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157 Cards in this Set

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Gilbert Ryle
believes that their is no seperation between mind and the body; behaviorist, science of mind=science of behavior; mind and body not mutually exclusive
Gilbert Ryle
Descartes idea
The mind and body are 2 seperate entities; actions of the body are public, while actions of the mind are private, one can not know what another is thinking but can only analyze their actions based on your own behavior; 2 collateral histories 1 of mind one of body
-Gilbert Ryle BELIEVES IS FALSE
Gilbert Ryle
Category Mistake
assuming that the university is in the same category as its subdivisions, instead of being composed of the subdivisions
Gilbert Ryle
Pavlov
behaviorist, studied conditioned reflexes through the salivary glands of dogs
Pavlov
unconditioned reflex
a reflex that requires no conditioning, ie. touching hot plate- pulling away
Pavlov
conditioned reflex
can be conditioned using an unconditioned reflex; root for understanding behavior, ex) light+food= salivation run many trials and light=salivation
Pavlov
secondary conditioned reflex
paired with conditioned reflex and never reinforced
ex) Light+tone(no food)=salivation then tone=salivation(though less)
Pavlov
inhibitor
light and tone pairing continues w/o reinforcement after a time tone stops producing saliva then T+L=no salivation proving it to be inhibitory
Pavlov
inhibitor of the inhibitor
metronome paired with L+T at first no drops but always reinforced. M is slight inhibitor b/c L+M=6, but L+T+M=4 proving that m is inhibitor of T
Pavlov
equilibrium
after continued reinforcement w/ food M becomes a stimulator, so that L+M=10, meaning that we are back to the start neither more positive nor more negative
Pavlov
Norman Dixon
studied the conscious and preconscious aspects of thought
Dixon
2 systems of consciousness
the two systems of consciousness, one for transmission(fast unable to rest and think about transitory states), and the other for rep. in conscious experience(what we consider our thoughts)
Dixon
Leminiscal pathways
link sense organs to the cortex(fast acting)
Dixon
cortex
unconscious
Dixon
reticular activating system
slow acting fibers responsible for conscious info
Dixon
Studies in cats
when frontal cortex was disconected from brainstem they could still discriminate visual patterns w/o awareness
Dixon
Studies in monkeys
if leminiscal pathways were destroyed they could still be roused by sound and touch; but if lem. left intact and the reticualar system was destroyed they remained in a coma, but showed cortical potential to auditory and somatosensory perception
Dixon
how 2 systems interact
they can work independantly, one can have consciousness w/o sensory input; one can also have sensory input w/o consciousness
Dixon
Binocular rivalry
only one eye can achieve conciousness at one point.
Dixon
3 charachteristics of change in sensory mechanisms
-large capacit for monitering external world
-sensitivity to detecting change
-acccess to memory
Dixon
priorities of consciousness
anything that is: changing, novel, or of emotional importance. unimportant info drops out of consciousness to make room for new info
Dixon
Suppressed channels
continue to register and process info, change in attention depend on change in supressed channel, continue to be sampled
Dixon
Cortical Blindness(2)
patient follows target w/ eyes but cannot see it
Dixon
Blindsight
patient can guess shape color and loctation of an object though they cannot see it
Dixon
why a stimuli wouldnt achieve representation
intensity, duration, wavelength
Dixon
Bottom up
how info enters consciousness. from external stimuli ie. noise ratio, duration, frequency, complexity, and way entered
Dixon
Top down
how info enters consciousness. starts in mind, conscious intent, planned action
Dixon
Internal state
how info enters consciousness, state of brain, memory, emotive loading of previous info
Dixon
hypothesis
once a hypothesis has been formed all cotradicting info drops out of consciousness
Dixon
2 thinking processes
-rational/logical: well supported conclusion
-intuitive: based on hunches and feelings, little awareness
Dixon
Selective attention
restricts cognative activity, helps confine consciousness to immediate task, but also denys access to related info. Prevents overload of limited channels
dixon
Preconscious
monitering, analyzing, large analytical capacity, consistend w/ what is needed to survive. Sorts whats relevant to represent in conscious
dixon
Conscious
small capacity, in immediate awareness
dixon
subliminal and phenomenal
how important info is, rating for getting into consciousness
dixon
3 principles of gathering and processing info for preconscious
rapid orientation to new info; peripheral and changing stimuli; habituation to old info
dixon
States of need w/ regard to consciousness
depress thresholds for need related stimuli
dixon
Montagna
studied the nervous system
Montagna
Nervous system
principle coordinater of the body. relay stystem for incoming and outgoing messages, adjuste individual to environment maintains integrity of body
Montagna
nerve cells(neurons)
structural and funtional unit of nervous system
Montagna
3 types of neurons
unipolar, bipolar, multipolar determined by how many proccesses attached to body
Montagna
dendrites
cytoplatic extensions of cell body, conduct nerve impulses towards cell body
Montagna
axon
only one that splits into many branches, carry impulses away from cell body, terminate in dif places. can be covered by myelin sheath
Montagna
Myelinated
the axon is covered by white myelin sheath(nodes of Ranvier= gaps in myelin sheath)
Montagna
receptors
sensory mechanisms that carry messages up and down nervous system.
