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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Social Psychology
The scientific study of how we influence another's behavior and thinking.
Attibution theory
The process by which we explain our own behavior and the behavior of others.
Attribution- internal (dispositional)
We infer an internal cause for the persons behavior; usually based on our ability and effort.
Attribution- external (situational)
When you look at someone else's behavior and say they behave in a certain way based on the situation; usually based on task difficulty and luck.
Self as observer- fundamental attribution error
The tendency as an observer to overestimate dispositional (internal) influences on the behavior of others.
Self as observer- "just world" hypothesis
The assumption that the world is just and people get what they deserve- therefore bad things happen to bad people. Likewise, good things happen to good people.
Self as observer- primacy effect
Information gathered early is weighted more heavily than information gathered later in forming an impression of another person. It is particuarily true for negative stuff.
Self as observer- self-fulfilling prophecy
When our behavior leads a person to act in accordance with our expectations for that person.
Self as actor- actor-observer bias
The tendency to overestimate situational (external) influences on our behavior.
Self as actor- self-serving bias
The tendency to make attributions so that you can percieve yourself favorably. We tend to attribute positive outcomes to dispositional traits. We also tend to attribute negative outcomes to external characteristics.
Self as actor- false-consensus effect
The tendency to overestimate the commonality of one's oppinions and unsuccessful behaviors- if we screw up in a situation then other people also screwed up.
Self as actor- false-uniquenes effect
The tendency to underestimate the commonality of one's abilities and successful behaviors.
A learned predisposition to respond in a consitently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object. Examples would be liking chocolate and hating rollercoaster's.
Components of attitudes- beliefs
Ideas or "facts". An example would be that ice cream is cold, tastes sweet, and is made of milk. They are also sometimes called cognitions.
Components of attitudes- feelings (affect)
Evaluations about the attitude. This is the "I like" or "I don't like" part. These are not nessacarily all positive or all negative. This is the key component, it seperates attitudes from different constructs.
Components of attitudes- behavioral tendencies
This is a tendency. An example would be if you like cold, sweet, or things made of milk, then your tendency would be to approach it and vice versa.
-the belief aspect
-the feeling aspect
-the resulting behavior
Lapiere's study
He wanted to look at the relationship between people's attitudes vs. their behaviors. He chose to study a group of people who were discriminated against for a long time, so he chose Chinese people. He took a Chinese couple and went on a cross-country trip with them, visiting hotels and restaurants. They were only denied admission to two places. Afterwards, he send a letter to ask about their polices. A lot of them came back with a negative response. So, he found that people's attitudes didn't always lead to a discriminating behavior.
4 characteristics to make an attitude more likely to lead to a discriminating behavior...
-Attitudes are more effective if they are based on personal experiences and/or you are conciously aware of them.
-Also, attitudes cannot be influenced by too many outside influences.
-Individual personality characteristics- there are some people where it is easier to predict their behaviors based on their personality.
Cognitive Consonance
Festinger- where all of the pieces fit together.
Cognitive Dissonance
Festinger- people have a tendency to change their attitudes to reduce cognitive discomfort caused by inconsistencies between their attitude and behavior. Also, they can add new cognitions to each side. They do this to bolster one vs. the other. Also, they can simply decide that neither is important.
Less leads to more effect
The idea that smaller rewards actually tend to lead to greater dissonance as well as greater attitude changes.
Self-perception theory
Bem- a theory that assumes that when we are unsure of our attitudes we infer them from our behaviors.
Zimbardo- know the stuff we covered in class on Friday.
Social influence on our behavior
What other people do and say does influence us. It is usually pressure by a group to adhere to their norms.
Refer to the groups shared expectations about how to behave.
A change in behavior, belief/attitude, or both to conform to a group norm as a result of real or imagined group pressure.
Informational social influence
Sherif- influence stemming from the need for information in situations in which the correct action or judgment is uncertain.
Sherif study
Would put people in a room and do the auto kinetic effect. He found that when people were alone they responded very differently then when subjects were in a group. For example, they would say the light moved to the side that everyone else had said it moved too.
Normative social influence
Asch- influence stemming from our desire to gain the approval and avoid the disapproval of others.
Asch study
They were told it was a study of visual recognition. They were also told that they were in a group. All but one of the people was in on the experiment. They would go down the line and purposefully give the wrong answer. The issue would be how many people would go along with the wrong answer. About 30% of people would go along with the wrong answer.
Name 5 things conformity is influenced by...
-unamity of the group
-mode of response
-status of group member
-task difficulty
-group size
Unamity of the group
Everyone else gives the same answer, you will conform. Once someone else gives a different answer, conformity will decrease.
Mode of response
Voting aloud or secret ballot. Voting aloud will give greater conformity than a secret ballot.
Status of a group member
People of low status in a group are generally more influenced by conformity.
Task difficulty
We tend to conform when tasks are more difficult.
Group size
This effect increases around 3 to 4 people.
Acting in accordance with a direct request from another person or group.
Name and describe 2 influences on compliance
-complaining- you complain until they finally give in.
-ingratiation- you want to be able to influence other people by engaging in flattering.
Foot in the door technique
Compliance to large request is gained by percieving it with a very small request.
Door in the face technique
Compliance is gained by starting with a large unreasonable request that is turned down and following it with a more reasonable smaller request.
Lowball technique
Compliance to a costly request is gained by first getting compliance to an attractive less costly request and then reneging it.
-You get somebody to agree to something and then you raise the cost of compliance.
That's not all technique
Compliance to a planned second request with additional benefits gained by presenting this request before a response can be made to the first request.
-An extra incentive is added before the person has agreed or rejected the request.
Obedience to authority
Following the commands of a person with authority.
Milgram's study
Milgram was one of Asch's students. He also went to high school with Zimbardo. The question that stimulated them were the behaviors in World War 2. People were being questioned as to why they behaved that way, and they said that they were following orders. The subjects of this study were all men. The study was done at Yale. The subjects were told that the study was about the effects of electrical shock on memory. The subjects were told that one subject was a student and one was a teacher. The real subject was always the teacher. The student was a confederate, the one who was in on the experiment. They were given a pair of words. The learner was told to make a lot of mistakes. The idea is how far the subject will go in terms of shocking the person. At different volts the learner was instructed to respond in certain ways. The issue is how far the subject would go. 65% of the subjects kept increasing the amount of electrical power; up to the point of "death".
The "Astrogen" study
It was done in a hospital setting. They got somebody to call up and pretend to be a doctor. She was told to give a dosage to a patient that was clearly an OD. The question is how many nurses would obey. 21 out of 22 obeyed.
The Jonestown massacre
Jim Jones was a religious colt leader. He got the entire town that had joined his colt to drink his poisoned kool-aid, knowing full well that it was poisoned.
Social facilitation
Facilitation of a dominant response on a task due to social arousal leading to...
-improvement on simple or well-learned tasks
-worse performance on complex or unlearned tasks
...when people are present.
Social loafing
The tendency to exert less effort when working in a group toward a common goal than when individually working toward a goal.
Diffusion of responsibility
The lessening of individual responsibility for a task when the responsibility for the task is spread across the members of the group.
The bystander effect
The probability of a person's helping in an emergency is greater when there are no other bystanders than when there are other bystanders.
The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in a group situation that fosters arousal and anonmity.
Group polarization
The strengthening of a group's prevailing oppinion about a topic following group discussion about this topic.
Groupthink (Janis)
A mode of group thinking that impairs decision-making because the desire for group harmony overrides a realistic appraisal of the possible decision alternatives.