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80 Cards in this Set

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Developmental psychology
The scientific study of biological, social, and personality development across the life span.
The fertilized egg that is formed from the union of the sperm and egg cells in human reproduction.
The basic unit of genetic instruction
Molecules of DNA that hold the genetic instructions for every cell in the body.
What it is called in the early stages of development through the end of the second month.
What it is called when it is in the womb. This is in the later stages of development when the body structures are in the recognizeable form of its kind. This is after the second month of gestation.
This is a newborn child, or one in it's first 28 days.
It is formed in the lining of the unterus by the union of the uterine mucous membrane with the membranes of the fetus and the elimination of it's waste products.
Environmental agents such as drugs and viruses, diseases, and physical conditions that impair prenatal development and lead to birth defects and sometimes death.
Proceeding or occuring in the long axis of the body especially in the direction from head to tail.
Develops from the inside out.
Rooting reflex
An innate human reflex that leads infants to turn their mouth toward anything that touches their cheek for something to suck on.
An innate human reflex that leads infants to suck anything that touches their lips.
If the childs palms are touched then the child will grasp the object tightly.
If the sole of the infants foot is stroked then the infant will fan out their toes and twist their foot in.
If there is a sudden stimulation, such as a loud noise, then the infant is startles and will arch their back, throw their head back, and throw out their arms and legs then rapidly pull them close to their body.
If the infant is held upright and the feet are allowed to touch the grond then the infant will move their feet as if they were going to walk.
A decrease in the psysiological responding to a stimulation once it becomes familiar.
It is least developed at birth. Newborns can not see very clearly. Their visual acuity is about 20/400 to 20/800. This means that a person with 20/20 vision can see at 400-800 feet what the infant sees at 20 feet. Visual acuity will develop within the 1st year of life. They also have visual preference for faces.
Is more fully developed than vision. They can distinguish their mother's voice from those of others. The ability to hear develops in the womb before birth. By about 6 months, an infants hearing is compareable to an adults.
Smell, taste, and touch
Fairly developed at birth. Infants can differentiate the small of their mother from those of other people
Baby talk (motherese)
The different format of speech that adults use when talking with babies that involves the use of shorter sentences with a higher, more melodious pitch.
The rhythmic repetition of various syllables including both consonants and vowels.
A word used by an infant to express a complete idea.
The application of a newly learned word to objects that are not included in the meaning of the word.
The failure to apply a new word more generally to objects that are included within the meaning of the word.
Telegraphic speech
Using two-word sentences with mainly nouns and verbs.
Transitional grammar
This is about the ability to transform words into meaningful sentences. It is believed that this is an element of development and it is genetically based. We also all have a language aquisition device (LAD). Once this is developed children will develop grammar.
Social learning theory
This is the idea that children learn by what they see. It is a part of the nurture theory.
Piaget- Schemes
Framework that we develop for our knowledge about people, objects, events and actions.
Piaget- Assimilation
Refers to the interpretation of our new experiences in the terms of present schemas.
Piaget- Accomodation
You change your schema to fit new experiences. You can add schemas and also modify existing schemas.
Piaget- Sensorimotor period
Birth- two years. This is probably the most important stage. It is called the sensorimotor period because the child uses both sensoru and motor abilities to learn about their environment.
Piaget- Sensorimotor- Object permanence
The child knows than the object exists even though it looks like it has been hidden.
Piaget- Sensorimotor- Self-recognition
This is when the baby recognizes themselves in the mirror.
Piaget- Preoperations
2-6 years. Children use symbolic thought. They understand that symbols actually mean something. It is a very primitive form of logic.
Piaget- Preoperations- Egocentrism
They do not know where they leave off and mom or dad begin. They assume that everyone else feels the same way they do.
Piaget- Preoperation- Animism
This is when you give an inanimate object human qualities.
Piaget- Preoperations- Conservation
They do not have this in the preoperational stage. It is when the quantitative characteristics of an object remain the same evem though the appearerance may change.
Piaget- Preoperations- Reversability
They don't have the ability to mentally reverse actions.
Piaget- Preoperations- Centration
This is when they look at an object and can only focus on one aspect of the object.
Piaget- Concrete operational
6-12 years. They can conserve because they can mentally reverse and they can decenter theri attention. At this point, they begin to think somewhat more logically than before. You still have to show them how to do things. A lot of times it is a trial-and-error type of thing. This is also where they begin to understand that the environment has certain constants. They is also where they begin to understand rules.
Piaget- Formal operational
12 years to adulthood. This stage is really about adolescence. They are now able to really think logically, abstractly.
Piaget- Formal operational- Imaginary audience delusion
This is the idea that an adolescence thinks that when they go out everyone is looking at them.
Piaget- Formal operational- Personal fable
They think that they can conquer the world.
Vygotsky- Zone of proximal development
According to Vygotsky, the difference between what a child can do and what the child can do with the help of others.