Montagna
afferent v. efferent fibers
afferent= carry receptors from 1 neuron to another
efferent= carry receptors to designated organs
Montagna
Ganglion(in PNS)
bundel of cell bodies(in PNS)
Montagna
Peripheral nervous system
contains all other nerves and ganglion
Montagna
Central Nervous system
spinal cord and brain
Montagna
Nerve(in pns)
bundel of nerve fibers(in PNS)
Montagna
fiber tract(in CNS)
bundel of nerve fibers(in CVS)
Montagna
Nucleus(In CNS)
bundel of cell bodies
Montagna
Proccess (neuron)down
info moves from dendrites of cell body-> axon->synapse(where neurotransmiters are released to convey message to dentrites of following neuron in chain
Montagna
Proccess (nerve impulses)up
nerve impulses travel along nerve fibers to sminal cord and up spinal nerves->brain and cranial nerves
Montagna
Spinal cord roots
recieves pain of sensory roots through afferent fibers on dorsal side, and a pair of motor roots emerge on ventral side at each intervertebral space
Montagna
anatomy of spinal cord
white matter: outside grey matter; myelinated fibers
grey matter: center of spinal cord; not myelinated fibers
central canal occupies middle
Montagna
Simple reflex
receptor organ->afferent sensory fibers->dorsal root ->dorsal column->interneurons->ventral column->motor neuron->ventral root->motor/ effector organ(muscle)
*does not involve central nervous system
montagna
all or none law
nerve impulses must travel at the same rate or not at all, velocity doesnt change only frequency increased w/ intensity of stimuli
montagna
neural plate
contains all materials of nervous system for embryos; fuses to become neural tube
montagna-development
neural tube
covered by neural crest and enlarges at anterior to become the 3 primary brain vesicles; rest is slender and becomes spinal cord
montagna-development
anterior of neural tube
divides into the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain
montagna-development
forebrain(prosencephalon)
divides into the telencephalon and diencephalon
montagna-development
telencephalon
divides into 2 vesicles that become the cerebral hemisphere
montagna-development
hindbrain(rhombencephalon)
gives rise to the metencephalon(which becomes the cerebellum and pons) and the myelencephalon(which becomes the medulla oblangata)
montagna-development
the forming of roots
the ventral and dorsal roots come together to form the spinal cord; in the brain the cranial nerves emerge as ventral or dorsal routes
montagna-development
meninges
cover brain and spinal cord; protect them, bring blood supply,and circulate cerebrospinal fluids
montagna-development
meninges(2)
split into vascular pia matter in contact w/ nerve tissue and fibrous dura mater on outside between there is an arachnoid membrane and it is the subarachnoid space that's filled with cerebrospinal fluid
montagna-development
neural canal
runs through the brain and spinal cord into dif. chambers or ventricles
montagna-development
Ventricles
-I&II are the largest and lateral ventricles and are in the cerebral hemisphere of forebrain
-ventricle III and IV is in the diencephalon are in the medulla oblongata where the most cerebrospinal fluid is secreted
montagna-development
brains of lower v. higher vertebrates
lower vertebrates: plane and straight
higher vertebrates: have progressively folded brains so that it has more surface area.
