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130 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Definition of Psychology
Science that deals with mental process and behavior.
Goals of Psychology
To describe, understand, predict and control behavior.
Areas of Study within Psychology
Basic or pure science
(knowledge for knowledge sake) (Comparative, Cognitive, Developmental, Sensation, Neuropsychology.

Applied Science (Clincial, Industraial, Community)
(Scientific method to solve real world problems)
Approaches to Psychology
Psychoanalytic
Behavior
Neurobiological - focuses on brain mechanisms of behavior.
Cognitive - focus on how we perceive and interpret experience, wants to know how we learn not what we remember.
Humanism
Evolutionary
What are dreams?
An event, experienced during sleep, experienced as real.
How do we experience dreams?
Unconscious Process
Founding fathers of Psychology
BF Skinner
Freud
Freud
Psychoanalytic (Ind differences in behaviors) Thinks that dreams are inhibitions in our daily lives.
Skinner
Behaviorist (Things that happen in our enviornment)

S&R Relationship (Response and Stimulus) Response - Observable activity. Stimulus - Observable event in environment.
In addition to describing and explaining mental processes and behavior, psychology attempts to ____ these phenomena
Predict and Control
At the level of the brain and from the neurobiological approach to psychology, it would be most likely to be important to know _______ in analyzing the behavior of a student sitting in a class taking a test.
Any drugs the student may have taken prior to the test
What is Neurobiological?
Focuses on brain mechanisms of behavior. (like what effect drugs would have on you)
If you believe that human consciousness is made up of individual components you agree with the _____ view of psychology.
Stucturalist
What is a Structuralist
Believe that human consciousness is made up of individual components
What is a functionalist?
deals with beliefs and desires
What is a Behaviorsit
Observable behaviors (things happening in our enviornment) Skinner box rodent knew that if he touch disk with nose he would get food).
If you work for a large corporation and it is your job to improve employee satisfaction you are likely to be a what psychologist
Industrial/Organizational
Industrial/Organizational
principles to practical problems of education or industry or marketing etc.
Developmental Pshy
that focuses on development across the life span
Cognitive Psy
The study of how we carry out our everyday tasks and how we cope with the booming, buzzing confusion of stimuli which constantly bombard us during our waking life.
Community Psy
of how to use the principles of psychology to create communities of all sizes that promote mental health of their members.
An interlocking set of concepts or principles that explain a set of behavioral observations is known as a
Theory
What is a hypothesis
a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations
What is a variable
something that is likely to vary; what is being measured.
What is a prediction
the act of predicting (as by reasoning about the future)
Independent variable is to dependent variable as
Manipulate is to measure
What is Independent Variable
manipulated, measured, or controlled.
The process where research participants are placed by chance into either the experimental or the control group is known as
random assignment
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What is Naturalistic Observation?
Observe behavior in a natural environment, no manipulation. (Simplest form)

Adv - behavior is spontaneous

Dis - must wait for event to occur
Correlation does not imply
Causation, however correlation is observe relationships between two variables and how they vary.

There is two types of Correlations:

Positive - one variably increases as the other increases (height and weight of children, both go up and that is positive)

Neg - One variable increases and the other decreases (drug use increase and grades decreased) this is a neg

Adv of Correlation - can talk about relationships amg variables.

