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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
According to Stanovich, what is the one defining feature that all psychology has in common?
(A) the emphasis on helping others;
(B) the emphasis on applying information to real life problems;
(C) the emphasis on a scientifically based study of behavior;
(D) the emphasis on the exclusive study of human beings
(C) the emphasis on a scientifically based study of behavior
Whic of the following does Stanovich argue is a scource of popular view that psychology is NOT a real science?
(A) belief in the validity of testimonial evidence;
(B) the falsifiability of scientific studies;
(C) the sue of operational definitions;
(D)lack of psychological research proving the existence of ESP
(A) belief in the validity of testimonial evidence
Illusions:
(A) are NOT shared by others in the same perceptual situation;
(B) are shared by most others in the same perceptual situation;
(C) show that percept and reality are the same;
(D) are due to unusual physical or mental states.
(B) are shared by most others iin the same perceptual situation
Psychologists refer to a physical object in the real worl as a _____ stimulus, whereas its optical image on the retina is called the _____ stimulus.
(A) sensory, percieved;
(B) percieved, sensory;
(C) simple, complex;
(D) distal, proximal
(D) distal, proximal
The "what" and "where' pathways run through the _____ and _____ lobes respectively.
(A) parietal, temporal
(B) temporal, parietal)
(C) frontal, occipital
(D) frontal, temporal
(B) temporal, parietal
Neurologists consider the retina to be part of the:
(A) central nervous system
(B) parasympathetic nervous system
(C) sympathetic nervouse system
(D) somatic nervous system
(A) central nervous system
The negative charge maintained by a neuron at rest is called the:
(A) all-or-none law
(B) action potential
(C) resting potential
(D) terminal button
(C) resting potential
Operationalism is the idea that:
(A) comcepts in scientific theories must be linked to observable events tha can be measured
(B) the study of psychology should be more cognitively based and less biologically focused
(C) the only theories that can explain complete scientific phenomena are worth testing
(D) we must first define our terms so that researchers can explain the meaning of the theoretical concepts
(A) c oncepts in scientific theories must be linked to observable events that can be measured
Suppose someone tells you that she can assess your personality by just looking at you. She tells you that, while you are sometimes talkative, you can also be very quite at other times. If you conclude that this person is really capable of assessing your personality, you have provided evidence for:
(A) the vividnes effect
(B) the P.T. Barnum effect
(C) the "person who" phenomenon
(D) the "hard problem" of conscciousness
(B) the P.T. Barnum effect
The methodological breakthrough for the study of sleep came in 1937 when researchers began using:
(A) electroencephalograms
(B) experience-sampling
(C) hypnosis
(D) think-alound protocols
(A) electroencephalograms
The system responsible for dialtion of the pupils, cessation of food digestion, and increased heart reate is the:
(A) sympathetic division of the ANS
(B) parasympathetic division of the ANS
(C) endocrine system
(D) none of the above
(A) sympathetic division of the ANS
One of your friends enjoys participating in triathlons. She explains to you that she experiences a "high" after continuous exercise that is very enjoyable. The feeling she is describing is probably the result of what type of neurotransmitters?
(A) monoamines
(B) amino acid neurotransmitters
(C) acetylcholing
(D) endogenous opiates
(D) endogenous opiates
The fovea is the location on the retina where:
(A) the blind spot is located
(B) only rods can be found
(C) horizontal cells and amacrine cells are loacted
(D) vision is sharpest
(D) vision is sharpest
A falsifiable theory is one that:
(A) has been proven to be false
(B) can be rejected if its predictions are not confirmed
(C) must be rejected
(D) is not considered to be a "good" theory
(A) has been proven to be false
The main reason psychological researchers use the experimental method is to:
(A) make claims concerning causality
(B) eliminate operational definitions
(C) suggest possible ocnfounding variables
(D) determine whether two vairables are related
(A) male claims concerning causality
Tasks involving dichotic listening are tasks in which:
(A) two different visual stimuli are presented
(B) two different auditory messages are presented, one to each ear
(C) participants must identify subthreshold sounds
(D) participants must dichotomize sounds in distinct categories
(B) two different auditory messages are presnted, one to each ear
As part of a psychology experiement, Brett decides to measure a person's "friendliness" by noting the number of smiles a person makes during a 20 minute social interaction with a stranger. Brett seems to have offered a(n) _____ of "friendliness"
(A) variable
(B) operational definition
(C) theory
(D) hypothesis
(B) operational definition
Karl Popper argued that, because Freud's psychoanalytic theory could be used to explain any behavior, after the fact, it is scientifically useless because it fails the _____ criterion:
(A) vividness
(B) emperical
(C) falsifiability
(D) operationalist
(C) falsifiability
All else being equal, the nearest elements tend to be grouped together. The Gestalt psychologists referred to this phenomenon as the law of:
(A) similarity
(B) proximity
(C) common fate
(D) effect
(B) proximity
Suppose there is a hypothetical creature that is phsyically idientical to you in every way, behves exaclty like you, and whose performance in information processing tasks is indistinguishable from yours, but has absolutely no conscious experience. Such creature is called:
(A) a robot
(B) a clone
(C) a zombie
(D) artificial intelligence
(C) a zombie
During his study of the effects of intoxication on coordination, Homer unintentionally treats participants who recieved alcohol differently than participants who recieved no alcohol. In this situation the researchers behavior is the:
(A) dependent variable
(B) independent varibale
(C) confound
(D) predictor
(C) confound
The operational definition of the absolute threshold is the stimulus level at which a sensory signal is:
(A) detected
(B) presented
(C) detected half the time
(D) detected all the time
(C) detected hals the time
According to Stanovich, by which standard should we judge the "impressiveness" of confirming evidence?
(A) the number of confimations that have been found
(B) the extent to which a prediction exposes itself to potential disconfirmation
(C) the amount of diconfirmation evidence that has been found
(D) the ratio of confirming to disconfirming evidence
(D) the extent to which a prediction exposes itself to potential disconfirmation
During the absoluted refractory period:
(A) no amount of further stimuluation can induce another action potential
(B) only the strongest stimulation will cause aother action potential to be generated
(C) the neuron will fire to a stimulus that is slightly stronger than what is normally necessary
(D) neurons can fire continuously
(A) no amount of further stimuluation can induce another action potential
When Rene Decartes observed that there was only one pineal gland, unlike every other structure in the brain (which occurred in pairs), he identified that stucture as the site where the soul and body interacted. When Paul Broca observed that every one of this patients with a language production deficit had a lesion in the left verebra hemisphere, he concluded that language comprehension takes place in the right hemisphere. Which of the following best describes the error of scientific reasoning mad by Decartes and Broca?
(A) mistaking correlation for causation
(B) the Clever Hans effect
(C) arguing past the data
(D) the experimenter expectancy effect
(C) arguing past the data
The enlargements at the end of the axons, which contain the synaptic vesicles, are called
(A) synapses
(B) dendrites
(C) terminal buttons
(D) axons
(C) terminal buttons
What is the reason for the "blind sopt" in the retina?
(A) there are no receptors at the point where the optic nerve exits the retina
(B) there are fewer rods than cones
(C) the lens can only focus light reflected from objects at certain distance from the eye
(D) the absolute threshold is much higher for the rods and cones in teh "blind spot" than for other receptors in the retina
(A) there are no receptors at the point where the optic nerve exists the retina
Which division of the nervous system arouses the body and mobilizes its energy in emotionally stressful situations?
(A) somatic
(B) central
(C) sympathetic
(D) parasympathetic
(C) sympathetic
What is meant by the statment that "perception is overdetermined by the simulus"?
(A) people percieve things in so many different ways, that there is not enough overlay in how two people percieve the same stimulus
(B) so many areas of the brain are involvedin perception, that too much of our mental energy is focused on it
(C) for any given percept, we have available much more information that is needed to identify the object or event
(D) we attribute far too much importance to the study of perception
(C) for any given percept, we have available much more informtion that is needed to identify the object or event
What is the main problem with research that contains confounds?
(A) a clear interpretation of the results is not possible
(B) the data do not support the hypothesis
(C) the theory is generally regarded as incorrect
(D) none of the above, confounds so not pose any problems
(A) a clear interpretation of the results is not possible
Your friend claims that you enjoy loud music because, the louder the musc, the greater the strength of the resulting neural impulses, leading to a more enjoyable experience. You know that this "naive" theory is wrong because of an important characteristic of neural impulses called
(A) membrane permeability
(B) action potential
(C) fixed amplitude
(D) refractory period
(C) fixed amplitude
In order to prove to your friend that smoking causes cance, you point our evidence from two types of studies. One set of studies show a correlation between the number of cigarettes a person smokes and the incidence of lung cancer, and the onther consists of laboratory experiments that show rats that are not exposed to cigarette smoke. Your argumetment BEST illustrates the use of
(A) relication
(B) peer review
(C) converging evidience
(D) the falsifiablity criterion
(C) converging evidence
Nodes of Ranvier are found in:
(A) myelinated neurons only
(B) unmyelinated neurons only
(C) the dendrites of a neuron
(D) both myelinated and unmyelinated neurons
(A) myelinated neurons only
The finding that it is harder to shadow (i.e. repeat verbatim) something you've just heard while tapping with your right index finger that with your left is one of the pieces of evidence that shows that:
(A) language abilities occur in the left hemisphere
(B) the whole is greater than the sum of its parts
(C) we dream during REM sleep
(D) the hypothalamus controls the four F's
(E) the cortex is the (evolutionary) most recent brain structure
(A) language abilities occur in the left hemisphere
The binding problem focuses on:
(A) how movement is percieved
(B) how all the elements of a stimulus detected by separate systems are integrated
(C) how depth is perceived
(D) how an object is identified
(B) how all the elements of a stimulus detected by separate systems are intefrated
If the axon of a neuron is myelinated, the neural impulse will:
(A) be stronger
(B) be weaker
(C) travel faster down the axon
(D) travel slower down the axon
(C) travel faster down the axon
Which of the following questions would you be most likely to ask if you were studying human visual perception at the alforithmic level of analysis?
