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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
-"common sense is not especially common"
-intuitions regarding psychology phenomena are not always trustworthy guide to the validity of these phenomena.
science is not merely common sense
science often requires us to -think contrary to our common sense. science is uncommon sense.
-science involves unlearning as well as learning.
Sir Karl Popper
-discussed problem of separating science from nonscience.
-according to popper the essence os science is falsifiability (refutability)...scientific theories are capable of being disproven in principle.
-do not "prove" theories rather try to disprove them with risky tests.
ex: gravity - if things don't fall to ground then disproven
depression and low self esteem- if individual doesn't have low self esteem - disproven
-consists of claims that cannot be falsified (e.g. God, soul, afterlife)
-religion and science are different and largely nonoverlapping ways of understanding the world.
-possesses the superficial appearance of science but not its substance
Examples of pseudoscience
Recovered Memory Therapy
Pseudoscience Common Characteristics
-not self-correcting
-seek confirmation rather than refutation
-overuse "ad hoc" hypotheses that immunize claims from falsification
-Tend to rely on anecdotes rather than controlled evidence
-lack connectivity with other scientific disciplines
-lack replicability
the systematic study of behavior and experience (mental processes)
Influence of Philosophy and Physiology
-ancient Greek philisophers
-Rene Descartes and interactive dualism
-physiology = study of functions and parts of organisms
Wilhelm Wundt
-German physiologist and "founder of psychology"
-first psychology laboratory in 1879; Leipzig, Germany
-Introspection - looking within to understand mental processes.
Edward B. Titchener
-Structuralism - emphasized basic components of conscious experience (break into parts)
William James
-Principles of Psychology - first psychological textbook
-Functionalism - emphasized purpose of behavior and mental experience
-influenced by Darwin and evolution
Sigmund Freud
-Psychoanalysis - emphasized the unconscious mind and its conflicts
John B. Watson
-Behavioralism - emphasized studying observable behaviors
scientific method
-science is a collection of methods
-specifically, a collection of techniques and tools that scientists have developed to prevent themselves from being fooled
-in this respect, psychology is in fact a science, as it uses these methods to get at the truth
Occam's razor
-the principle of "parsimony" in general when faced with 2 theories that explain the data equally well we should select the simpler explanation
-be skeptical of findings unless they have been duplicated by independent researchers.
Hume's dictum
-extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence.
why are research designs even necessary in the first place?
-to protect ourselves from being fooled
-we are prone to making sense out of nonsense, order out of disorder. we often perceive relationships among variables that are not actually present.
ex: Pareidolia - when presented w/ figure we perceive image not there
ESP experiences like prophetic dreams
Correlational Designs
measure the extent to which 2 variables go together
-are relevant whenever we hear the words "associated" or "related"
-correlations range in value from -1.0 to +1.0 where a correlation of 0 means no relationship between variables.
How do we find out the magnitude of a correlation coefficient (r)?
-take the absolute value of the correlation coefficient. the higher the absolute value the stronger the correlation.
-r cannot exceed -1.0 or +1.0
how much of one variable is predictable from the other?
-to find out, square the correlation coefficient (i.e. r=5 means that 25% of scores of one variable can be predicted from the other variable)
-r=0 means no predictability
-r=1 is perfect predictability
crucial point: correlation
-correlation does not mean causation
-causation does not imply correlation
variables a and b are correlated. why? Three Possible Cause-Effect Relationships
-a causes b
-b causes a
-c causes both a and b (the "third variable problem")
Illusory Correlation
-tendency to perceive correlations between variables even when these correlations are objectively dosent
ex: infertile adopting couples suddenly become pregnant.
lunar lunacy effect
-probability stems largely from the "fallacy of positive instances"
-perception of a relationship where none exist
Experimental Designs (2 characteristics)
-Random assignment of subjects is typically accomplished by flipping a coin or some other random process (randomly put people into groups after they have been selected[how subjects are initially picked])
-Manipulation of an independent variable - control group and experimental group - vary in level of IV - should not be any other variability other than IV between groups
Shere Hite
-women and love - 4% responded to questionaire making the amount of unhappy married women higher than probably should be
-not good representation.
Confounding variable
-anything that differs between control and experimental groups (i.e. assistants, rooms, times, etc...)
crucial point: experimental designs
-one can infer cause-effect relations from a properly executed experimental design. This is what distinguishes an experimental design from a correlational design.
-ask if true experimental design. if not do not draw cause-effect relations.
Common Pitfalls in Experimental Designs
-Placebo Effect - imporvement resulting from the mere expectation of improvement. Is typically controlled by administering a placebo (psysiologically inert treatment) usually a sugar pill. - subjects must be blind to condition.
