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180 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
-Emphasis on the unconscious
-3 levels of awareness in consciousness
-Id, Ego, Superego
Sigmund Freud
The 3 Levels of Consciousness according to Freud
1. Conscious
2. Preconscious
3. Unconscious
Involuntarily removing an unpleasant meory, thought, or perception from consciousness or barring disturbing sexual and agressive impulses from consciousness.
Repression
Attributing one's own undesirable traits, thoughts, behavior, or impulses to another.
Projection
Refusing to acknowledge consciously the existence of danger or a threatening situation.
Denial
Supplying a logical, rational, or socially acceptable reason rather than the real reason for an action or event.
Rationalization
Reverting to a behavior that might have reduced anxiety at an earlier stage of development.
Regression
Expressing exaggerated ideas and emotions that are the opposite of disturbing, unconscious impulses and desires.
Reaction Formation
Substituting a less threatening object or person for the original object of a sexual or agressive impulse.
Displacement
Rechanneling sexual and aggressive energy into pursuits or accomplishments that society consideres acceptable or even admirable.
Sublimation
Jill forgets a traumatic incident from childhood.
Example of Repression
A very lonely divorced woman accuses all men of having only one thing on their minds.
Example of Projection
Amy fails to take a tornado warning seriously and is severly injured.
Example of Denial
Fred tells his friends that he didn't get the job because he didn't have connecetions.
Example of Rationalization
Susan bursts into tears whenever she is criticized.
Example of Regression
A former purchaser of pronography, Bob is now a tireless crusader against it.
Example of Reaction Formation
After being spanked by his father, Bill hits his baby brother.
Example of Displacement
Tim goes to a gym to work out when he feels hostile and frusterated.
Example of Sublimation
Freud's Psychosexual Stages of Development.
1. Oral
2. Anal
3. Phallic
4. Latency
5. Genital
-Birth to 1 year
-Mouth
-Conflicts/Experiences: Weaning; Oral gratification from sucking, eating, biting
-Adult Traits: optimism, gulibility, dependency, pessimism, passivity, hostility, sarcasm, aggression
Oral Stage
-1 to 3 years
-Anus
-Deals w/ Toilet training
-Conflict: Gratification from expelling and withholding feces
-Adult Traits: Excessive cleanliness, orderliness, stinginess, messiness, reelliousness, destructiveness
Anal Stage
-3 to 5 years
-Genitals
-Oedipal conflict, Sexual Curiosity, Masturbation
- Adult traits: Flirtatiousness, vanity, promiscui9ty, pride, chastity
Phallic Stage
-5 or 6 years to puberty
-No specific part of the body
-Period of sexual calm/interest in school, hobbies, same-sex friends
-No adult traits
Latency Stage
-From puberty on
-Genitals
-Revival of sexual interests/establishment of mature sexual relationships
-No adult traits
Genital Stage
Who believed personality is almost completely formed at age 5 or 6, when the Oedipal conflict is resolved and the superego is formed?
Freud
Influences of:
1. The traits that develop b/c of fixations at any of the psychosexual stages
2. The relative strengths of the id, the ego, and the superego
Freuds 2 primary sources of influence on personality
Who emphasized the importance of the relationship with the primary caregiver in the early years?
Freud
Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Karen Horney are all what type of psychologists?
Neo-Freudians
Who did not consider the sexual instinct to be the main factor in personality; nor did he believe that the personality is almost completely formed in early childhood?
Carl Jung
Who believed that the middle age was an even more importaint period for personality development; and dissagreed with Freud on the basic structure of personality?
