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29 Cards in this Set

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Chromosomes
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
DNA
(Deoxyribonucleic acid) a complex module containing the gentic informationthat makes up the chromosomes.
Genes
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protien.
Genome
the complete instructions for making an orgainsm, consisting of all the genetic material in its chromosomes. The human genome had 3 billion weekly bonded pairs of nucleotides orgainzed as coiled chains of DNA
Natural selection
The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
Mutations
a random error in gene replication that leads to a change in the sequence of nucleotides; the source of all genetic diversity
Evolutionary Pshchology
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind,using principles of natural selection. Natural selection has favored genes that designed both behavioral tendencies and information processing systems that solved adaptive problems faced by our ancestors, thus contributing to the survival and spread of their genes
Gender
In psychology, the charasteristics, whether biochemically or socially influenced, by which people define male or female
Behavior genetics
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and enviromental influences on behavior
Environment
Every nongenetic influence from prenatal nution to the people and things around us
Identical Twins
Twins who develop from a single fertillized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical orgainsms.
Fraternal Twins
Twins who develop from seprate eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal enviroment.
temperament
a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.
Heritability
The proportion of variation among indivuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and the enviroment studied
Interaction
the dependence of the effect of one factor on another factor
Molecular genetics
The subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes
Culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes and traditions, shared by alarge group of people and transimited from one generation to the next
Norms
An understood rule for accepted and expected behavior
Personal space
The buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies.
Memes
self-replicating ideas, fashions, and innovations passed from person to person.
X chromosome
the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromoses, males have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child.
Y chromosome
THe sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child
testosterone
The most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testrone in males simulates the growth of male sex organs in the fetus and the development of male sex characteristics during puberty
role
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
gender role
a set of expected behaviors for males and females.
gender identity
one's sense of being male or female.
Gender-typing
the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminene role
Social Learning Theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
Gender Schema Theory
the theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly