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104 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
blind spot
A place on the retina where the axons of neurons converge to form the optic nerve, there is an absence of receptor cells.
Mystery Spot illusion
Visual illusions based on tilt-induced effects.
hair cells
Receptor cells for hearing, which are arranged in rows along the basilar membrant of the cochlea.
moon illusion
Illusion by which the moon appears larger when seen through the horizon and smaller when seen near the zenith, even though it is objectively the same size and distance from the iewer in either location.
binocular disparity
Cue for depth perception that stems from seperate (disparate) views that the two eyes have of any given visual object. The farther away the object is, the more similiar are th two views of it.
receptive fields
For any neuron in the visual system, the portion of the retina that, when stimulated by light, results in a change in electrical activity in the neuron.
Process by which a receptor cell (such as a rod or cone in the eye, or hair cell in the inner ear) produces an electrical change in response to the energy of a physical stimulus (such as light or sound).
sensory neuron
Neuron that carries messages from a sensory organ, through a nerve, into the brain or spinal chord.
How is the eye like a camera?
-lets light in through cornea, like a camera's aperture.
-amount of light controlled by pupil, like a camera's shutter.
-retina sends image to the brain, acting like a camera's film.
How is the eye unlike a camera?
-constantly and automatically reacting to light; focusing and refocusing. (Camera has to be adjusted).
-camera can focus on objects near and far at the same time. Eye cannot.
Curved, transparent tissue at the front of the eyeball that helps to focus light rays as they first enter the pupil to form an image on the retina.
Transparent, biconvex body of the eye between the iris and the vitreous humor that focuses light rays entering through the pupil to form an image on the retina.
Colored, doughnut-shaped, muscular structure in the eye, located behind the cornea and in front of the lens, that controls the size of the pupil and in that way, controls the amount of light that can enter the eye's interior.
Thin membrane of cells that lines the rear interior of the eyeball; contains receptor cells for vision--rods and cones.
Pinhead-size area of the retina in which the cones are concentrated and that is specialized for high visual acuity.
Receptor cells for vision located away from the forvea; important for seeing in dim light.
Receptor cells located in and near the forvea, operate in moderate to bright light; important for the perception of color and fine detail.
How do the properties of rods and cones explain dark adaptation?
Cones are not stimulated in the dark, so it takes at least 10 minutes for the "cone vision" to switch to the "rod vision".
How do we perceive colors?
As wavelengths of light.
trichromatic theory
Color vision is mediated by three different types of receptors, each most sensitive to a different range of wavelength. Each receptor has a different photochemical. Est. in 1802 by Young and Helmholtz.
opponent-process theory
By Hering: neurons that mediate the perception of color are excited by one range of wavelengths and inhibited by another. Such neurons cancel out the perception of color when two complementary wavelengths are together.
binocular disparity
Cue for depth perception from seperate views that the 2 eyes have of any object. Farther away the object, the more similiar the 2 views of it.
motion parallax
Cue for depth perception from changed view of an object whenever one's head moves sideways to the object. Farther away the object, the smaller the change in view.
The man partially cuts off the view of the house, which indicates that the man is closer to us than is the house. Near objects occlude the more distant ones.
relative image size for familiar objects
Image of the man is taller than that of the house. Because we know that people are not taller than houses, we take the man's larger image as a sign that he must be closer to us than is the house.
linear perspective
Lines marking the side of the driveway converge as they go from the man to the house--house is farther away. Parallel lines appear to converge as they become more distant.
texture gradient
Gradual decrease in the size and spacing of texture elements in a picture indicates depth.
position relative to the horizon
Objects nearer the horizon are usually seen as farther away than those that are displaced form the horizon, either up or down.
differential lighting of surfaces
Amount of light reflected from different surfaces varies as a function of the orientation of each surface with respect to the source of light--also as a function of shading from other objects. This is to create a sense of 3d.
A Gestalt principle. Objects that are near each other, we group together and see them as parts of the same object; those that are seperated as parts of a different object.
A Gestalt principle. Stimulus elements that physically resemble each other as parts of the same object and those that do not resemble each other as parts of a different object.
A Gestalt principle. Tend to see forms as completely enclosed by a border; ignore gaps in the border--helps us to see complete forms even when they are partly covered by other objects.
good continuation
A Gestalt principle. When lines intersect, we tend to group the line segments to form continuous lines ith minimal change in direction.
common movement
A Gestalt principle. Stimulus elements move in the same direction and at the same rate, we see them as one object. Useful for seeing a camouflaged animal.
good form
A Gestalt principle. We try to see things as simple and uncluttered. Encompasses other principles.
How do tilt-induced illusions work?
Attributed to distorted frames of reference.
What do tilt-induced illusions tell us about visual processes?
They tell us that the eye concieves of everything as a whole.
C fibers
Pain sensory neuron.
Very thin, unmyelinated, slow-conducting.
Respond to all sorts of stimuli that produce pain, including strong pressure, heat and cold, and chemicals.
Slow, second wave of pain is mediated by the C fibers.
A-delta fibers
Pain sensory neuron.
Thick, myelinated, fast-conducting.
Specialized fibers to respond to either a pinprick, and some to heat or cold.
Fast, first wave of pain mediated by A-delta fibers.
Pain sensory input is relayed where?
Thalamus to three different brain areas for three aspects of pain experience.
somatosensory cortex
Sensory aspect of pain. Judgements of pain quality, location, and intensity.
areas of limbic system
Primary emotional and motivational aspects of pain. Immediate unpleasantness and a desire to escape.
prefrontal cortex
Secondary emotional and motivational aspects of pain. Suffering and worrying about the future.
Draw the pain sensory input diagram.
Stimulus that resembles a conditioned stimulus will elicit the conditioned response, even though it has never been paired with the unconditioned stimulus, even though it has never been enforced.
unconditioned stimulus
Elicits reflexive response without an previous conditioning.
conditioned stimulus
Elicits a reflexive response (the conditioned response) because of its previous pairing with another stimulus (the unconditioned stimulus) that already elicits a reflexive response.
unconditioned response
Reflexive response that does not depend on previous conditioning.
conditioned response
Reflexive response that is elicited by a stimulus (the conditiond stimulus) because of the previous pairing of that stimulus with another stimulus (the unconditioned stimulus) that already elicits a reflexive response.
Garcia effect
Learning depends on the relevance of the stimuli to each other. IE, pairing bells and nausea wouldn't cause a learned response, but different stimuli can be associated.
classical conditioning
Training procedure in which a neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus) comes to elicit a reflexive response through its being paired with another stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) that already elicits that reflexive response; studied by Pavlov.
Thorndike's law of effect
Response produces a satisfying effect=more likely to occur.

Response produces a discomforting effect=less likely to occur.
Skinner's operant learning
Composed of operant conditioning and the operant response.
operant conditioning
Learning process by which the consequence of a behavioral response affects the likelihood that the individual will produce that response again.
operant response
Any behavioral response that produces some reliable effect on the environment that influences the likelihood that the individual will produce that response again.
Decline in likelihood of a reflexive response that occurs when the stimulus is repeated several or many times in succession.
spontaneous recovery
Due to passage of time with no further testing or training--of a conditioned response that had previously undergone extinction.
Successively closer app. to the desired response are reinforced ntil the response finally occurs.
Gradual disappearance of a conditioned reflex that results when a conditioned stimulus occurs repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus. No longer followed by a reinforcer.
positive reinforcement
Condition in which a response results in a positive reinforcer, such as food or money.
negative reinforcement
Condition in which a response results in the removal of a negative reinforcer, such as the end of an electric shock or loud noise.
Process through which the consequence of a response decreases the likelihood that the response will reoccur.
full schedule (reinforcement)
Reinforces with every response.
partial schedule (reinforcement)
Reinforces not every response.