Carl Jung
A former purchaser of pronography, Bob is now a tireless crusader against it.
Example of Reaction Formation
After being spanked by his father, Bill hits his baby brother.
Example of Displacement
Tim goes to a gym to work out when he feels hostile and frusterated.
Example of Sublimation
Freud's Psychosexual Stages of Development.
1. Oral
2. Anal
3. Phallic
4. Latency
5. Genital
-Birth to 1 year
-Mouth
-Conflicts/Experiences: Weaning; Oral gratification from sucking, eating, biting
-Adult Traits: optimism, gulibility, dependency, pessimism, passivity, hostility, sarcasm, aggression
Oral Stage
-1 to 3 years
-Anus
-Deals w/ Toilet training
-Conflict: Gratification from expelling and withholding feces
-Adult Traits: Excessive cleanliness, orderliness, stinginess, messiness, reelliousness, destructiveness
Anal Stage
-3 to 5 years
-Genitals
-Oedipal conflict, Sexual Curiosity, Masturbation
- Adult traits: Flirtatiousness, vanity, promiscui9ty, pride, chastity
Phallic Stage
-5 or 6 years to puberty
-No specific part of the body
-Period of sexual calm/interest in school, hobbies, same-sex friends
-No adult traits
Latency Stage
-From puberty on
-Genitals
-Revival of sexual interests/establishment of mature sexual relationships
-No adult traits
Genital Stage
Who believed personality is almost completely formed at age 5 or 6, when the Oedipal conflict is resolved and the superego is formed?
Freud's explination of personality
Influences of:
1. The traits that develop b/c of fixations at any of the psychosexual stages
2. The relative strengths of the id, the ego, and the superego
Freuds 2 primary sources of influence on personality
Who emphasized the importance of the relationship with the primary caregiver in the early years?
Freud
Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Karen Horney are all what type of psychologists?
Neo-Freudians
Who did not consider the sexual instinct to be the main factor in personality; nor did he believe that the personality is almost completely formed in early childhood?
Carl Jung
Who believed that the middle age was an even more importaint period for personality development; and dissagreed with Freud on the basic structure of personality?
Carl Jung
The conscious component of personality, which carries out normal daily activities; believed to be of secondary importance to the unconscious.
Ego (According to Jung)
Resembles a combination of Freud's preconscious and unconscious.
Personal Unconscious (Jung)
Most influencial to personality according to Jung
Collective Unconscious
Deepest and most inaccessible layer of the unconscious; Jung thought that the universal experiences of humankind throughout evolution are transmitted to each of us and reside here. This is how Jung accounted for the similarity of certain myths, dreams, symbols, and religious beliefs.
Collective Unconscious
An inherited tendency to respond to universal human situations in particular ways.
Archetype
1. Shadow
2. Persona
3. Anima
4. Animus
5. Self
Archetypes named by Jung
The public face one shows to the world; consistant with the roles an individual plays and helps them to function socially.
Persona
Represents the "negative" side of the personality; to deny this gives it more power.
Shadow
"Inner feminine figure" w/in the unconscious of every man
Anima
"Inner masculine figure" w/in the unconscious of every woman
Animus
Repersents the full development of personality and is attained only when the opposing internal forces are integrated and balanced.
Self
Tendency to be outgoing, adaptable, and sociable.
Extraversion
Tendency to focus inward and to be reflective, retiring, and nonsocial.
Introversion
Who dissagreed w/ most of Freud's basic beliefs; emphasized the *unity* of the personality rather than the seperate warring components of id, ego, and superego
Alfred Adler
Who believed that human behavior is motivated more by the conscious than by the unconscious and that people are influenced more by future goals than by early childhood experiences.
Alfred Adler
Who maintained that birth order influences personality, making first-born children more likely than their younger siblings to be high achievers.
Alfred Adler
Who's work centered on 2 main themes:
1. the neurotic personality
2. femenine psychology
Karen Horney
Karen Horney stressed the importance of what type of experiances?
Early childhood experiances
Karen Horney believed that what could continue to develop and change throughout life?
Personality
Who insisted that women really want the same opportunities, same rights and privileges as males?
Karen Horney
Karen Horney believed that in order to be psychologically healthy, we all need ______ & _____.
Safety and Satisfaction
A neurotic person will use only ____ way(s) to reduce anxiety and will use it/them excessively and inappropriately.
One Way
1. Extroversion
2. Neuroticism
3. Conscientiousness
4. Agreeableness
5. Openness to Experience
The 5-factor Theory
This dimension of the 5-factor theory contracts such traits as sociable, outgoing, talkative, assertive, persuasive, decisive, and active with more introvered traits such as withdrawn, quiet, passive, retiring, and reserved.
Extroversion
This part of the 5-factor theory states that these type of people are prone to emotional instability. They tend to experience negative emotions and to be moody, irritable, nervous, and inclined to worry. This differentiates people who are anxious, excitable, and easily distressed from those who are emotionally stable and thus calm, even-tempered, easygoing, and relaxed.
Neuroticism
This factor differentiates individuals who are dependable, organized, reliable, responsible, thorough, hard-working, and persevering from those who are undependable, disorganized, impulsive, unreliable, irresponsible, careless, negligent, and lazy.
Conscientiousness
This factor is composed of a collection of traits that range from compassion to antagonism toward others. This type of person would be a pleasant person, good-natured, warm, sympathetic, and coopertaive; the opposite would tend to be unfriendly, unpleasant, aggressive, argumentative, cold, and even hostile or vindictive.
Agreeableness
This factor contrasts indivuduals who seek out varied experiences and who are imaginative, intellectually curious, and broad-minded with those who are concrete-minded and practical and whose interests are narrow. Researches have found that this factor is a requirement for creative accomplishment.
Openness to Experience
B.F. Skinner is what type of psychologist?
Behaviorist
These type of psychologists deny that there is any such thing as personality; they believe it is nothing more or less than a collection of learned behaviors or habits that have been reinforced in the past.
Behaviorists
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers are what type of psychologists?
Humanistic personality
Who claimed motivational factors were at the root of personality?
Abraham Maslow
1. Physiological Needs
2. Safety Needs
3. Belonging and love needs
4. Esteem needs
5. Need for self-actualization
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Developing to one's fullest potential.
Self-Actualization
These traits would indicate:
accurate in perceiving reality, able to judge honestly and to spot quickly the fake and dishonest; comfortable w/ life; accept themselves and others; good humor and tolerance; believe they have a mission to accomplish; tend not to depend on external authority or other people but seem to be inner-driven, autonomous, and independent.
Self-Actualization characteristics
Carl Rogers was involved with ______-______ therapy.
Person-centered therapy
Mental processes and/or behavior patterns that cause emotional distress and/or substantial impairment in functioning.
Psychologicacl Disorder
_________ Perspective

