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48 Cards in this Set

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A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
Motivation
A complex behavior that is rigidly, patterned through a species and is unlearned
Instinct
Attempts to explain behavior as arising from a physiological need that creates aroused tension state (drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
Drive-reduction theory
The body's tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state
Homeostasis
Positive or negative environmental stimuli
Incentives
Proposes that human motives may be ranked from the basic, physiological level through higher-level needs for safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization; until they are satisfied, the more basic needs are more compelling than higher-level ones
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Blood sugar, is the major source of energy for the body's tissues, elevating level of this in the body will reduce hunger
Glucose
An individual's regulated weight level, which is maintained by adjusting food intake and energy output
Set point
The body's base rate of energy expenditure when resting
Basal metabolic rate
Eating disorder, most common in adolescent females, in which a person restricts food intake to become significantly underweight and yet still feels fat
Anorexia nervosa
An eating disorder characterized by private "binge-purge" episodes overeating followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive execise
Bulimia nervosa
Described by Masters and Johnson consists of four stages of bodily reation: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
Sexual response cycle
Resting period after orgasm, during which a male cannot be aroused to another orgasm
Refactory period
Problem- such as erectile disorder, premature ejaculation, and orgasmic disorder- that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning
Sexual disorder
A sex hormone secreted in greater amounts by females than by males. Peaks during ovulation and triggers sexual receptivity
Estrogen
Refers to a person's enduring attraction to members of either the same or the opposite gender
Sexual orientation
State of focused consciousness on a task that optimally engages a person's skills, often accompanied by a diminished awareness of self and time
Flow
Subfield of psychology that studies and advises on issues related to optimizing behavior in work-places
Industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology
A subfield of industrial-organizational psychology that applies psychological methods and principles to the selctection and evaluation of workers
Personnel psychology
A subfield of industrial-organizational psychology that explores how work environments and management styles affect worker motivation, satisfaction, and productivity
Organizational psychology
Interview in which an interviewer asks the same job-relevant questions of all interviewees, who are then rated on established evaluation scales
Structured interview
A desire for signifcant accomplishment; mastery of things, people or ideas; and attaining a high standard
Achievement motivation
Goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals
Task leadership
Group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
Social leadership
Managers assume that employees are basically lazy, error-prone, and extrinsically motivated by money and, thus, should be directed from above
Theory X
Managers assume that, under the proper conditions, employees are intrinsically motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence
Theory Y
A repsonse of the whole organism invloving three components (1) physical arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience
Emotion
States that emotional experiences are based on an awareness of the body's response to emotion-arousing stimuli: a stimulus triggers the body's responses that in turn trigger the experienced emotion
James-Lange theory
States that the conscious, sunjective experience of an emotion occures at the same time as the body's physical reaction
Cannon-Bard theory
Proposes that emotions have two ingredients: physical arousal and a cognitive label. Thus, physical arousal is a necessary, but not a sufficient, component of emotional change. For an emotion to be experienced, arousal must be attributed to an emotional cause
The two-factor theory of emotion
Lie detector, is a device that measure several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion
Polygraph
Emtional release; accourding to the _____ hypothesis, by expressing our anger, we can reduce it
Catharis
The tendency of people to be helpful when they are in a good mood
Feel-good, do-good phenomenon
Refers to a person's sense of satisfaction with his or her life
Subjective well-being
Refers to our tendency to judge things relative to our prior experience
Adaptation-level phenomenon
The sense that we are worse off relative to those with whom we compare ourselves
Relative deprivation
The interdisciplinary field that applies behavioral and medical knowledge to the treatment of disease and the promtion of health
Behavioral medicine
A subfield of psychology that studies how helath and illness are influenced by emotions, stress, personality, life-style, and other psychological factors
Health psychology
Refers to the process by which people perceive and react to stressors, or to events they perceive as threatening or challenging
Stress
The three-stage sequence of bodily reaction to stress outlined by Hans Selye
General adaption syndrome (GAS)
The leading cause of death in the United States today, results from the clogging of the coronary arteries and the subsequent reduction in blood and oxygen supply to the heart muscle
Coronary heart disease
Personality is Friedman and Rosenman's term for the coronary-prone behavior pattern of competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally agressive, and anger-prone people
Typer A
Personality is Friendman and Rosenman's term for the coronary-resistant behavior pattern of easygoing people
Type B
Any genuine illness such as hypertension and headaches that is apparently linked to stress rather than cause by a physical disorder
Psychophysiological illness
(Memory Aid: Psycho- refers to mind; physio- refer to body)
The two types of white blood cells of the immune system that fight bacterial infections (B ______) and viruses, cancer cells, and foriegn substances i nthe body (T ______)
Lymphocytes
Any sustained activity such as running, swimming, or cycling that promotes heart and lung fitness and may help alleviate depression and anxiety
Aerobic exercies
Refers to a system for electronically recording, ampylifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state
Biofeedback
(Memory aid: A biofeedback device, such as a brain-wave trainer, provides auditory or visual feedback about bilogical responses)
A collection of health care remedies and treatments that have not been accepted by medical scince nore verified by contolled research trials
Complemntary and Alternative Medicine