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57 Cards in this Set

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psychology
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism's physical/mental state and external environment
two key ideas of philosophy
empiricism, rationalism
empiricism
view that knowledge can be gathered through careful observation, experimentation or measurement
rationalism
view that knowledge can be gained through logic and careful reasoning
Rene Descartes
"i think, therefore i am"; felt mind and body were separate; mind can exist without body
phrenology
study of the mind; joseph gall mapped people's heads
structuralism
wilhelm wundt; trained introspection; trained to analyse things
functionalism
emphasized function/purpose; william james
psychoanalytical perspective
sigmund freud; things on a subconscious level affect us; id, ego, superego
behaviorism
watson and skinner; little albert study; watson argued no consciousness, just stimulous and response; skinner added reinforcement
gesalt psychology
means whole/form
existential psychology
concerned with meaninglessness and alienation from modern life; rollo may "lost souls"
humanistic psychology
emphasizes nonverbal experience and altered states of consciousness; carl rogers looked at potential
cognitive psychology
study of mental process in broadest; how perceive, interpret, store and retrieve information
evolutionary psychology
origins of behaviors and mental processes, their adaptive value, the purposes they continue to serve
biological/neuroscience perspective
examines how heredity and biological strucutres affect mental processes and behavior
positive psychology
realising thoughts influence health; how happier people live longer
three principles of psychology
objectivity (keep open mind without preconceived ideas), accuracy (base thinking of detailed and thorough study of information that is precise as possible), and healthy scepticism (cautious view of data and ensure they are verified and established over time)
scientific method
used to discover knowledge about human behavior and mental processes; state problem; develop hypothesis; design a study; colelct/analyse data; repeating results; drawing conclutions and reporting results
critical thinking
thinking about and evualating thoughts, feelings, and behavior so we can clarify and improve them
3 components of critical thinking
affective (emotions), cognitive (critical thinking), behavior
experiment
a procedure in which the researcher systematically manipulates and observes elements of a situation in order to answer a question and usually to test hypotheses and make inferences about cause and effect
variable
a condition or characteristic of a situation or a person that is subject to change within or across situations/individuals
independent variable
variable that is directly and purposely manipulated to see how other variables will be affected
dependant variable
expected to change; is measured
hypothesis
a tenative explanation or idea expressing a relationship between two events/variables that are to be evaluated in a research study
participants/subjects
human individuals who take part in an experiment and whose behavior is observed for research data collection
experimental group
a group of participants to whom a treatment is given
control group
the comparison group; no treatment given
confounding variables
variables that may effect the outcome of the experiment
operational definition
definition of a variable in terms of the set of methods/procedures used to measure/study that variable
sample size
group of participants who are assumed to be representative of the population about which the inference is being made
significant differences
a difference that is unlikely to have occurred because of chance alone and is most likely due to the systematic manipulation of the independent variable
self fulfilling prophecy
experiment that leads to promised results
placebo
a treatement that has no effect, but presented as possibly producing certain effects
double blind
neither researcher or participants know who is control group or experimental group
single blind
individual does not know if getting real drug or placebo
demand characteristics
experimentor may tip off participants that will change their behaviors
hawthorne effect
people behave differently when being watched
correlational coefficients
only show a relationship between two variables; degree of relatedness
psychologist
a professional who studies behavior and uses behavioral principles in scientific research or applied settings
clinical psychologist
mental health practioner who uses a particular perspective to work with individuals who are experiencing mental health difficulties
neoruscience
studying how biological processes relate to behavioral and mental processes
neuron
cell of nervous system responsible fo receiving and transmitting electrochemical information
types of neurons
sensory; motor (muscles); inter-neurons (messages go through)
glial cells
neurons held in place and supported by glial cells that surround neurons, perform cleanup tasks, insulate one neuron from one another so that messages are not scrambled
deindrites
little tree; receive electrical info and transmits to cell body
cell body
soma; accepts incoming emssages; if enough stimulation will pass message on to axon
axon
carries info away from cell body
nodes of ranvier
gaps formed between myelin sheath cells along axons
myelin sheath
coating around axons of some neurons; helps insulate and speed neural impulses; speeds rate
action potential
all or no message; after neuron fires, beief refactory period where cannot fire again
terminal branches
where axon branches out at the end
neurotransmitters
chemicals are released by neurons that affect other neurons; regulate actions of glands, muscles; promote sleep; affect learning; motivations, etc
endorphins
produce effects similar to opiod drugs; mood, main , memory, learning
serotonin
mood, sleep, appetite, sensory, temperature, pain, impulsivity; low levels = depression
acetylcholine
muscle action, cognitive functioning, memory, REM sleep, emotion; suspected in alzheimers