Cause: abnormal behavior is a symptom of an underlying physical disorder

Treatment: Drugs or surgery
Biological Perspective
Genetic inheritance, biochemical abnormalities, or imbalances, structural abnormalities w/in the brain and/or infection are examples of what perspective?
Biological Perspective
_________ Perspective:

Cause: along w/ an inherited predisposition to a disorder the environment must be right to "trigger" the disorder

treatment: an eclectic approach employing treatments from one or more perspectives
Biopsychosocial Perspective
__________ Perspective:

cause: stem from early childhood experiences and unresolved, unconscious conflicts, usually of a sexual or aggressive nature

treatment: bring disturbing repressed material to consciousness through the process of psychoanalysis (therapy)
Psychodynamic Perspective
__________ Perspective:

cause: behavioral symptions themselves are the disorder; get rid of the behavior and the problem is solved

treatment: use classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and modeling to extinguish abnormal behavior and increase adaptive behavior
Learning Perspective (Behaviorism)
___________ Perspective:

cause: faulty and negative thinking cause abnormal behaviors

treatment: change faulty, irrational, and/or negative thinking
Cognitive Perspective
________ Perspective:

cause: disorders result when a person's "natural tendency towards self-actualization" is blocked.

treatment: remove the blocks and the person can move back towards self-actualization; increase self-acceptance, help the client become more inner-directed.
Humanistic Perspective
(Maslow & Rogers)
Most widely accepted diagnostic system in the US; describes about 290 mental disorders and their symptoms.
DSM-IV
Most serious psychological disorder; a severe psychological disorder characterized by loss of contact w/ reality, hallucinations, delusions, inappropriate or flat affect, some disturbance in thinking, social withdrawl, and/or other bizzarre behavior
Schizophrenia
Symptoms that are added to the thoughts and behaviors that are characteristic of normal functioning
Positive Symptoms
Symptoms that are removed from thoughts or behaviors that are characteristic of normal functioning
Negative Symptoms
Sensory perception that is not really there; imaginary sensation; taste, see, hear, feel, smell strange things in the absense of any stimulus in the environment
Hallucinations
Most common hallucination in schizophrenia
Hearing voices
False beliefs not generally shared by others; usually the patient cannot be persuaded that their beliefs aren't real.
Delusions
Believing hallucinations are actually real
Example of a delusion
Delusion of ______: a false belief that one is a famous person, or that they possess some great knowledge
Delusion of gradeur
Delusion of _____: false belief that a person or group is trying in some way to harm one
Delusion of persecution
Loosening of associations, or derailment, when a person does not follow one line of thought to completion, shift from one subject to another
Disorganized thinking and speech
1. Hallucinations
2. Delusions
3. Disorganized thinking and speech
4. Grossly disorganized or bizarre behavior
5. Inappropriate affect (emotion)
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia
Like child-like silliness, disheveled appearance, and peculiar dress; possible might get agitated easily, including shouting and swearing, and unusual or inappropriate motor behavior, strange gestures, facial expressions, or postures
Grossly disorganized or bizarre behavior
Facial expressions, tone of voice, and gestures may not reflect the emotion that would be expected under the circumstances
Inappropriate affect
1. Social withdrawl
2. Loss of motivation
3. Lack of goal-directed activity
4. Very limited speech
5. Slowed movements
6. Poor hygiene and grooming
Negative symptoms of schizophrenia
Showing practically no emotional response at all
Flat affect
1. Parinoid
2. Disorganized
3. Catatonic
4. Undifferentiated
Types of Schizophrenia
__________ Schizophrenics:

often suffer from delusions of grandeur or persecution; show exaggerated anger or suspiciousness; may become violent in an attempt to protect themselves; better chance of recovery
Parinoid Schizophrenia
__________ Schizophrenics:

Most serious type; marked by extreme social withdrawl, hallucinations, delusions, silliness, inappropriate laughter, grimaces, grotesque mannerisms, and other bizarre behaviors; have the poorest chance of recovery
Disorganied Schizophrenia
Most serious type of schizophrenia and poorest chance for recovery
Disorganized Schizophrenia
___________ Schizophrenics:

May display complete stillness and stupor, or great excitement and agitation. Often, they alternate between the two.
Catatonic Schizophrenia
_________ Schizophrenics:

Catchall category when their are symptoms, but not to any one particular category
Undifferentiated Schizophrenia
1. Genetic inheritance
2. Environmental factors
3. Excessive dopamine levels
4. Gender
Causes of Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia tends to appear between what ages?
18-24
Schizophrenics are particularly vulnerable to ____.
Stress
Drugs that are used to treat this illness block dopamine.
Schizophrenia
___ out of ___ patients given medications for schitzofrenia do not show improvement from symptoms.
1 out of 3
Schizophrenia is more common in men or women?
Men
Men or women tend to develop symptoms at an earlier age and do not respond as well to treatment?
Men
Why do females tend to get schizophrenia less than males?
Estrogen hormones
Disorders characterized by extreme and unwarranted disturbances in feeling and mood
Mood Disorders
Two broad categories of _____:

