Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/69

Click to flip

69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
OBJECTIVE PERSONALITY TEST
*objective- unbiased, based on facts
*clearly stated items
* usually yes/no or true false questions
*MMPI
*when you are tested your resulst are compared with those who suffer from a particular disease or disorder
PROJECTIVE PERSONALITY TEST
*unstructured stimuli
-try to avoid lying, social inhibitions
-TAT
-Rorshach Blots
WHAT MAKES SOMETHING ABNORMAL?
INFREQUECY:
-statistical infrequency
NORM VIOLATION:
-violates social norms
PERSONAL SUFFERING
-does it hurt you or someone else?
IMPAIRED FUNCTIONING
difficulty in fulffilling appropriate and expected roles
PRACITCAL APPROACH FOR IDENTYFYING ABNORMALITY
*abnormality is not clear cut
REMEMBER:
-the content of the behavior
-the social cultural context where the behavior occurs
-what are the consequences of the behavior for that person for others
BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL MODEL
takes under consideration:
-biological factors
-psychological processes
-sociocultural contexts
Biopsychosexual Model:
Causes: BIOLOGICAL
-medical model=neurobiological
-mental illnesses comes from anatomy, genetics, or chemical unbalances
-ex. Alzhaimer's Disease
Biopsychosexual Model:
Causes: PSYCHOLOGICAL
-problems arise from the psyche
-psychodynamic: conflict between id, ego, and superego
(depression comes from unfulfilled desired)
-Social-Cognitive: you have learned a behavior that gives you something rewarding
Biopsychological Model:
Causes: Sociocultural Context
-biology and psyche must be considered in context
~emotional expression= rates of depression
~ataque de nervios
~koro
DIATHESIS STRESS MODEL
*you need a stressor to bring out the disease
WHAT ARE SOME CHARACTERISITICS OF ANXIETY DISORDERS?
-persistent
-long lasting
-impairs life
Types:
phobias,GAD, panic disorder, and OCD
PHOBIAS:
-intense fear of an object or situation
-irrational
-avoidance
SOCIAL PHOBIA
-anxiety about being criticized
-avoidance behavior
-fear of public speaking and performance
GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER
-at least six months
-unspecified anxiety
PANIC DISORDER
-panic attacks
-w/o warning
-symptom: heart palpitations, diziness, sweating
OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER
COMMON COMPULSIONS:
-extreme concern with dirt, germs, urine, feces, toxic, chemicals, contamination
COMMON COMPULSIONS:
-prolonged, repeated, or ritualized hand washing bathing
-repeated checking of locks, appliances, lights, doorlocks, counting, repeated movements a number of times
WHAT ARE THE BIOLOGICAL CAUSES OF ANXIETY DISORDERS?
-anxiety disorders run in families
-overly sensitive nervous system
-neurotransmitter problem?
WHAT ARE THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CAUSES OF ANXIETY DISORDERS?
-learning
-environmental stress
obsession
thought
compulsion
action that reduces the anxiety caused by the thought
SOMATOFORM DISORDERS
-soma=body
-psychological problems that take on a physical form but have no physical cause
CONVERSION DISORDER
-losing one of their senses
-have a psychological complex saying they can't do something
HYPOCHONDRIASIS
-you always think about getting sick
-one specific cause
-the person knows a lot about the disease
SOMATIZATION DISORDER
-not specific
PAIN DISORDER
-feel pain but no cause medically they are fine
CAUSES OF SOMATOFORM DISORDERS
-childhood experiences (when you were younger you got a lot of attention when you were sick so now you you get sick a lot)
-severe stressors
-cognitive factors
DISSOCIATIVE FUGUE
-you leave and start over and you don't get your memory back
DISSOCIATIVE AMNESIA
-You have knowledge and facts
-stay in same location but lose identity
DISSOCIATIVE IDENTITY DISORDER
-mind fracture
-aka multiple personality disorder
-never fully recover
-Fight Club
-
WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF DISSOCIATIVEE DISORDERS?
-Conflict between superego and id (psychodynamic view)
-you invent different personalities to deal w/ trauma such as child abuse (social cognitive view)
- a lot of them have had bad experiences
-appear to be skilled at self-hypnosis
-able to escape with new personality
MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER
-lasts weeks or months
-loss of interst
-sense of worthlessness
-suicidal thoughts
ANHEDONIAL
-dont find things pleasurable that once were pleasurable
DSYTHYMIC DISORDER
-light depression
SUICIDE
-tied to depression
-11th cause of death in the US (cultural differences)
-difficulty in predicting suicide
BIPOLAR DISORDERS
-depression vs. mania
Bipolar I Disorder
-manic depression
Bipolar II Disorder
Hypomania
WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF BIPOLAR DISORDERS?
-biological
-family studies
-malfunctions in brain regions and neurotransmitters systems
PSYCHOLOGICAL:
-Stress
-thought patterns (learned helplessness
hypomania
an element of bipolar II
cyclothymic disorder
bipolar but milder cycles
SCHIZOPHRENIA
-progressive
-pattern of extremely disturbed thinking, perception, and behavior
-split-brained
-very disabling
-gradual onset during early adulthood
-1-2% of population
neologisms
made up, unique words with personal meanings
Symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA:
-delusions of grandeur
-thought broadcasting, withdrawl and insertion
-hallucinations (perceive
-motor agitation or retardation
-positive symptoms (things that are added)
-negative symptoms (things you should have)
paranoid schizophrenia
-you think the CIA is looking for you
-aliens are stealing your thoughts
disorganized schizophrenia
-really bad hallucinations and dellusions
-no social skills
catatonic
-unresponsive
-waxy
-like the chief in one flew over the cuckoo's nest
undifferentiated
-doesn't fall into the other catagories
residual schizophrenia
-in remission
-not currently experiencing symptoms
What are the biological causes of Schizophrenia?
-genetics
-brain structure abnormalities
-abnormalities in brain chemistry
-neurodevelopmental abnormalities
vulnerability theory
-biology provides a weakness, environment triggers it
PERSONALITY DISORDERS
-long-lasting, inflexible ways or behaving that create problems
-not so much mental disorders, as inflexible ways of behaving
ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER
-sociopaths, psychopaths
-don't have a conscious
-long-term pattern of irresponsible, impulsive, and unscrupulous behavior
-begins during childhood or early adolescence
NOT GUILTY BY REASON OF INSANITY
-Didnt know what they were doing
-didnt know that what they were doing was wrong
guilty but mentally ill
-you are found guilty but instead of going to jail you go to a mental institution
ANHEDONIA
-no pleasure out of what you once found pleasurable
BORDERLINE
-can't have successful relationships
PSYCHOTHERAPY
treating a disorder through pschological means
*psychodynamic/classic
*huministic
*behavioral
*cognitive-behavioral
PSYCHODYNAMIC PSYCOTHERAPY
assumption:
-conflict: sex and aggression
Goal:
-gain insight by understanding unconscious thoughts and emotions
THERAPIST'S ROLE:
-neutral expert
-emphasis on childhood and the past
METHODS OF CLASSICAL PSYCHOANALYSIS
-Free association
-dream interpretation
~manifest vs. latent content
-hypnosis
-freudian slips (no such thing as an accident)
-analysis of transference
~you start treating therapist as a parent if you had a bad relationship with your parents
HUMINISTIC PSYCOTHERAPY
ASSUMPTIONS:
-people choose for themselves
-client must remian responsible for themselves
-clients must improve on their own in the right conditions