(A) what is the goal of the computation?
(B) that is the specific task?
(C) what are teh precise steps for performing this task?
(D) how does the actual physical "harware" (i.e. brain) perform the steps in this task?
(C) what are the precise steps for performing this task?
Suppose a split-brain patient is looking at a fixation point on a scree, and two pictures are briefly presented. A picture of a fork is shown to her left visual field, and picture of a screwdriver is shown to her right visual field. Which of the following statements best summarizes what this split-brain patients will be able to do?
(A) she can verbally respond (i.e. say) that she saw a fork, and she can select a screwdriver with her left hand
(B) she can say that she saw a fork and select a screwdriver with her right hand
(C) she can say that she saw a screwdriver and select a fork with her left hand
(D) she can say that she saw a screwdriver and select a fork with her right hand
(C) she can say that she saw a screwdriver and select a fork with her left hand
Reuptake refers to:
(A) an area on the postsynaptic neuron where neurotransmitters or neuromodulators can attach themselves
(B) the process by which surplus neurotransmitters is reabsorbed back into thepresynaptic neuron
(C) a chemical that mimics the effects of a neurotransmitter
(D) a chemical that blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter
(B) the process by which surplus neurotransmitters is reabsorbed back into the presynaptic neuron
What was the basic premise of Wundt's "mental chemistry" (id.d Structuralism)?
(A) unconscious experience can be broken down into its fundamental elements
(B) conscious experience can be broken down into is fundamental elements
(C) unconscious experience is not separable into distinct elements
(D) conscious experience is nto separable into distinct element
(B) conscious experience can be broken down into its fundamental element
Paul Ekman studied whether people's production and recognition of facial expression of emotional states were universal and innate or culturally specific and learned. Ekman's research represents an example of the scientific study of the:
(A) nature versus nurture debate
(B) mind-body problem
(C) experimenter expectancy effect
(D) falsifiability criterion
(A) nature versus nurture
The fact that the horse called Clever Hans was able to tap out (with his hoof) the correct answer to a basic math problem is generally attributed to:
(A) Hans' psychic powers
(B) his owner's unique learning techniques
(C) Hans' extra-ordinary math ability
(D) experiment expectancy effects
(D) experimenter expectancy effect
The basic conversation of light energy into neural impulses is performed inteh retina of the eye by:
(A) the fovea
(B) ganglion cells
(C) the optic nerve
(D) rods and cones
(D) rods and cones
What is an ion channel (in relation to a neuron)?
(A) a portion of the brain responsible for protecting the brain from toxic levels of ionic chemicals found in substances sucha s alcohol
(B) the portion of a nucleus that regulates ion flow throughout th ebody
(C) the portions of a neuron's cell membrane that selectively permi only certain ions to flow in and out
(D) the gap between one neuron and another
(C) theportions of a neuron's cell membrane that selectively permits only certain ions to flow in and out
Inspired by you instructor's lecture on sensor processes, you wish to study the effects of certain odors on anxiety. You ask you instructor for advice on how to measure anxiety. what kind of advice will your instructor be most likely to offer?
(A) you will need to learn the really emaning of anxiety before you can measure it
(B) you must operationally define the term anxiety
(C) you should give up now, because anxiety is impossible to measure
(D) you should give up now, because "common sense" says that there is no connection between anxiety and any form of sensory experience.
(B) you must operationally define the term anxiety
suppose that an elderly relative who is having trouble hearing has learned that she has something called "conduction deafness" What should you tell her about this problem?
(A) it is the most serious form of hearing impariment
(B) it may result from malfunctioning bones in teh middle ear
(C) it refers to a defect in teh neural mechanisms
(D) it can only be cured by regeneration of cochlear hair cells
(B) it may result from malfunctioning bones in the middle ear
Signal-detection theory
(A) allows us to separate actual perceptual ability from response tendencies
(B) suggests that, for each participand, there exists a constancet stimulus intensity corresponding to a "zero" stimulus
(C) suggests that confusion about whether a stimulus has been presented or not is likely to occur when the signal is much more intense than the noise
(D) suggests that percieved sensation occurs only in the presence of an external stimulus
(A) allows us to separate actual perceptual ability from response tendencies
Jane argues that psychology is not a science, because she believes that scientific theories must give ultimate and final explanations of a phenomena they are attempting to explain. JAne is demonstrating
(A) essentialism
(B) operationalism
(C) falsifiability
(D) a preexisting bias
(A) essentialism
suppose you wanted to test the hypothesis that viewing pornographic material increases aggressive behavior. The dependent variable would be:
(A) aggressive behavior
(B) the age of the participants
(C) viewing pornographic material
(D) whether men or women served as participants
(A) aggressive behavior
Which of the following is the organizing principle through which it iwas suggested (in lecture) that you ought to view the major viewpoints in scientific psychology?
(A) voluntary versus involuntary behavior
(B) innate versus learned knowledge
(C) conscious and unconscious mental activity
(D) central and peripheral nervous systems
(C) conscious and unconscious mental activity