-experimenter expectancy (rosenthal) effect - results when researcher unintentionally influences behavior of subjects, producing a self-fulfilling prophecy - create double blinded control
-Hawthorne Effect - mere fact of being studied affects the behavior of subjects - unintentional - demand characteristics arise when subject develops hypothesis concerning the porpose of the study and alters behavior in accord with this hypothesis (minimize with covert observation and double blind)
Placebo Effects
-effects are real
-response rate in many medical and psychological conditions (e.g depression) approaches 30%. If pull data together looking at treatments about 30% taking placebo express improvement.
-placebo show dose-dependent effects.
-injectable placebos show greater effects than pill placebos
-many patients report "side effects" from placebos
-"additions" to placebos have been reported (withdrawls, etc...)
-the nocebo effect - negative placebo effect.
Observational/Naturalistic Designs
-typically involve observing organisms in real-world settings
-potential advantage: high external validity - better generalized to real-world settings
-potential disadvantage: low internal validity - disadvantage cause-effect
Surveys and Case Studies
-surveys - biases in survey research - women & love - wording is important
-case studies - typically involve intensive, detailed
studies of individuals - not able to run statistical analysis as typically do - may have disease.
-case studies tend to be better suited to the context of discovery then the context of justification.
Ethical Issues in Research
-informed consent - agree to participate and are informed (e.g. Tuskegee study of syphilis in African Americans - study course of illness w/o offering medication)
-deception - lying or intentionally misleading - in psychology lying and misleading is unjustified and hard to get permission to do a study with deception
-participants rights must be preseved
Development: Attachment
-imprinting (Konrad Lorenz) - discovered critical period (i.e. an optimal period in early development during which certain events must occur with certain things present - if not present, no attachment) for the attachment of geese
-rapid learning process where one learns who caregiver is
-within 36 hrs geese form attachment to moving object - Lorenz's boots
-NOTE: humans may have sensitive period for the emergence of certain characteristics (e.g. language).
-sensitive - window of time for certain development, but can occur later with more difficulty, unlike critical period.
John Bowlby
hypothesized that attachment is an evolutionary strategy for keeping children close to their parents in times of danger.
Mary Ainsworth
-developed a method for assessing attachment - "Strange Situation"
Attachment Styles (based on Strange Situation)
-secure - 65% - do explore, experience some distress, resolve and are comforted when mother comes back
-anxious-resistant (Anxious) - 10% - no exploring as much, more clingy with mom when stranger enters, apprehensive w/ stranger, upset when mom leaves, comforted by mother, but more clingy
-Anxious-avoidant (Avoidant) - 15%-16% - not paying much attention to mom, not distressed when mom leaves, indifferent, variability w/ reaction to stranger, may be indifferent when mom reenters.
-disorganized - 10% - disorganized unpredictable behavior, flip flopping behavior - may be clingy, hostile, indifferent, in short periods of time.
-early attachment influences later development, but other factors can also influence.
Stranger Anxiety
-begins at about 8-9 months and peaks at about 12-15 months
-evolutionary significance - walking is protective
Contact Comfort (Harry Harlow)
-there is more to attachment than food and nourishment
-underscores the importance of attachment and dangers of separation
-Resus Monkeys taken from mothers.
Statistical Significance "Main Points"
-applies to correlational and experimental research.
-now that we have these results, what is the likelihood of getting them if there is NO effect or NO relationship?
-what's the probability of this occuring simply by chance?
-what will it take to infer that there IS an effect or relationship?
-traditionally set significance level at .05 (i.e. 1 in 20)
-if p value is <.05 we infer that there IS an effect or relationship.
-NOTE: do not confuse statistical significance with importance ("practical" significance)
-applies to various research designs
Development: Parenting Styles
Baumrind (1971): 3 (4ish) major types of parenting styles (discipline and extent to which parent is responsive to needs and wants)
-authoritative - responsive to needs and wants - listen to children and able to modify - expectations, rules, structure in household. (associated with better psychological outcomes)
-authoritarian - clear expectations, rules, structure in household - less responsive to child's needs - "because i said so..." arguement.
-permissive - emotionally responsive to children - listen and try to provide - less emphasis on expectations, rules, and structure of household
-indifferent - no clear expectations, rules, structure, or routine - unresponsive to needs and wants - neglectful.
Development: Temperament
-characteristic predisposition to being emotional, active, and interested
Two Main Features:
-early appearing (womb to adult)
-largely genetically influenced
Thomas and Chess
-"easy" - 40% - don't kick, scream, or cry a lot - easy to please - only cry for a reason
-"difficult" - opposite of "easy" - unable to satisfy - difficult to console
-"slow to warm up"
Buss and Plomin
-emotionally, sociability, activity - different dimensions
-behavioral inhibition - a tendency to become frightened in response to novel/unfamiliar stimuli - is associated with shyness - is a predictor of later anxiety disorders - observed in about 10% of children.
