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147 Cards in this Set

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what is greek naturalism?
knowledge from understanding the external/physical world.

mind and matter cannot be separated
which philosopher is associated with greek naturalism?
Thales (640-546)
what internal and external factors influence behavior?
nature and nurture
what is greek humanism?
reasoning within yourself, important things arent physical (mind/soul and body dualism)
who is known for the greek humanism knowledge through reason?
Socrates (470-399)
who is known for the greek humanism that rational soul permits introspection and knowledge?
Plato (427-347)
who is known for the greek humanism christianity and the divine soul?
st augustine (354-430)
what is dualism
you can separate the mind and body
what is vitalism
energy that connects the mind and body
what is the law of parsimony and what kind of roots is it
it means to go to the simplist solution or explanation first. scientific roots.
who is founder of law of parsimony
william occam
scientific roots- scholasticism - faith and reason were reconciled. who said it
st thomas aquinas
deductive reasoning:
from general conclusion to prediction of specific events
inductive reasoning:
from specific observations to a general conclusion
who came up with deductive reasoning
Galileo (1564-1626)
who came up with inductive reasoning
bacon 1561-1626
physiological roots include:
nerve induction and vitalism, psychophysics
who came up with nerve induction and vitalism and what did he do work in
hemholtz, neuroscience
psychophysics and just noticeable difference was from what two guys?
weber and fechner
difference threshold
the smallest detectable difference in the magnitude of two stimuli
weber's law
the principle stating that ability to notice a difference in the magnitude of 2 stimuli is a constant proportion of the size of the standard stimulus. psychologically the more intense a stimulus is to begin with, the more intense it will need to become for one to notice a change.
psychophysics
a field of psychology in which researchers search for ways to describe the transition from the physical stimulus to the psychological experience of that stimulus
evolutionary roots include:
natural selection as a mechanism for evolution, pathway to comparative evolutionary psychology and testing measurements
natural selection as mechanism for evolution was proposed by
darwin- he recognized the importance of individual variation
philosophical roots include:
british empiricism, rationalism, romanticism, existentialism
what is british epiricism and who proposed it
a pathway to behaviorism and learning the mind is passive (tabula rasa)- Locke
what is tabula rasa
clean slate
what is rationalism and who proposed it
a pathway to cognitive psychology, mind is active processor with innate components - Leibniz (rationalists protest that infants are programmed)
what is romanticism and who proposed it
a pathway to psychotherapy emphasis on feelings and unconcious mind - schopenhauer - dream analysis and subconscious motivation
what is existentialism and who proposed it
a pathway to humanist psychotherapy, individual subjective interpretation of world is important - kierkegaard (discovering who you are, identify your interests and values)
what is phrenology
determining personality and behavioral characteristics by external study of head (lumps measurements etc)
name seven schools of psychology
structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism, physiological, cognitive, psychoanalytic, humanistic
what is the emmanuel movement
protestants offered counseling (american psychology)
who is known for structuralism and what is it
elements of the mind- experimental introspection - wundt
what is functionalism and who are the 2 men
emphasis on individual differences and function/application (W. James) intelligence testing (binet)
behaviorism is .. and 2 guys?
study behavior not mind (watson) S-R... stimulus response.. and reinforcement (skinner)
skinner claims that if you give him 10 infants he can do what
turn them into anything by shaping their environment
its easier to study behaviorism due to ___
operational definition (not mind)
what is operational definition
a means of describing/measurement
who was functionalism inspired by
darwin
what is physiological psychology and who
structure/function relationships in brain (sperry)
what is cognitive psychology and what 2 guys
child development (piaget) and computers and information processing memory (miller)
what is psychoanalytic and who
unconscious and conflict resolution (freud)
humanistic psychology is... and who
self-actualization - helping you develop. (maslow) this is the newest school of psych
name some types of psychologists
look on paper
we are not striving for facts as scientists but rather.. ___
variables
science is about an ___ process
active
we are not interested in the ___ but we are trying to ___
truth, understand how variables react with one another
we are guessing about __ and ___ and seeing if the __ is supported
cause and effect, hypothesis
cause and effect, ___ and ___
independent, dependent
a hypothesis has to be ___ and is usually ___
testable, focused
there must be a ___ in the prediction
valence. (good hyoptheis: i predict an increase in behavior. bad hypothesis: i predict a change in behavior)
what is the correlational method?
doing surveys, can only make weak inferences, could have extraneous variables.
what are extraneous variables
variables unknown or not controlled
sometimes a correlation may not have what
a cause-effect relation
independent variable
the aspect of the environment that is manipulated in an experiment. it must consist of at least 2 conditions. (scientific defined method of delivery)
dependent variable
the behavior that is measured or observed in an experiment, usually more than one
its best to avoid what with your subjects?
pathologys (diseases), reduce variability, representative
what does the term running blind mean?
subjects dont know certain information about the experiment
running double blind means?
experimentors dont choose or know certain things so they dont seem biased.
the most common extraneous variable in a behavior experiment is the __ ___
practice effect- whenever you run your subjects more than once you must control for practice effect- must have a control group
if the two groups differ measurements at the baseline.... what should u do
its bad! you should fractionate and redivide as long as you make sure your methods are the same
what does ANOVA stand for
analyses of variance
which group variance do you want to minimize?
within group variance
which group variance do you want to maximize?
between group variance
what is the p value
if probability is less than .05 its a significant effect, but if it is more than .05 its not
what is external validity?
the experiment's relevance to the real world
what is internal validity?
how well the experiment was structured - extent to which an experiment has effectively controlled for confounding variables
what is individual variation
you dont know where you will fall within results
on a graph where does the dependent measure go
y axis
on a graph where does the baseline go
x axis, at the measurement that first trial brings
where does the experimental measurement go
on the x axis usually to the right of the baseline
descriptive analyses:
the results of the second trial have a significant between group variance
what is inferential analyses
within group variance is there. the humps overlap. this is bad
what are some subject rights
informed consent, may terminate participation, debreifing, anonymity, and institutional review boards
we can stimulate tissue and also __ out tissue
lesion (burn out)
using __ we can record activity in the brain
electrodes
histology is?
studying brain tissue, during autopsy, depends on def of cells
the ___ is the part of the brain responsible for coordination
hindbrain
what does the reflex arc do?
gets you out of harms way
describe how reflex arc works
neuron travels from skin to spinal cord, sends out motor neuron to muscle
all sensory goes through the ___
thalamus
after sensory goes to the thalamus it....
projects to the cortex
the ____ area lets you know which part of the body hurts
somatosensory
what is an out of body experience and what causes it?
you percieve you are in another physical place - angular gynus
what is the limbic system?
a system of structures thought to be involved in motivational and emotional behaviors (amygdala) and memory (hippocampus)
what does the autonomic nervous system do?
prepares us for action
what does sympathetic arousal do?
get ready for action
what does parasympathetic arousal do?
relax you, bring you back
what does the corpus callosum do and what can cutting it avoid
connects the 2 brain hemispheres - seizures
what does the hypothalamus do?
it has cells that stimulate sex and eating
what is always a component in behavior
environment
what are some methods used to study the brain?
stimulation lesion record brain imaging histology
who won a nobel prize for histology
ramon y cajal
whats the medulla do
respiration, heart rate, muscle tone
whats the reticular formation do
sleep and walking
what causes a neuron dysfunction that results in paralysis
myelin
what part of the brain is responsible for contemplation and response after reflex
forebrain
what is the area of the cerebral cortex where impulses from the nerve centers to the muscles originate
motor cortex
where does the language take place in brain
forebrain
where does speaking happen
brocas area
where does listening happen
wernickes area
where is reading function in brain
angular gyrus
where is hypothalamus and what system does it contain
forebrain. autonomic nervous system: sympathetic and parasympathetic
whats the left hemisphere do?
more verbal, mathematical, analytical
whats the right hemisphere do?
more visual/spatial emotion
who won a nobel prize for split brain studies
sperry
who is responsible for early experience plasticity of the brain
gerall
what is the building block of the nervous system?
neuron
whats the purpose of the dendritic field
its where the input goes in
what does the cell body do
maintenance
the __ will terminate at another neuron
axon
__ activity runs down the axon and __ with other neurons
electrical, communicates
what is the region where the axon comes close to end and releases chemical
synapse
axons have ___ membranes
permeable
what is going on in the electrical activity
theres an exchange of ions inside and outside
what is the action potential
positive ions move in and negative move out
what is the resting potential
negative ions move inside and positive out
what will close off icon channels and kill you instantly?
neurotoxins
what are 2 forces that affect ion movement?
force of difusion and electrostatic charge/pressure
the junction of the neurons is the __
synapse
__ is presynaptic
axon
___ is post synaptic
below the cleft
what is the building block of the nervous system?
neuron
whats the purpose of the dendritic field
its where the input goes in
what does the cell body do
maintenance
the __ will terminate at another neuron
axon
__ activity runs down the axon and __ with other neurons
electrical, communicates
what is the region where the axon comes close to end and releases chemical
synapse
axons have ___ membranes
permeable
what is going on in the electrical activity
theres an exchange of ions inside and outside
what is the action potential
positive ions move in and negative move out
what is the resting potential
negative ions move inside and positive out
what will close off icon channels and kill you instantly?
neurotoxins
what are 2 forces that affect ion movement?
force of difusion and electrostatic charge/pressure
the junction of the neurons is the __
synapse
__ is presynaptic
axon
___ is post synaptic
below the cleft
electric activity stimulates the ___, releases ___, and then ___
vesicles, chemical, neurotransmitter
__ and ___ bind
receptors neurotransmitters
neurons connecting is not electrical but _
chemical
what is the beginning of an axon?
the hillock
in the hillock theres a __ and the axon ___ ___
summation, fires activity
which disease has a tremor. it needs dopamine in the midbrain to mediate the behavior
parkinsons disease
what disease has too much dopamine, need to block some
schizophrenia
which disease has loss of acetylcholine, theres a structural change of neuron
alzheimers
what disease has underactive serotonin and norepinephrine
endogenous depression