of the body
SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYS
readies the body to respond to threat.
PARASYMPATHTIC NERVOUS SYS
calms the body and conserves energy.
SOMATIC NERVOUS SYS
subdivision of the peripheral nervous sys that connects to sensory receptors and controls skeletal muscles.
SENSORY NEURONS
transmitt messages from sense organs to central nervous sys also known as affreent neurons.
MOTOR NEURONS
transmitt from cns to organs,muscles,glands also affrent neurons.
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYS
subdivision of peripheral nervous sys that controls involuntary functions such as heart rate.
SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYS
subdivision of autonomic nervous sys,responsible for arousing the body,mobilizing it's energy during times of stree, called fight or flight.
PARASYPMATHETIC NERVOUS SYS
subdivision of autonomic nervous sys responsible for calming the body.
BRAINSTEM
area of the brain that houses parts of the hindbrain,midbrain,forebrain,regulates reflex activities such as heart rate and respiration.
LOCALIZATION OF FUNCTION
spec of various parts of the brain for particular functions.
HINDBRAIN
collection of brain structures inc the medulla,pons,cerebellum.
CEREBELLUM
hindbrain structure resp for coord fine muscle movement,physical balance,some aspects of perception.
MIDBRAIN
collection of brain structures in middle of brain resp for coordinating movement patterns,sleep,arousal.
RETICULAR FORMATION
diffuse set of neurons that screens incoming info and arouses the cortex.
FOREBRAIN
collection of upper level brain structures inc thalamus,hypothalamus,limbic sys, cerebral cortex.
THALAMUS
forebrain structure at top of brain stem that relays sensory messages to cerebral cortex.
HYPOTHALAMUS
small brain structure beneath the thalamus that maintains bodys internal environment and regulates emotions,drives,such as hunger,thirst,sex.
LIMBIC SYS
interconnected group of forebrain structures involved with the arousal and regulation of emotion,motivation.
FRONTAL LOBES
two lobes front of the brain governing motor control,speech production,higher functions such as thinking,personality,emotion.
PARIETAL LOBES
two lobes at top of brain where bodily sensations are interpreted.ex pressure,pain,touch,temp.
TEMPORAL LOBES
two lobes on each side of brain above the ears that involve hearing,lang comprehension,memory.
OCCIPITAL LOBES
two lobes at the back of the brain resp for vision,visual perception.
ASSOCIATION AREAS
so-called quiet areas of the cerebral cortex involved interpreting,intergratting,and acting on info processed by other parts of the brain.
LATERALIZATION
spec of the left and right hemisphers of the brain for particular operations.
SPLIT BRAIN
surgical seperation of the brain's two hemispheres used medically to treat severe epilepsy.
CORPUS CALLOSUM
bundle of nerve fibers connecting the brain's left and right hemisphere.
NEUROPLASTICITY
brain's ability to reorganize and change it's structure and function throughout lifespan.
NEURGENESIS
division and differentation of nonneuronal cells to produce neurons.
STEM CELL
immature cells that give birth to new spec cells; a stem cell holds all the info it needs to make bone,blood,brain-any part of a human body.
EUSTRESS
pleasant,desirable stress.
DISTRESS
unpleasant,objectionable stress.
HASSLES
small problems of daily living.
APPROCH-APPROACH CONFLICT
having to choose between two or more desirable alt.
AVIODANCE-AVOIDANCE CONFLICT
forced choice between two or more undesirable alt.
APPROACH-AVOIDANCE CONFLICT
forced choice between 2 or more alt,both have desirable and undesirable results.
HPA AXIS
HYPOTHALAMUS,PITUITARY GLAND,ADRENAL CORTEX WHICH ARE ACTIVATED BY STRESS.
PSYCHONEUROIMMUNOLOGY
interdisciplinary field that studies the effects of psychological factors on immune sys.
GENERAL ADAPTION SYNDROME
Selye's three phase (alarm,resistance,and exhaustion reaction to severe stress.
TYPE A PERSONALITY
intense ambition,competetion,exaggerated time urgency,hostile outlook.
TYPE B PERSONALITY
calm,relaxed attitude.
HARDINESS
resilient personalilty inc strong commitment to personal goals,control over life,viewing change as a challenge.
POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER
exposure to life threating or other extreme event that evoked great horror of helplessness,flashbacks,nightmares.
ERXTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL
believing that chance or outside forces beyond one's control determines one fate.
INTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL
believing that one controls one's own fate.