Jean Piaget
-Predicted who would be the most successful in the classroom
-described the development of thinking processes
•children as “little philosophers” a way to look at the world
-Stage model of cognitive development
-Qualitative shifts from one mode of thinking to another
-Ordered steps
-Schemata (plural of schema- a framework) for understanding the world (experiment with different things in environment to understand it better)
-Development involves:
-Assimilation (add info to theory you already have) and accommodation adjust theory (encounter new piece of info in the world and realize it doesn’t fit with theory at all so you have to change theory to fit new info)
-(plural of schema- a framework) for understanding the world (experiment with different things in environment to understand it better)
add info to theory you already have) and accommodation -adjust theory (encounter new piece of info in the world and realize it doesn’t fit with theory at all so you have to change theory to fit new info)
Piaget’s stages of cognitive development
-Sensorimotor stage (0-2)- child begins to interact with environment
- preoperational stage (2-7)- the child begins to represent the world symbolically
- concrete operational stage (7-12)- the child learns rules such as conservation
- formal operational stage (12-adulthood)- the adolescent can transcend the concrete situation and think about the future
Sensorimotor stage
Birth to 2 years
Movement and sensation effect environment and see what happens
- goal orientation (deciding to do something and doing it)
- beginnings of theory of mind (idea that you can know something about what other people know) children begin to understand that other people have minds as well and that they know things about the world. Babies assume that everyone knows the same things they know (mirror self image recognition) first step to understanding self as a person when see themselves in mirror with something on head one reaction is to act out and look silly b/c they understand that embarrassment is okay
- Object permanence- objects continue to exist when they are no longer visible (play with a toy and hide toy under blanket baby looks for it and doesn’t know where it went as they get older they realize that it is under the blanket)
Preoperational stage
-age 2-7
-operation: any procedure for mentally acting on an object a procedure that can be reversed (begins in this stage)
-Symbolic representation dog represents not just family pet but a whole group of things
-Egocentrism they think that everyone views the world the same way that they do
-Fail the False Belief Task (child and experimenter and friend puts ball under cup friend leaves room and experimenter moves ball to under box to play trick on friend asks child where the friend will look and child says he will look under the box even though ball was under the cup before so they wouldn’t know that it had moved)
-Motor Skills development fine motor skills (start to play sports)
Concrete Operational Stage
-ages 7-11 years
-children think logically about concrete events
-understand conservation have learned that number matters, not space
-give child 2 glasses equally filled (before they understand conservation they usually go with bigger height or fatter)
-now pour one glass into long skinny tube ask again which has more water they understand that they are equal no matter what
-Advance Theory of Mind
-pass the false belief task
Formal Operational Stage
-11 years to adulthood
-can think logically about Abstract Ideas (love, justice talk about why they are important etc.. very complex thought)
-Hypothesis Testing- can formulate hypotheses about the world and test them (talk about how will do on test if study or not use info to decide if you will make a good grade or not)
Erik Erikson
-German psychologist concerned with issues of personality and identity
-Psychosocial Development how a person develops in relation to other people/ environment/society
-Development Across the Lifespan at every part of life people had developmental milestones that you were passing vs. Piaget where children were only ones who developed
-Development is a series of crises or problems that we must resolve (before moving on to next stage)
-Psychosocial crises, not psychosexual (in contrast to Freud)
-The resolution of each crisis sets the stage for later crises
-Some mixed research on Erikson’s model, but mostly positive
-“ Human personality in principle develops according to steps predetermined in the growing persons readiness to be driven toward, to be aware of and to interact with a widening social radius”- erikson
-widening social radius as children social radius is small caretakers then only people at school as grow more people
Stages of Psychosocial Development
-Infancy (1st year) - Trust vs. mistrust
-Toddler (2nd year)- Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (can I do things by myself or must I always rely on others?)
-Preschooler (3-5years)- Initiative vs. guilt am I good or bad? Good= make decisions that are right vs. bad= feel guilt, why cant I do things the right way?
-Elementary (6yrs-puberty) - competence vs. inferiority (successful or worthless?)
-Adolescence (teens-20s) - Identity vs. role confusion (who am I?)
-Young Adult (20s-40s)- Intimacy vs. isolation (do I want to be alone or share my life with someone? What is going to happen?)
-Middle Adult (40s-60s)- Generativity vs. stagnation (will I succeed in my life? As a person and a worker? Fulfilled?)
-Late Adult (60s-death)- Integrity vs. despair (was my life successful or did I just not live up to my expectations?) (happy or regretful?)
Lawrence Kohlberg
-Stages of Moral Development
-6 stages
-move from personal concern to universal moral principles
-Tested the stages using “moral dilemmas”
-No right or wrong answers
-Only the reasoning behind the answers was considered
-ex. Heinz and the Drug dilemma (in book) should Heinz steal the drug or not?
