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54 Cards in this Set

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embryo
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month.
placenta
A membranous vascular organ that develops during pregnancy, lining the uterine wall and partially enveloping the fetus, to which it is attached by the umbilical cord. Following birth, the placenta is expelled
retrograde
of amnesia; affecting time immediately preceding trauma
zygote
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
hippocampus
a neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage.
anterograde
of amnesia; affecting time immediately following trauma
Broadbent-limited capacity channel
filter that reduces info to long term memory
Memory
The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
recognition, recall and reconstructive memory
meiosis
The process of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that reduces the number of chromosomes in reproductive cells from diploid to haploid, leading to the production of gametes in animals and spores in plants
How is memory stored in the brain?
Encode, store, retreive. Chemically (RNA/DNA), Structurally (Brain dendrites)
chromosomes
structures made of DNA molecules that contain genes
amnesia
the loss of memory
intereference
a reason we forget things; other facts get in the way.
DNA
(deoxyribonucleic acid), a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chomosomes
RNA
a nucleic acid that transmits genetic information from DNA to the cytoplasm; controls certain chemical processes in the cell
Authoritarian parenting
impose rules and expect obedience.
mitosis
The process in cell division by which the nucleus divides
long-term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
state-dependent memory
recall info best in the state you learned it.
Miller's magic number
7 plus or minus 2. We can best learn things w/ 7 plus or minus 2 parts.
Turner syndrome
A congenital condition of females associated with a defect or absence of an X-chromosome, characterized by short stature, sexual underdevelopment, and other physical abnormalities
What percent of birth defects are genetic?
20%
What percent of birth defects are chromosomal?
10%
What percent of births will have an anomoly?
10%
episodic memory
most information. Store info in terms of events. Experience, not necessarily labeled w/ words (What did you do last week?)
Cri du chat
a chromosomal disorder characterized by a funny crying that eventually causes death.
Klinefelter syndrome
a chromosomal anomaly in males who have more than one X chromosome (XXY or XXXY instead of XY); marked by small testes and long legs and enlarged breasts and decreased sperm production and mental retardation
rehearsal
the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
Tay Sachs
a hereditary disorder of lipid metabolism occurring most frequently in individuals of E European Jewish descent; accumulation of lipids in nervous tissue results in death in early childhood
Sickle cell anemia
A chronic, usually fatal anemia marked by sickle-shaped red blood cells, occurring almost exclusively in Black people of Africa or of African descent, and characterized by episodic pain in the joints, fever, leg ulcers, and jaundice.
semantic memory
structured in language. Independent of time and space
iconic memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
chunking
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
PKU
A genetic disorder in which the body lacks the enzyme necessary to metabolize phenylalanine to tyrosine. Left untreated, the disorder can cause brain damage and progressive mental retardation as a result of the accumulation of phenylalanine and its breakdown products
Cystic fibrosis
A hereditary disease of the exocrine glands, usually developing during early childhood and affecting mainly the pancreas, respiratory system, and sweat glands. It is characterized by the production of abnormally viscous mucus by the affected glands, usually resulting in chronic respiratory infections and impaired pancreatic function
Spitz & Bowlby
ethological point of view. Monkeys and human infants become despairing and upset w/o families. Studies in orphanages
Alzheimer's
a progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and, finally, physical functioning.
teratogens
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.
attachment
an emotional tie w/ another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
short-term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten
procedural knowledge
skills (ex. Ride bike)
What percent of birth defects are due to environment?
70%
authoritative parenting
both demanding and responsive. Exert control not only by setting rules and enforcing them but also by explaining the reasons and especially with older children, encouraging open discussion and allowing exceptions when making the rules.
**Provides children w/ greatest sense of control.
*Baumrind
imprinting
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life. ex. ducks
sensory memory
the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system.
echoic memory
momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled w/in 3 or 4 seconds
Klaus & Kennel
delivery room practices. Compared development of those babies held earlier who became happier and more securely attached. Indicates pre-wired.
Ainsworth
Attachment styles reflect mothering styles
primacy effect
LTM. Remember first b/c salient and time to process.
serial position effect
Best recall first and last in a series
Korsakoff's syndrome
among alcoholics; destruction of hippocampal neurons and interferews with short term memory.
declarative knowledge
facts for recall (ex. Telephone number)
recency effect
STM. No interference b/c nothing after
mnemonic devices
memory aids, esp. those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.