Dis - cannot make causal statements (A may cause B or vice versa)
What is causation?
Test
Consider the following raw data 0, 5, 6, 3 6. The mean for these data world be
4
A statistically significant result is
not due to chance
Neuropsychologists work specifically with test designed to diagnose the effects of
brain damage
The brain has all of the following lobes except?
cerebral
Name the lobes of the brain
Parietal
Frontal
Occipital
The chief function of the occipital lobe is concerend with
vision
The frontal lobes are associated with all of the following functions except
vision that is in the back of the brain
Frontal lobes contain
reasoning
speech
emotions
Control of movements.
Behavior
The left hemisphere controls most aspects of language
in right handed people and in most left handed people
The ____ is charged with controlling bodily functions (such as eating and drinking). Keeping body tempature blood pressure and heart rate within thier jproper limits and governing sexual behavior.
Hypothalamus
What is Thalamus?
An area of the brain that helps process information from the senses and transmit it to other parts of the brain.
What is Hippocampus
A part of the brain that is important for learning and memory
What is Amygdala?
Structure of the limbic system in the anterior temporal lobe. Also a structure in the basal ganglia
The part of a neuron that sends information in the form of an action potential is called the
Axon
What is a dendrite
Treelike growths
Receives messages
What are terminal buttons
Secret Neurotransmitters (chemical conveyer of information)
What is myelin sheath
Speeds up transmission of the message the Axon is covered by it.
Ken has alzheimers therefore he has decreased levels of neurotransmitter _____ in his brain
Acetylcholine
What is Acetylocholine?
A neurotransmitter that appears to be involved in learning and memory. Acetylcholine is severely diminished in the brains of persons with Alzheimer’s disease
What is GABA
The major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain.
What is Fluoxetine
A drug used to treat depression. It belongs to the family of drugs called antidepressants
What is Dopamine?
A neurotransmitter, or chemical that transmits signals between nerve cells. Dopamine appears to function as an inhibitor. It has been associated with schizophrenia, and there is some evidence linking dopamine levels with pathological gambling
Alleles offer evidence that a gene for a trait can have
Different Forms
What is a genotype
Underlying genetic material (the genes that we rec, height and features)
What is a pheontype
Outward expression of genotype

Phenotype doesn't equal genotype.
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An individuals genes
lead to new connections amoung cells during the learning of new material

are constantly being turned on and off

produce new chemical substances as needed.
What is psychoanalytic?
of or relating to or incorporating the methods and theory of psychiatric treatment originated by Sigmund Freud
What is behavioral?
is an approach to psychology based on the proposition that behavior is interesting and worthy of scientific research. It is a form of materialism, denying any independent significance for mind
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Types of Scientific Study
Naturalistic
Experiements
Correlational
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What is Random Assignment of Subjects?
Participants have equal chance of being assigned to each group.
What is a sample
Subset of population that will test
What is a population?
all people to whom want to generalize
What is correation?
Test
What is inferential statistics
Evaluate Hypotheses - Here is where you evaluate the prediction (does the ind variable cause change to the depend variable)

Varibility within experimental groups due to chance and ind variable. (If likelihood that difference is due to chance is less than .05 (5 in 100) accept that indp variable influences results.
What is descriptive statistics
Just tells us what the participant did. (describes data)
What is measure of central tendency?
typical score that is representative of all scorres ( summary of scores)
What is a mean?
gives the average
What is measures of variability?
variation or differences among score.
What is standard deviation?
average dispersion or scatter in scores (greater the scatter, the larger the standard div)
What is statistical significance?
A conclusion that an intervention has a true effect, based upon observed differences in outcomes between the treatment and control groups that are sufficiently large so that these differences are unlikely to have occurred due to chance, as determined by a statistical test
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What is peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Nerves
What is the central nervous system (CNS)
Brain and Spinal Cord (controls motor parts)
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Name the parts of the neuron?
Dendrites
Soma
Axon
Terminal Buttons
What is the direction of the neuronal transmission?
It is one of the most important function of the body. What we call our senses are impulses travelling from various parts of the body to brain. Unknow to us however there are billions of connections made to transfer info from internal organs to the brain. It is the intricate neuron cellular network that keeps our body alive. This neuronal transmission animation gives in-depth information about how our nervous system functions.
What are the dendrite to terminal buttons?
Test
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What is synapse
Conjunction of terminal button of presynaptice neuron with dendrite of postsynaptice
What is excitatory synapse?
Increases likelihood of post-synaptic neuron firing
What is Inhibitory Synapse?
Decreases likelihood of post-synaptic neuron firing
What is presynaptic neuron?
the neuron before the synaptic cleft; the axon is said to be presynaptic
What is a postsynaptic neuron?
the neuron after the synaptic cleft; the dendrites of a neuron are said to be postsynaptic
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What is the cerbellum and its function?
The portion of the brain in the back of the head between the cerebrum and the brain stem. It is responsible for the coordination of movement and balance.
Name the lobes of the brain and thier function?
Occipital
Temporal
Parietal
Frontal
What is visual agnosia?
Can't recognize objects
What is gyrii
Bulges in the cerebral cortex
What is fissures
Grooves in the Cerebral Cortex
What are the deficits in Alzheimers desease
Dementia (memory loss, confustion, disorientation)