Vygotsky- Scaffolding
According to Vygotsky, a style of teaching in which the teacher adjusts the level of help in relation to the child's level of performance while orienting the child's learning toward upper level of his or her own zone of proximal development.
Cross-sectional study
A study in which the performance of groups of participants of different ages are compared to one another.
Longitudal study
A study in which performance of the same group of participants is examined at different ages.
Cohort effects
People of a given age are affected by factors unique to their generation, leading to differences in performance between generations.
Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning
He defined morality as a system of learned personal beliefs about what is right and wrong and you use these to evaluate certain situations. He worked primarily with men and boys.
Kohlberg- Preconventioanal morality
This first level of reasoning in Kohlberg's theory of moral development in which moral reasoning is based on avoiding punishment and looking out for your own welfare and needs.
Kohlberg- Conventional morality
The second level of moral reasoning in Kohlberg's theory of moral development in which moral reasoning is based on social rules and laws.
Kohlberg- Postconventional morality
The last level of reasoning in Kohlberg's theory of moral development in which moral reasoning is based on self-chosen universal ethical principles (with human rights taking precedence over laws) and the avoidance of self-condemnation for violating such principles.
Kohlberg- Level 1- Punishment orientation
Compliance with rules to avoid punishment.
Kohlberg- Level 2- Reward orientation
Compliance with rules to obtain rewards and satisfy own needs.
Kohlberg- Level 3- Good-girl/good-boy orientation
Engages in behavior to get the approval of others.
Kohlberg- Level 4- Law and order orientation
Behavior is guided by duty to uphold laws and rules for their own sake.
Kohlberg- Level 5- Social contract orientation
Obeys rules because they are nessacary for social order but understands rules are relative.
Kohlberg- Level 6- Universal ethical principles orientation
Concerned about self-condemnation for violating universal ethical principles based on human rights.
Harlow- attachment
The lifelong emotional bond between infants and their mothers or other caregivers, formally during the first 6 months of life.
Harlow- attachment- secure attachment
The type of attachment indicated by the infant exploring freely in the presence of the mother in the Ainsworth strange situation, displaying distress when the mother leaves, and responding enthusiastically when she returns.
Harlow- attachment- insecure-avoidant attachment
The type of attachment indicated by the infant exporing with little interest in the mother in the Ainsworth strange situation procedure, showing only minimal distress when the mother leaves, and avoiding her when she returns.
Harlow- attachment- insecure-ambivalent attachment
The type of attachment indicated by the infant not exploring but seeking closeness to the mother in the Ainsworth strange situation and showing high levels of distress when the mother leaves and ambivilant behavior when she returns by alternately clinging and pushing away from her.
Harlow- attachment- insecure-disorganized attachment
The type of attachment indicated by the infant's confusion when the mother leaves and returns in the Ainsworth strange situation procedure. The infant acts disoriented, seems overwhelmed by the situation, and does not demonstrate a consistent way of coping with it
The set of innate tendencies or dispositions that lead a person to behave in certain ways.
Erikson- Authoritarian parenting
A style of parenting in which the parents are demanding, expect unquestioned obedience, are not responsive to their children's desires, and communicate poorly with the children.
Erikson- Authoritative parenting
A style of parenting in which the parents are demanding, but set ratioanal limits for their children and communicate well with their children.
Erikson- Permissive parenting
A style of parenting in which the parents make few demands and are overly responsive to their children's desires, letting their children do pretty much as they please.
Erikson- Uninvolved parenting
A style of parenting in which the parents minimize both the time they spend with their children and their emotional involvement with them and provide for their children's basic needs, but little else.
Erikson's psychological stage theory of development
He was into the idea that social interaction, especially between the parent and child, is very important. The successful resolution of each stage indicates social competencies.
Erikson- The epigenetic principle
A lot of this development is biologically based and new characteristics arrive at each stage in order to help you resolve the crisis.
Erikson- Trust vs. Mistrust
Birth to one year. Infants learn that they can trust of cannot trust others to take care of their basic needs.
Erikson- Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
1-2 years. Children learn to be self-sufficient in many activities such as toilet training, walking, and exploring. If restrained too much they will learn to doubt their abilities and feel shame.
Erikson- Initiative vs. Guilt
3-5 years. Children learn to assume more responsibility by taking initiative but will feel guilty of they overstep limits set by parents.
Industry vs. Inferiority
5 to 11/12 years. Children learn to be competent by mastering new intellectual, social, and physical skills or to feel inferior if they fail to develop these skills.
Identity vs. Role Confusion
11-15 years. Adolescents develop as sense of identity by experimenting with different roles. No role experimentation may result in role confusion.
Intimacy vs. Isolation
16-24 years. Young adults form intimate relationships with others or become isolated because of a failure to do so.
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Middle adulthood. Middle-aged adults feel they are helping the next generation through their work and child rearing, or they stagnate because they feel that they are not helping.
Integrity vs. Despair
Late-adulthood. Older adults assess their lives and develop a sense of integrity if they find their lives have been meaningful, and a sense of despair if their lives do not seem meaningful.