Kohlberg’s Stages
-Preconventional (level 1)
-Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment
-will I get punished? No he shouldn’t steal the drug because he’ll go to jail or yes he should b/ c he won’t have the money for his wife’s funeral
-Stage 2: Self- interest
-What’s in it for me? he should steal the drug b/c he’ll see her when he gets out of jail personal emotions etc.
-Conventional (level 2)
-Stage 3: Social Roles
• Good by/ good girl (what will they think of me? A good person or a bad person?)
-Stage 4: Authority and Social Order
-What if everybody did? thinking about society on very high level (right or wrong can be determined by social duty and role in society)
-Postconventional (level 3)
-Stage 5: Laws as Social Contract
-Laws should serve the greatest good for the greatest number of people
-Stage 6: Universal ethical principles
-Abstract principles: one acts because it is right, not as a means to an end overarching ethical principles
-Could hardly find people that would make a decision based on this stage
Most people get to stage 3,4, and 5 may get stuck on a stage and don’t make it to stage 6

More on Kohlberg’s model
-There is some evidence that Kohlberg’s stages may be universally relevant!
-Kohlberg’s stages do not predict behavior especially well
-When flip coin themselves they use self-interest to decide which experiment to do vs. giving coin to experimenter to flip coin they will give it to the experimenter (in book)
-In various situations you will get people acting at different levels based on situation
-Very few (if any) people reach stage 6
-Just something people talk about
Carol Gilligan
-argued that Kohlberg’s theory is sex-biased
-Ethics of caring vs. ethics of justice
-Women may stop at earlier stages not based on higher level most women make decisions based on relationships not ethics of justice
-May need other stages based on what is important in life
Sir Francis Galton (1882)
-suggested that intelligence is related to simple perceptual and sensory acuity. However, perceptual and sensory tasks bear no clear relation to other mental tasks.
Binet and Simon (1905)
-developed first intelligence test for screening purposes emphasized importance of higher mental processes (e.g. resoning, concept formation) to intelligence: "mental age"
-noted phenomenon of positive manifold
-all measures of mental ability are positively intercorrelated.
-posited existence of g (general intelligence) which remains controversial
-g may reflect speed of neural conduction, degree of myelination.
-triarchic model of intellect
-analytical intelligence ("g")
-practical intelligence - "street smarts" - social skills
-creative intelligence - ability to create new ideas
-argues for "multiple intelligences" ("frames of mind")
-such as linguistic, musical, bodily kinesthetic, visual spatial
-not lots of research or evidence
Assessment of Intelligence
-Adults - WAIS-II (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition) - Raven's Progressive Matrices (a "culture fair" intelligence test)
-Children - Standford-Binet - WISC-IV (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Edition)
-Stern - coined term "intelligence quotient" (IQ = [mental age/chronological age] x 100)
Problem with IQ tests
-mental age levels off in late adolescence, IQ would decrease progressively with age
-most researchers use the deviation IA to assess intelligence
-mean IQ is normed at 100, and each person's IQ is considered with respect to its deviation (difference from the norm)
-intelligence test scores form a roughly bell-shaped distribution.
-restandardize IQ tests - questions cannot be outdated - IQ scores change over time (mean should = 100)
Is IQ permanent?
-Reliability: refers to consistency of a measuring instrument.
-in adulthood, test/retest reliability of IQ scores is generally high (r=.8-.9) over several years.
-in infancy and chilhood, traditional IQ tests have low levels of test/retest reliability.
-IQ tests at age 5 or less are not very predictable of later IQ (except when extremely low)
-habituation measures show promise as indicators of later IQ among infants
Genetic and/or Environmental Influences on Intelligence
-has created much controversy
-Eugenics (1920s) - policy targeted toward improving "genetic makeup" of a population; resulted in mass forced sterilization and immigration laws in the US (Galton)
Behavior-Genetic Designs
-used to eliminate the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on psychological characteristics
-Heritability - the proportion at differences in a trait across individuals that is attributable to genetic factors. - DO NOT use with correlation - not same thing!
-Family Studies - reveals IQ is positively correlated among family members (do not distinguish genetic from environmental influences)
-twin studies - involve the comparison between monozygotic (identical) and dizigotic (fraternal) - monozygotic twins reared apart r=.69 for intelligence (high correlation)
-adoption studies - correlation between biological parents and adopted away child IQ tends to exceed correlation between adoptive parents and adopted away child IQ - adopted away siblings and siblings reared in the same household tend to have low IQ correlations.
Environmental Influences on IQ
-Headstart Programs - produce relatively consistent, but small, increases in IQ - long term effects appear negligible
-The Flynn Effect - is strong evidence of large IQ increases around the world (~3-6 pts per decade in the US and other Western Countries)
Potential Explanations for Environmental Influences on IQ
-test taking sophistication - increases are actually greatest on "culture fair" tests
-increased complexity/technology