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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
sensory neurons
sense stimuli
motor neurons
makes muscles move
interneurons
communicates with other neurons
soma
cell body
dendrites
branching structures that recieve signals from other cells
axon
fiber that carries signals away from soma to other cells
myelin sheath
insulating material that encases some axons. speeds up transmission
terminal buttons
small knobs at the end of axons that release neurotransmitters at synapses. Communicates with next neuron
action potential
electrical charge that travels along the axon
synapse
point at which neurons pass neurotransmitters
neurotransmitters
chemical messengers used by one neuron to communicate with another
somatic nervous system
part of peripheral nervous system. nerves to voluntary muscles, sensory receptors.
Autonomic nervous system
nerves to heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles, glands
afferent
(incoming) nerves ...toward the central nervous system
efferent
(outgoing) nerves... away from the central nervous system
sympathetic division
mobilizes bodily resources (Fight or flight)
Parasympathetic division
conserves bodily resources (rest and digest)
Hindbrain
handles vital functions. Includes cerebellum, pons, and medulla
cerebellum
coordinates fine muscle movement, balance
pons
involved in sleep and arousal
medulla
regulates unconcious functions such as breathing and circulation
midbrain
important to sensory functions. involved in locating things in space.
forebrain
involved in emotion and complex thought. icludes thalamus, cerebrum, limbic system, hypothalamus
thalamus
relay center for cortex; distributes incoming sensory signals, except smell
cerebrum
handles complex mental activites, such as sensing learning, thinking, planning
limbic system
loosely connected network that contributes to emotion, memory, motivation
hypothalamus
regulates basic biological needs, such as hunger, thirst, sex
hippocampus
contributes to memory
amygdala
involved in learning of fear responses
prefrontal cortex
involved in relational reasoning; working memory
frontal lobes
primary motor cortex
parietal lobes
primary somatosensory cortex
temporal lobes
primary auditory cortex
occipital lobes
primary visual cortex
EEG
monitors the electrical activity of the breain over time, yielding line traces called brain waves
Cat Scan
X-ray of the brain
MRI
uses magnetic properties of the brain
PET
shows level of gluclose metabolism
fMRI
shows level of blood flow