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83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Three types of neurons
sensory, motor and interneurons
What type of neuron is input from sensory organs to the brain and spinal cord
sensory neurons
What type of neuron is output from the brain and spinal cord to he muscles and glands
Motor neurons
What neurons carry information between other nerons only found in the brain and spinal cord
interneurons
What part of the neuron contains the cells nucleus
Cell body
What part of the neuron contains the DNA.
Cell body
What part of the neuron is responsible for protein manufacturing
cell body
What part of the neuron is responsible for direcing metabolism
Cell body
This part of the neuron has no role in neural signaling
cell body
What part of the neuron is considered the informatino collectors
dendrites
What part of the neuron receives inputs from neighborning neurons
dendrites
The neurons output structre is called the
axon
How many axons are present per cell
One
This part of the neuron has a white fatty casing
myelin sheath and nodes of Ranvier
This part of the neuron acts as an electrical insulator.
myelin sheath and nodes of Ranvier
This increases the spead of neural signals down the axon
myelin sheath and nodes of Ranvier
These branch out from the axon
terminal branches and buttons
This is responsile for sending neurotransmitters to other neurons and cells
terminal branches and buttons
This holds neurotransmitters and releases only to appropriate cells
terminal buttons
Neurons communicate by means of an electrical signal called
action potential
These are based on movements of ions between the outside and inside of the cell
action potential
Gap between terminal buttons and dendrites
synapse
Action potential within a neuron occurs with channels that open and close, what chemical comes in and what goes out
sodium in, potassium out
This causes vesicles to open
action potential
What is presynaptic
info to send
What is postsynaptic
info to receive
This increases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will activate.
excitatory message
This decreases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will activate
inhibitory message
What function does acetylcholine invole
memory
What function does dopamine involve
movement/thought
What function does serotonin involve
emotion/sleep
What function does Norepinephrine involve
physical arousal/learning
What function does GABA involve
inhibition of brain activity/anxiety
What function does endorphins involve
pain preception nd positive emotions
Parkinson's is caused by a loss of what neurotransmitter
dopamine
Dopamine imbalance also is involved in what mental condition
schizophrenia
What neurotransmitter is involved with sleep and depression
serotonin
Central nervous system is made up of what
brain and spinal cord
This carries messages to and from the CNS
peripheral nervous system
Controls voluntary muscles and transmits sensory info to CNS
somatic nervous system
This nervous system controls involuntary body functions
autonomic nervous system
This arouses bodyto expend energy
sympathetic nervous system
This calms body to conserve and maintain energy
parasymphathetic nervous system
The pituitary, adrenal and gonads make up what
endocrine system
This is attached to the base of the brain, hormones affect the function of other glands
pituitary
What gland produces hormones involved in human stress response
adrenal glands
What gland produces hormones that regulate sexual characteristics and reproductive processes
gonads
The brain stem is made up of what two structures
hindbrain and midbrain
The thalamus, limbic system and cerebral cortex make up what brain structure
Forebrain
The hindbrain structure of the brain contain
Pons, cerebellum, reticular formation, and medulla
This part of the brain coordinates rapid voluntary movements
cerebellum
This part of the brin is responsible for breathing, heart rate, digestion and other vital reflexes
medulla
This part of the brain helps coordinate movements on the left and right sides of the body
pons
This part of the brain is responsible for sleep and arousal as well as attention
retiular formation
The thalamus, limbic system and cerebral cortex make up what structure in the brain
forebrain
A group of forebrain structures that form a border around the brainstem and are involved in emotion, motivation, learning and memory
limbic system
This part of the limbic system maintains homeostasis
hypothalamus
This part of the limbic system links the endocrine system to the brain and regulates eating and drinking
hypothalamus
Structure in the limbic system responsible for emotion
amygdala
Strucgture in the limbic system responsible for memory
thalamus
This part of the brain coordinates rapid voluntary movements
cerebellum
This part of the brain is responsible for breathing, heart rate, digestion and other vital reflexes
medulla
This part of the brain helps coordinate movements on the left and right sides of the body
pons
This part of the brain is responsible for sleep and arousal as well as attention
retiular formation
The thalamus, limbic system and cerebral cortex make up what structure in the brain
forebrain
A group of forebrain structures that form a border around the brainstem and are involved in emotion, motivation, learning and memory
limbic system
This part of the limbic system maintains homeostasis
hypothalamus
This part of the limbic system links the endocrine system to the brain and regulates eating and drinking
hypothalamus
Structure in the limbic system responsible for emotion
amygdala
Strucgture in the limbic system responsible for memory
hippocampus
This part of the limbic system is responsible for processing info from the senses
thalamus
This is the relay station and processes info to and from higher brain centers
thalamus
Notion that different functions are located in different areas of the brain
localization
Notion that different functions are processed primarily on one side of the brain or the other
lateralization
This hemisphere is responsible for language, speech, reading, writing
left hemisphere
This hemisphere is responsible for nonverbal emotional expression and visual-spatial tasks
right hemisphere
Partial or complete inability to articulare ideas or understand language
aphasia
This plays a role in speech production
Broca's area
This plays a role in understanding and meaningful speech
Wernike's area
This lobe of the cortex is the largest lobe. Involves thinking, planning, and emotinoal control
frontal lobe
This lobe of the cortex is receiving area for auditory info
temporal lobe
This lobe of the cortex is receiving area for visual info
occipital lobe
This lobe of the cortex processes somatic info
parietal lobe