montagna-development
gyri and sulci
ridges and grooves in the brain
montagna-development
olfactory lobes
large in lower vertebrates but becomes smaller as the brain gets bigger. oldest part of brain
montagna-development
3 commisures of the cerebral hemisphere
the anterior and hippocampal connect olfactory portions to the 2 hemispheres, large corpus callosum connects newer parts of 2 hemispheres
montagna-development
hypothalamus
controls the autonomic nervous system and involuntary actions of the body
montagna-development
cerebellum
controls coordinated muscle action and equilibrium more highly developed in active animals, regulates duration, strength and speed of muscular movement
montagna-development
Medulla
contains centers of all vital incoluntary reflexes
montagna-development
crossover
impulses that enter spinal cord cross from one side to the other in the brain through commisural neurons in medulla oblongata. injury in one side of the brain results in damage to other side of the body
montagna-parts
thalamus
contains center through which entire autonomic system can be activated, and regulates centers of hypothalamus
montagna-parts
Cerebral cortex
recieves all sensations that require discrimination from thalamus
montagna-parts
Superior colliculi
contain centers for the coordination of sight and oculomotor activity
montagna-parts
inferior colliculi
centers of auditory reflex
montagna-parts
Spinal cord
has central canal running through center, spinal nerves enter on dorsal side and coresponding motor nerves emerve on vental side. Made up of grey matter surrounded by white matter.
seat of reflex centers controlling muscles of the trunk and limbs and is conductive pathway to and from the brain
montagna-parts
Peripheral nervous system
nerves connect to the brain through spinal and cranial nerves; mechanism for recieving and relaying impulses for setting off responses. divides into the somatic and autonomic systems
montagna-parts
Somatic
consists of motor fibers ending in skeletal muscle
montagna-parts
autonomic
efferent system, fibers terminate in glandviscera, blood vessels, and smooth muscle. control circulation, respiration, digestion, metabolism, and body temp. divides into the sympathetic and parasympathetic
montagna-parts
sympathetic
responsible for triggering fight or flight(adreniline based)
montagna-parts
parasympathetic
conserves and restores energy instead of expending it(acetylcholine based)
montagna-parts
Medulla(of adrenal gland)
releases norepinephrine acts similar to effect of sypathetic
montagna-parts
Phineas Gage
construction worker, explosion shot an iron rod through his cheek and peirces the base of his skull crosses front brain and exits skull, he remains conscious and lives though he gets many infections and 1 abscess that is removed. he is physically healthy except for loss of vision in 1 eye. His personality was severely affected by the accident.
Damasio
Effects for phineas gage
cannot carry out plans; personality change loss of inhibitions, passions of a child w/ strength of man, used more foul language. developed fits and seizures and died young.
Damasio
Systems of personal and social dimension
regulate social conventions, loss of previously required knowledge, ethical rules can be lost to brain damage even when motor or intelligence functions are fine
Damasio
Planning- Gage
there's a part of the brain responsible for anticipation of future, planning in social environment, responsibility towards self to deliberately plan survival
Damasio
lessons-gage
-there are no single centers for vision, language, reason, or social behavior
-systems made up of several interconnected brain units
-where the units are placed contributes dif. components to systems opp. and are not interchangable

-social conventions, ethical behavior, planning for survival, and progress require knowledge of rules and strategies and integrity of spec. brain system
Damasio
Penfield and Roberts
the recordings of consciousness and the function of the interpretive cortex
Penfield and Roberts
hippocampus(Penfield and Roberts)
essential in the formation and preservation of memoriees; also may be involved in memory recall. Records stream of consciousness and possibly the resactivation of this record
Penfield and Roberts
2 types of physical responses in the temporal cortex
expirimental and interpretive
Penfield and Roberts
Flash-Back
using electrodes one can cause a patient to relive a memory; enters the same stream of consciousness. aware of 2 consciousness's past and present. irrelevant data lost but all other info retained.
Penfield and Roberts
interpretive responses
there is no recall of the past only an interpretation of the present(deja vu)
or
a patient when applied w/ electrodes can feel strange and absurd. relationship of patient to environment is altered feels distance from events or proximity.
