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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Knowledge and Memory
Knowledge is based in the long term memory on the basis of catagories.
Focus is on the central nervous system's role in processes. Use neurological data the try to explain and understand where as cognative uses performance.
Computer Science
Intelligent tutorial systems- computer teaches through feedback. If you abstractly get a computer to mimick intelligence then you can learn about the make-up of the human mind. i.e. deep blue gives insight into how knowledge is organized in the human mind through playing chess.
Cognative Science
An integrated approach. Cognative scientists are all those who are interested in scientificlly studying the mind; interdisiplinary approach. Attempts to integrate findings from all different disaplines focusing on the study of the mind.
Case Study (as used to study cognition)
Subjects that are unique or special in a way that provides a unique insight into the way that a psychological process happens (i.e. dude with the spike through his brain)can be cognatively studied by different approaches
Phineas Gage (Case Study 1939)
Man that had a railroad spike accidently go through his head in the frontal lobe. Caused frontal lobe damage, behaved intelligently, changed an oversimplified view of what we believe to be the results of frontal lobe damage.
"S the Russian" (Case Study)
Russian man that had unlimited long term memory; which actually interfered with his normal thought processes because of overload of associations from memory with stimuli. Had Synesthesia.
A.R. Luria (Russian Psychologist) ****FATHER OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGY****
Psychologist who studied the Russian "S" in depth. Studied him for thirty years at University of Moscow ****FATHER OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGY****
Mind of Mnemonist
Book written by A.R. Luria regarding his lengthy study of "S". Mnemonist is someone with an extrodinary memory. Determined that "S" had a condition called Synesthesia.
Condition which A.R. Luria determined that "S" suffered from. Is effectively a cross-matching of the senses.
Optimal Memory
Having the capacity to remeber the correct amount of details,etc. to lead a normal life (i.e. remember that a penny is round and copper colored, but not every single detail about a penny). Remembering too much about everything can interefere with normal processes.
H.M. (Case Study)1
Canadian that had very severe epilepsy, Scoville and Milner (1953)***MOST EXTENSIVELY STUDIED PERSON'S MEMORY EVER*** surgically removed his hippocampi from both hemispheres to try and treat seizures. Relieved seizures, but removal of hippocampi led to many memory problems (first scientific proof that it has involvement with memory)
Two parts (one in each hemisphere of the brain) plays important role in the formation of new memories, and the maintinance of recently formed memories. Damage or removal results in both retrograde and anterograde amnesia.
H.M. (Case Study)2
H.M.'s IQ was 118 (well above average) and had above average short-term memory) However, short term memories only last 20 seconds, and because of damage he was unable to convert them into longterm memories.
Mirror Tracing Performance
Shows that there is such a thing as learning without awareness. A subject looks ahead to an object's reflection, and draws it on their own area without the stylus (pen) touching the sides of a correct drawing area groove. Given to H.M. repeatedly, but with breaks long enough for him to totally forget it had happened before, he significantly improve performance everyday, despite being unaware of having experienced it already.
Implicit Learning
Learning that happens despite one being aware of it, proved by H.M's mirror tracing performance test.
Case Studies Conclusion
What we see from "S" and H.M., is that there is evidence from these observations to suggest that there is evidence for seperate memories, short-term and long-term
Experimental Method
Approach to studying thinking and learning that uses a controlled variable's manipulation to determine its affect; and thus influence something else such as speed, accuracy, reaction time, errors, or confidence ratings.
Simons and Chabris (Visual Shadowing)
Visual shadowing causes a lot of other things in the visual field to be lost. **If we focus on one message (either visual or auditory) then others of the same are lost.
Broadbent (Early Selection Theory of Attention)
First to propose theory of attention. Emphasizes the physical properties of that which is going to be paid attention to (i.e. the loudest noise is most likely to draw ones attention).