Which reinforcement schedule is the most effective and why?
Partial reinforcement schedule because one never knows when the reinforcer will stop responding. (Good for gambling!)
Training technique that enables someone to gain some voluntary control over automatic body functions.
What is the basic learning principle of biofeedback?
Desired response is learned when recieved information indicates that a specific thought or action has produced the desired response.
What is the basic learning principle of gambling?
Partial reinforcement keeps people gambling because they never know when they're going to win.
What is the basic learning principle of advertising?
The unconditioned stimulus (such as a happy scene) is paired with conditioned stimulus (beer).
Lorenz's theory for a relatively sudden and irreversable form of learning that can occur only during some critical period of the individual's development.
fixed action patterns
Controlling mechanisms are "fixed" in the animal's nervous system by heredity and relatively unmodifiable by learning.
sign stimulus
Stimulus that elicits a fixed action pattern.
mental rotation
Ability to rotate objects in the mind. Takes place in the right cerebral hemisphere, along with perception.
Strategy for improving the ability to remember a set of items by grouping them mentally to form fewer items.
Process of thinking about an item of information in such a way as to tie the item mentally to other information in memory, which helps to encode them into long-term memory.
levels of processing
Different methods of encoding informatio into memory have different levels of effectiveness.
What are the levels of processing, going from less recalled to most recalled?
Audible input
Visual input
Audible/visual input + physical output
Conceptual input
Mental representation of a concept; information stored in long-term memory that allows a person to identify a group of different events or items as members of the same category.
context-dependent memory
Improved ability to retrive information from memory that occurs when an individual is in the same environment as that in which the memory was originally coded.
What is the Atkinson and Shriffin information processing model of memory called?
Multi-store model of memory (1968).
What does the multi-store model of memory consist of?
Three permanent structural components:
1. sensory memory
2. short term memory
3. long term memory
Draw the multi-store model of memory diagram.
working memory
Memory store that is consiered to be the main workplace of the mind. Seat of conscious thought and reasoning.
prefrontal cortex
Associated with working memory functions.
central executive
Supervision of information integration.
Draw the model of working memory by Baddeley.
phronological loop
Inner ear and inner voice, hearing and repeating syllables.
visuo-spatial sketchpad
Remembering shapes and colors, or the location/speed of an object; also spatial movements such as planning one's way out of a complex building.
episodic buffer
Memory of a story or movie scene.
Stroop effect (attention)
Printed color word (such as the word "red") interferes with a person's ability to name the color of ink in which the word is printed in the ink color is not the same as the word.
filter model (attention)
Stimuli are selected (for shadowing) according to their physical attributes. Unattended messages are not semantically processed and are discarded.
switching model (attention)
Switching attention from one stimulus to another is difficult.
bottom-up processing
In perception, mental processes that bring the individual stimulus features recorded by the senses together to form a perception of the larger object or scene.
top-down processing
In perception, mental processes that bring pre-existing knowledge or expectations about an object or scene to bear up the perception of that object/scene.
Draw the bottom-up/top-down diagram.
Complex neural structure shaped like a seahorse; located on the floor of each lateral ventricle. Has central role in formation of memories.
What is the role of the hippocampus in memory storage?
Center of new memories and concious memories.
Condition of memory loss for long or short intervals of time.
implicit memory
Influences one's behavior/thought.
Long-term memory of skills (ie, how to ride a bike).
Not easily verbalized.
Used w/o thinking about it.
explicit memory
Can be consciously recalled.
Used to answer explicit questions about what one knows or remembers.
Called "declaritive" because it can be easily stated in words.
generation effect
Finding that self-generated stimuli are recalled and recongnized better than read stimuli.
Elizabeth Loftus
Misinformation effect, where memory is constructed, rather than played back like a tape.
semantic memory
Memory of meanings, understandings, and other factual knowledge.
episodic memory
Recollection of events and associated emotions. Can be likened to a written story.