Penfield and Roberts
real memory v. stimulated memory
real memory is a generalization while stim. memory is more vivid, as if reliving them. pain taste or smell is not represented in stim memories, andmost are unimportant memories
Penfield and Roberts
experiences w/ electrode do not go backwards or cross and stop when the electrode is removed it can not be voluntarily reactivated must be achieved through other mechanisms
a
Penfield and Roberts
cerebral cortex is covered by nerve and ganglion cells that respond to electrical stim.
b
Penfield and Roberts
interp. responses correspond to the everyday judgments made by hte patients, analyzing the past w/ regard to the future
c
Penfield and Roberts
patients were fully aware of present and adressed doctor instead of ppl in memory
d
Penfield and Roberts
patients do not experience pain, taste or smell in stim., experiences do not go backwards in time, do not cross each other, and stop when electrode is withdrawn. no one can voluntarily recollect info
e
Penfield and Roberts
Korsakovs syndrome
a disease from alcholic degeneration of mammilary bodies. memory of recent events is disturbed almost exclusively, recent memories disapear while long ago facts are recalled, though intelligence remains intact. one can still form familiarity, and recognize ppl somewhat. possible reintegration thru art
oliver sacks
retrograde amnesia
inability to remember things in the past starts from current and moves backwards in time
oliver sacks
anterograde amnesia
unable to form new memories
oliver sacks
transient global amnesia
similar to Korsakovs but is only temporary. is a result of migraines head injuries or impaired blood supply
oliver sacks
pattern of behavior
x consitst of 2 parts and and b; x=AB, A consists of a and b and B consists of c, d and e; X=abcde, behavior can be described in any of 3 levels but no 1 level is better than any of the others
M,G,P
heirarchy of behavior
X
A
a
b
B
c
d
e
M,G,P
Plan
any heirarchical proccess that can control order ov sequence of operations performed
M,G,P
Strategy and Tactics
Molar units of behavior=strategy
molecular units=tactics
M,G,P
Execution
plan executed step by step, though execution does not neccessarily result in overt action
M,G,P
Image
private represetation of plan
M,G,P
relationship between image and plan
no strict dichotomy between the 2; knowledge must b incorporated into the plan, otherwise could not provide basis for guiding behavior. images can form part of plan
M,G,P
cell assembly theory
theory of thought and gen theory of behavior
Hebb
learning theorists
watsons stimulus-response and denial of mental processes
Hebb
Perceptionists
narrow view of perception w/ regards to learning
Hebb
Hebb
physiological theory; thought that thought must b known as well as the chemist knows the atom
Hebb
problem of perception
perception may not requre activity in any particular cells, but learning must depend on changes in particular cells
Hebb
Learning
Changed pattern of brain conduction, resulting from experience and changes response potential. Simple(S->R).
Hebb
Simple learing proccess
S->R new connection is formed
Hebb
Complex learning proccess
no resonse at time of learning, later a response shows learing did occur.
Hebb
What is a memory(hebb)
if changed pattern of conduction persists it's a memory, persistance is due to changed relation to particular pathways, and neurons, localized effect
Hebb
Cell assemmly theory(2)
when we proccess things it isnt always broken down to its base parts, it must be done 1st so we can learn to represent the whole directly
Hebb
when excitation reaches the cortex instead of having to be transmitted at once to a motor path or die out it may travel around the closed paths and continue to do so after the orig. signal is gone(hebb) makes delayed response and theoretical thought plausible(ready go)
a
Hebb
set go theory
the effect of the first must be held to till the 2nd is present. The 1st prepares the mind and makes the 2nd connection happen faster
Hebb
chimpanzees deprivation/ learning processes
reared in dark did not develop the right way could not percieve sight b/c they were not capable even after being brought into the light
Hebb
Deficit reactions
Emotion is a disruption of cell assembly. Even in the simple abscence of accustomed sensory input cell assemblies might b disrupted
Hebb
Hebbs test on Rats
hebb tested the difference between animals that had been raised in a poor environment v. animals that had been raised in a healthy environment. Rats raised in environments that lack sensory input were inferior to those raised in a hich stim. environment. This effect only occurs during the growth period(one group raised restricted then free as adults the other the opposite) 2nd group much better. Effects of early environment on intelligence irreversible. Visual even if unable to explore physically greatly enhances intelectual development