-ideally the client will feel fully accepted and supported
THERAPISTS ROLE:
-equals
GOAL:
-self-acceptance
CLIENT-CENTERED THEORY
-Carl Rogers
-UNCONDITIONED POSITIVE REGARD (always going to support the client no matter what)
-EMPATHY (they undertand how the clients feel)
~active listening
~reflection
-CONGRUENCE (genuiness)
actions and words align
HUMINISTIC: GESTALT THEORY
-people create their own reality
-growth occurs only when aware of feelings
-symptoms occur when clients lose themselves
-paint out inconsistancies (what they say vs. what they do)
Behavioral THERAPIES
ASSUMPTIONS:
-psychological problems are learned
-change by learning new behaviors
-teacher is viewed as a teacher/trainer
GOAL:
-use conditioning to change bevior
SYSTEMATIC DESENTIZATION
-Gradual aclamation of whatever is feared
FLOODING
-mass exposure to whatver you are afraid of
-overwhelming your senses
MODELING
-watch someone else kill spiders
-watch your friend go into to the water first
EXTINCTION
-behavior goes away
-basis flooding
-kid is put on time out, stops being rewarded for acting out, eventually behavior dies off
AVERSIVE CONDITIONING
-Simultaneous
-biting your nails and having a nail polish that makes it taste bad when you bite them
-why would you do it?
PUNISHMENT
-punish after the action
-may not get rid of it behavior just surpress