Loss of dendrites

Appearance of Alzheimer's bodies (tangles)

Appearance of amygdaloid beta (leads to cell loss)

Reappearance of A68 (leads to cell death)
Where is the cell loss in Alzheimers
Extreme loss of brain mass in the frontal and temporal regions
What is a neurotransmitter
Specialized chemical messenger (eg, acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin) that sends a message from one nerve cell to another. Most neurotransmitters play different roles throughout the body, many of which are not yet known.
What is acetylcholine and what does it do?
A neurotransmitter that appears to be involved in learning and memory. Acetylcholine is severely diminished in the brains of persons with Alzheimer’s disease.
What chemical changes with Alzheimers
Decrease in acetylocholine in hippocampus and temporal region
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What is passive interaction
Test
What is active interaction?
Test
What is a gene
Basic unit of herdity, determines growth of cells, function of cells.

Located on the chromosomes

Organized in pairs (one from dad and one from mom)
What are the functions of a gene?
Unit of heredity, determine growth and function of a cell
What is behavioral genetics?
The study of whether and how traits for behavior are inherited.
What is natural selection?
The differential survival and reproduction of organisms with genetic characteristics that enable them to better utilize environmental resources
What is adaptation?
the process of adapting to something (such as environmental conditions)
What is evolution?
development: a process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage
What are alleles?
Different forms of genes
What is a dominate allele
instructions are followed

eye color - brown allele dominaant over blue

you get blue eyes only with 2 blue alleles
What is a recessive allele
Most damaging genetic characteristics are recessive (only with 2 recessive alleles will the discorder be expressed)
What is homozygous?
a representation of genes

same allele in a pair

phenotype reflects genotype
What is heterozygous?
different alleles in a pair

dominate allele (instructions are followed)

recessive allele
instructions are ignored.
What is a sex linked charaterstic and what are they?
due to allele on x chromosome

males express if recessive allele is on x choromosome

you get color blindness, hemophilia
How are sex linked characteristics transmitted genetically?
Test
What is PKU
lack enzyme that breaks down phenylalanine

build up of phenylalaniene leads to brain damage and mental retardation.
What is monozygotic?
A type of twins derived from a single (mono) egg (zygote). Monozygotic twins form when a single fertilized egg splits into two embryos. Because the twins share the same DNA set, they tend to have similar features.
What is dizygotic?
Derived from a two (di) eggs (zygote). Dizygotic twins form when two separate eggs are fertilized by separate sperm.
Two types of groups
Experimental - receive dose of ind variable

Control Group- Not exposed to ind variable
Cerebal Cortex
Makes sense of sensory, muscle movement, activities that we choose to do, very large in humans

Characteristics: Gyri (bulges), Fissures (grooves), increase surface area (increase number of neurons)
Temporal Lobe
Auditory (Left and Right)

Left is - no speech recognition

Right - no music comprehension
Aphasia
No speech comprehension
Parietal Lobe
Two hemispheres Right and Left, Left - reading and writing, drawing - Right not aware of left half of the world.
What is a Neurons
Brings Sensory info to Brain

Transfer and process info

Controls Muscles
What is a Neurons
Brings Sensory info to Brain

Transfer and process info

Controls Muscles
What is Soma
Cell body

Nucleous contains mitochondria (maintains cells)
What is Axon
Carries Messages away from the Soma

Action potential (electrical messages)

Covered with Myelin Sheath