1. Depressive Disorders
2. Bipolar Disorders
Mood disorders
A mood disorder marked by feelings of great sadness, dispair, guilt, worthlessness, and hopelessness.
Major Depressive Disorder
Some seem to be doing everything in slow motion; some seem to do the opposite, fidgety, pacing, constantly moving.
Psychomotor disturbances
___________ disorder can be so severe that a person might hallucinate or suffer delusions
Depression
Hallucinations and delusions are both symptoms of _______ depression.
Psychotic
What is the #1 disability in the US and around the world?
Depression
What is the most common serious psychological disorder?
Depression
Females are ____ times more likely than males to suffer from depression.
2 times
Before puberty _____ are more likely than ____ to suffer from depression.
Boys; girls
The highest rate of depression tends to occur within those suffering from what?
Chronic pain
_________ tend to have lower rates of depression throughout the world.
Asians
Milder form of depression; experience depressed mood but suffer from fewer of the associated symptoms; chronic disorder that lasts 2 years or longer; most suffering from this will also experiance episodes of major depression
Dysthymia
Significant depression that comes and goes w/ the seasons; a winter depression is the most common form that seems to be triggered by light deficiency.
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
Mood disorder in which manic episodes alternate w/ periods of depression, usually w/ relatively normal periods in between.
Bipolar disorder/manic depression
Extreme highs, excessive euphoria, wild optimism, hyperactivity, inflated self-esteem, boundless energy
Manic Episode symptoms
Bipolar disorder affects only about ___% of the population.
1%
Overwhelming sense of sadness, despair, and hopelessness, and they usually lose their ability to experience pleasure.
Major Depressive Disorder
Change in appetitie, weight or sleep patterns; loss of energy; difficulty in thinking/concentrating; reaction time/speech may be slowed; constnatly fidgeting, pacing
Symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder
Some suffer only 1 major depressive episode, but ___-___% will have a recurrence.
50-60%
Risk of recurrence of depression is greater for _______ and for those whose onset began before age ___ and for those with a family history of mood disorder.
Females; age 20
More tha 72% of those committing suicide are _____________.
White males
Together, white males and females account for more than ____% of all suicides.
90%
_____ are atleast 3 times more likely to attempt suicide.
Females
____are 4 times more likely to succeed at taking their own lives.
Males
Suicidal behavor tends to ___________________.
Run in families
______ Americans are at a far greater risk for suicide than young people are.
Older Americans
White males aged ___ and older have the highest recorded suicide rate.
85
Poor general health, serious illness, loneliness, and decline in social and economic status
Conditions that may contribute to suicide in older Americans
For teenagers and young adults between the ages of __ and __, suicide is now the ____ leading cause of death.
15-24, 3rd
For college students, suicide ranks ____.
Second
6-13% of _______ and 10.4% of _______ have attempted suicide.
Adolescents; college students
Up to 40% of those who attempt suicide will try again, and ___-____% will eventually succeed.
5-15%
Increases in alcohol and drug abuse, psychiatric disorders, antisocial behavior, and disturbed home lives
Contributions to suicide
Suicide rate is highest for who?
Those who have made perivious attempts.
Most suicidal persons communicate what?
Their intent
90% of people planning to commit suicide leave what?
Clues
___________ is a common characteristic of suicidal individuals.
Hopelessness
A vague, general uneasiness or an ominous feeling that something bad is about to happen.
Anxiety
Most common psychological disorder.
Anxiety
Psychological disorder which can be associated with a real life stressor or nothing at all.
Anxiety
________ are 2 times more likely to suffer from Anxiety than ________.
Women; Men
-People plagued by chronic, excessive, worry for atleast 6 months
-worrying is unfounded or greatly exaggerated and difficult to control
-may often feel tense, tired, irritable
-difficult concentrating or sleeping
-trembling, palpitations, sweating, dizziness, nausea, diarrhea, frequent urination
Symptoms of Anxiety
A disorder characterized by recurrent unpredictable panic attacks that cause fear
Panic disorder
-Overwhealming anxiety, fear or terror
-Pounding heart, uncontrollable trembling or shaking
-Sensations of choking or smothering
Panic Attack symptoms
When having ________ a person may think they are having a heart attack of dying.
Panic Attack
Potential causes of _____:
heredity, biological factors, excessive stress & catastrophic thinking
Panic Attacks
Persistent irrational fear of some specific object, situation, or activity that poses no real danger
Phobia
People with ______ know the fear is irrational, but avoid these objects/situations of fear anyway.
Phobias
Intense fear of being in a situation in which immediate escape is not possible
Agoraphobia
______ are 4 times more likely to suffer from agoraphobia than ________.
Women; men
Usually accompanies a panic disorder
Agoraphobia
Intensely afraid of any social situation or social performance in which they might embarrass themselves in front of others.
Social Phobia
Shaking, blushing, sweating, appearing clumsy or awkward, foolish, or incompetent are symptoms of what phobia?
Social Phobia
Social phobia tends to develop when?
Adolescence
Form of anxiety disorder where a person suffers from recurrent obsessions, compulsions, or both.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Persistent, recurring involuntary thoughts, images, or impulses that invade consciousness and cause a person great distress.
Obsession
Worring about contamination, locking the door, running over someone
Examples of Obsessions
A person feels compelled to repeat certain actions or rituals over and over.
Compulsions
Cleaning/washing behaviors, counting, checking, touching objects, hoarding, excessive organizing.
Examples of Compulsions
2-3% of the US population will suffer from what at some point in their lifetime.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder