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11 Cards in this Set

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2. Peripheral Theory of Hunger---
Theory of Cannon, argued that argued that, for motivation, start and stop signals are generated outside the central nervous system. Proposed that start signals were contractions of the stomach, and stop signal was the expansion of stomach.
3. Central Theory of Hunger---
Theory of Morgan, emphasized that start signals generated within the brainm such as for instinctive behaviors such as eating and sexual behaviors. Morgan argued there were a hypothetical system of brain centers and pathways concerned with particular kinds of motives. A specific CMS was defined in terms of the kinds of environmental stimuli to which an animal responds. Resonsiveness to food indicates a hunger CMS. Once this CMS is triggered, it will continue for a while, and will respond to certain stimuli, and not to others.
4. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)---
Any stimulus, such as food, which will reliably elicite a response before conditioning occurs. The stimulus could be positive or negative
5. Unconditioned Response (UCR
Response to an unconditioned stimulus, such as a salivary reflex elicited by putting food in the mouth. The response might also be a reaction to a painful stimulus, such as change in heart rate.
6. Conditioned Stimulus (CS)---
Any stimulus that gains the power to envoke the response produced by the UCS in time. For example, the sound of a buzzer (CS) could come to evoke salivations (CR) if paired with food presentation (UCS).
7. Conditioned Response (CR)--
The response, such as salivation, evoked by the CS. The CR may not be exactly like the UCR, but has some of the characteristics of the UCR.
13. Eating Disorder---
Any change in eating behavior that leads to impaired physical or psychological health. Includes “Typical”: obesity, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa. And “Atypical”: some characteristics of anorexia and bulimia but also include overeating and vomiting associated with other disturbances and eating unusual substances.
28. Phobias---
Intense, irrational fears of specific stimuli, such as a fear of high places, open or closed spaces, flying, or such objects as snacks or insects. Resistant to change.
40. Operant Conditioning (Skinner)---
phrase coined for his version of instrumental conditioning. Operant means that the organism operates or works on the environment, often tested in his operant conditioning chamber (Skinner box)
41. Operant Conditioning (Shaping)---
Using, “successive approximations” to direct behavior. Over successive practice runs, we require closer and closer approximations to the correct procedure before giving reinforcement. Particularly important when instructions alone are inadequate, such as with motor skills that are very hard to describe, or with people who cannot learn language well. Dispensing reinforcers that direct towards the desired final behavior.
42. Operant Conditioning (Extinction
Means that responding declines when rewards cease coming. Not the same as forgetting, often, once reinforcement is resumed, the behavior immediately resumes. Time for extinction depends largely upon the pattern of reinforcement.