Hebb
Hebbs expiriments on Dogs
(either raised in restricted enviro or given freedom of a pet). Those raised in restricted environment happy since they knew nothing else, though adults in those environments would be miserable. More extreme reactions. Dogs raised in restricted environments were untrainable, abnormal in personality, and difficult to describe social behavior. They also ignored pain. Less likely to form conditioned responses. Motivation and emotional ties of pain are functions of infant experience
hebb
Hilgard and Hilgard
Hypnosis
Hilgard and Hilgard
hypnosis
can relieve pain from surgery or minor injury; normal phenomenon related to the power of suggestion; can be used as psychotherapy;
Hilgard and Hilgard
Hypnotic response
-people differ in their abilities to be hypnotized
-use score to tell "how deep" a patient is
-ability to be hypnotized=hereditary
Hilgard and Hilgard
extreme state theory
anyone can enter state ofhypnosis if circumstances are favorable
Hilgard and Hilgard
Hebbs expiriments on Dogs
(either raised in restricted enviro or given freedom of a pet). Those raised in restricted environment happy since they knew nothing else, though adults in those environments would be miserable. More extreme reactions. Dogs raised in restricted environments were untrainable, abnormal in personality, and difficult to describe social behavior. They also ignored pain. Less likely to form conditioned responses. Motivation and emotional ties of pain are functions of infant experience
hebb
Hilgard and Hilgard
Hypnosis
Hilgard and Hilgard
hypnosis
imagination important; can relieve pain from surgery or minor injury; normal phenomenon related to the power of suggestion; can be used as psychotherapy;
Hilgard and Hilgard
Hypnotic response
-people differ in their abilities to be hypnotized
-use score to tell "how deep" a patient is
-ability to be hypnotized=hereditary
Hilgard and Hilgard
extreme state theory
anyone can enter state ofhypnosis if circumstances are favorable
Hilgard and Hilgard
self hypnosis
a person can hypnotize themselves
Hilgard and Hilgard
Hypnotic experience
-sense of relaxation, mental and physical
-attention narrowed
-daydreamlike
-gradiations of acceptance
-heightened suggestibility
-when hypnotist is trusted the patient gives in more
-hypnotist=guide
Hilgard and Hilgard
Depth of hypnosis
at very little depth pain reduction takes effect, it also has the highest degree of responiveness. as one goes deeper little or no communication is achieved. At extreme depths people report mystical experience
Hilgard and Hilgard
Parapsychology
occurence unexplainable by physical principles; usually involving physical events or objects, but not completely physical, rely or sensory motor relations between subject and objects, organs have not been identified
Rhine and Pratt
Extrasensory perception
(esp) knowledge is aquired independant of the senses
Rhine and Pratt
Psychokinesis
(PK) producing a physical effect w/o physical intermediation
Rhine and Pratt
telepathy
(subdivision of esp) transfer of thought from one mind to another without mediation of senses
Rhine and Pratt
clairvoyance
(subdivision of esp) perception of objects or events as distinguished from mental thoughts of another person
Rhine and Pratt
precognition
(subdivision of esp) perception of future events that are not brought about by the prediction or by accident
Rhine and Pratt
direct perception real time and distance
real time events can be percieved from remote locations
no change in reception based on increased distance
Targ, Puthoff and May
Results distant viewing
2/3 correct
more ppl would help the study
training increased acuracy and reliability
-can reception be enhanced by technilogical means?descriptive ojects are percieved while concepts are difficult
accuracy and resolution depend on the interest of the object
Targ, Puthoff and May
1st principle
when you find something interesting drop everything else and study it
Skinner 2
2nd principle
some ways of doing research are easier
Skinner 2
3rd principle
some people are lucky
Skinner 2
4th principle
apparatuses sometimes break down
Skinner 2
5th principle
serendipity- finding one thing while looking for something else
Skinner 2
artificial memories
after a person experiences something new info can be represented after the fact and become incorporated into the memory. ie leading the witness
use of words is important. ie smashing v. bumping. can create memory of object never seen or mentioned
false info can either suplement or change a memory
Loftus
verbal labels
changes the way ppl percieve an object in memory
Loftus