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61 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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From anterior to posterior, what are the five swellings that compose the developing brain at birth?
telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, myelencephalon
Diana Dukovcic
In what four ways are drugs usually administered by?
organ ingestion, by injection, by inhalation, by absorption through mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, or rectum
Diana Dukovcic
Where are glucocorticoids released from as part of the stress response?
adrenal cortex
Diana Dukovcic
What is the most general relay station?
Thalamus
Blaine Muhl
the LGN is composed of what two layers?
Magnocellular and Parvocellular
Blaine Muhl
T/F: For every 4 rods there is about 1 ganglion cell
TRUE
Blaine Muhl
What are the motor programs of the secondary motor cortex?
Typing, driving a car, writing
Blaine Muhl
What does the basal ganglia receive input from?
Multiple cortical regions and substantia nigra
Blaine Muhl
Ascending signal
goes from the bottom up. Information from the environment to receptors to spinal cord to cortex
Blaine Muhl
2 Dorsolateral tracts
Dorsolateral corticospinal tract, dorsolateral corticrubrospinal tract
Blaine Muhl
Two ascending pathways in the brain
Dorsal column medial lemniscus system and anterolateral system
Blaine Muhl
NTs are stored in
Vesicles
Blaine Muhl
All psychoactive drugs are ____ agonists
dopamine
Blaine Muhl
Dopamine is synthesized by what?
Tyrosine
Blaine Muhl
T/F: Dopamine is excitatory and inhibitory depending on the location in the brain
TRUE
Blaine Muhl
Why are drugs addictive?
Positive incentive, discontinuation syndrome, association between doing something and the drug (habit)
Blaine Muhl
Alcohol_____the heart rate and ______ the release of dopamine
depresses, increases
Blaine Muhl
Duchenne smile
real smile
Blaine Muhl
pyramidal smile
fake smile
Blaine Muhl
Physiological responses to fear
increase BP, heart rate increase, digestive system shuts down, pupils dilate, sweating
Blaine Muhl
What is referred to as the "Master Gland"
Pituitary
Blaine Muhl
The vertebrae nervous system is composed of two divisions:
CNS and PNS
Blaine Muhl
Divisions of PNS
somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
Blaine Muhl
What are three techniques for comparing affects of left-hemisphere and right-hemisphere lesions?
Sodium amytal test, dichotic listening test, and functional brain imaging
Kristen Lervik
What happened to the cook who had prefrontal cortex damage?
She could not carry out various steps in proper sequence to make even a simple meal.
Kristen Lervik
How did the World War 1 veteran regain his manhood, or be able to achieve erections?
Doctors injected testosterone, known as testosterone replacement therapy, into his penis muscles.
Kristen Lervik
What are the two divisions of the mesencephalon?
tectum and tegmentum
Brian LeSage
NMDA is a receptor for what neurotransmitter?
Glutamate
Brian LeSage
What are the three main causes of cerebral ischemia?
Thrombosis (plug formed at the site and blocks blood flow).

Embolism (plug is carried from somewhere else and lodged)

Arteriosclerosis (blood vessel walls thicken and channels narrow)
Laura White
What is the most common cause of dementia?
Alzheimer's disease
Laura White
_______ is the inability to smell and _______ is the inability to taste.
Anosmia (inability to smell)
Ageusia (inability to taste)
Laura White
Loss of memory for events or information learned before the amnesia-inducing brain injury.
Retrograde amnesia
Haley Hoffman
Loss of memory for events occurring after the amnesia-inducing brain injury.
Anterograde amnesia
Haley Hoffman
Amnesia for information presented in all sensory modalities.
Global Amnesia
Haley Hoffman
Temporary memory that is necessary for the performance of tasks on which one is currently working is called______ memory.
Working Memory
Emily Gatewood
Memory for the general principals and skills that are required to perform a task is called_____memory.
Reference Memory
Emily Gatewood
Via what process are memories transferred from short-term to long-term?
Consolidation
Emily Gatewood
Evidence suggests children sometimes display____memory for events from their early childhood for which they have no _____memory.
Implicit; Explicit
Emily Gatewood
afferent nerves carry information to ______, while efferent nerves carry information to _______.
brain, organs
Kelly Doran
The forebrain is made up of the _____ and the ______.
Telencephalon (cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, limbic system) and the Diencephalon (hypothalamus, thalumus, pituitary)
Kelly Doran
The midbrain is made up of the _____ which is split into the _______ and _______.
Mesencephalon= tectum and tegmentum
Kelly Doran
The hindbrain is made up of the _________ and the _______.
Metencephalon (cerebellum and pons) and the Myencephalon (medulla)
Kelly Doran
Homogenizing forces seek to....
equalize the charge of the inside of the cell with the charge outside of the cell.
Kelly Doran
What is resting potential of the cell and when does this turn into the threshold of excitation?
-70 mv, when it becomes -65 mv.
Kelly Doran
During ESPS a _______ channel opens causing _____. During ISPS a _____ channel opens causing _______.
Na+, depolarization---- Cl-, hyperpolarization
Kelly Doran
Transmission of Action Potential is faster on myelinated neurons because they have ______.
Nodes of Ranvier
Kelly Doran
Psychoactive drugs influence experience and behavior by acting on what?
the nervous system
Kelly Doran
The function of dopamine transporters is what?
The reuptake of dopamine
Kelly Doran
Dorsal stream runs from primary visual cortex to the parietal lobe and deals with the "____" factor, while the ventral stream runs from V1 to the temporal lobe and deals with the "_____" factor.
where, what
Kelly Doran
The organization of the _____ somatosensory cortex is somatotopic.
primary
Kelly Doran
What type of brain imaging provides both structural and functional information?
An MRI
Kelly Doran
What type of atlas do scientists use to determine the location of specific structures of the brain before lab experiments?
A Stereotaxic atlas
Kelly Doran
The master or the master gland is the _____, just below this is the _______.
pituitary gland, hypothalmus
Kelly Doran
What are the two steps of manufacturing of a neurotransmitter?
Synthesis, and storage in vesicles
Jamie Fraser
Where does transmission occur?
terminal button
Jamie Fraser
What are the three steps of transmission?
exocytosis, binding/activation,deactivation
Jamie Fraser
When an action potential reaches the terminal button and causes the release of a neurotransmitter it is called
exocytosis
Jamie Fraser
What is the process called when a NT diffuses across the synaptic cleft?
Binding/activation
Jamie Fraser
What is it called when NT's depolarize or hyperpolarize the membrane of the next neuron?
Post-synaptic potential
Jamie Fraser
Ionotropic is _______ activation
direct
Jamie Fraser
Metabotropic is _____ activation
indirect
Jamie Fraser