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50 Cards in this Set

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What is the Precociousness?
Not currently in awareness, but can be brought to awareness by focusing one’s attention (e.g. what you had for breakfast).
(Page 173)
What are Brain Waves?
Rough indicators of the activity of neurons.
Used to identify what stage of sleep we are in.
• Beta: Emitted when consciously awake or agitated.
• Alpha: (8-13 cps) In a state of physical/mental relaxation.
• Theta: (6-8 cps) State of drowsiness with reduced consciousness.
• Delta: (0.1- 4 cps) State of unconsciousness, deep sleep or catalepsy.
(Page 177-178)
What are the 5 Stages of Sleep?
• 1: Beginning is sleep cycle. Theta waves
• 2: Sleep spindles. Body temp decreases. Heart rate lowers. Lasts about 20 minutes.
• 3: Deep slow delta waves. Between light/deep sleep
• 4: Deep sleep. Lasts about 30 minutes. Delta waves
• 5: REM sleep. Paradoxical Sleep. Theta waves. Most dreaming occurs here.
Page (177-178)
What is a Hypnopompic Disorder?
A sleep disorder in which the person is aware, but paralyzed during the process of waking up, before the REM cycle is complete. This is sometimes accompanied by hallucinations.
(Page 183)
What are Short Sleepers?
People who need less than 7.5hrs of sleep (One study found that they only need 6). They tend to be very busy with lots of commitments.
What is Consciousness?
A sense of self. Sensory awareness of the environment. Being aware of a particular stimulus (e.g. driving, studying, conversing, painting, etc).
(Pages 172-173)
What is the Unconsciousness?
Thoughts and feelings that are NOT available to awareness in normal circumstances.
(Page 173)
What is REM Sleep?
A Stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movement which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active. Usually occurs about 90 minutes after falling asleep.
(Page 178-179)
What is a Hypnogogic Disorder?
A sleep disorder, in which the person is aware, but paralyzed while the body shuts down for REM sleep. This is sometimes accompanied by hallucinations.
(Page 178)
What are Long Sleepers?
People who need more than 7.5hrs of sleep (One study found they needed 9.5). The tend to be reflective, writers, artists.
What is the Jungian View of Dreams?
He also believed that dreams could be premonitions. Believed we not only have a personal unconscious, but also a collective unconscious (containing primitive images or archetypes that reflect the history of our species).
What is Insomnia?
2 types of insomnia.
1. Inability to get to sleep (usually denotes anxiety)
2. Inability to stay asleep (usually denotes depression)
About 20% of people in America have this.
(Page 184)
What is Sleep Apnea?
A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings.
(Page 183)
What is Sleepwalking?
Walking while sleeping
Common in childhood
Occurs in stage 4 sleep
No known cause
(Page 183, 185)
What is Substance Dependence?
More severe than substance abuse and has behavioral and biological aspects.
- Characterized by the loss of control over use of the substance.
- Organizing one’s life around getting and using the substance.
What is the Freudian View of Dreams?
Believed that dreams were the royal road to the unconscious.
Manifest content in dreams: Literal meaning.
Latent content in dreams: Metaphorical meaning
What is the Activation-Synthesis Theory of Dreams?
J. Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley
Dreams have no meaning. They are just the brain trying to bring meaning to brain activity while sleeping.
What is Narcolepsy?
A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.
(Page 183)
What are Night Terrors?
A sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered. They are common in childhood. there is no known cause
(Page 183, 185)
What is Substance Abuse?
Repeated use of a substance, despite the fact that it is causing or compounding social, occupational, psychological or physical problems.
What is Psychological Addiction?
The compulsive need for a drug or substance in order to prevent the psychological withdrawal symptoms (anxiety, depression, etc.) or due to increased tolerance to the effects of the substance.
What is Tolerance?
The diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug’s effect.
What are Depressants?
Drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions. They slow the activity of the central nervous system, reduce anxiety and induce sleep.
(Page 195-197)
What is Physical Addiction?
The compulsive need for a drug or substance in order to prevent the physical withdrawal symptoms (symptoms connected to your health) or due to increased tolerance to the effects of the substance.
What are Stimulants?
Drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.
(Page 197-198)
What are Hallucinogens?
Psychedelic ("mind-manifesting") drugs, such as LSD & Marijuana, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input.
(Page 202)
What are Barbiturates?
Drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment.
What is Alcoholism?
Relief from anxiety, depression and/or loneliness.
(Page 195)
What are Opiates?
Opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety.
What are Narcotics?
Drugs used to relieve pain and induce sleep.
Euphoric rush and depress the nervous system.
e.g. Cocaine, opiates, etc.
(Page 196)
What are Altered States of Consciousness?
Drugs, Meditation, Hypnosis, Internet
What are Amphetamines?
Drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speededup body functions and associated energy and mood changes.
What is meditation?
A way to alter your consciousness. Forms of meditation include: Eastern religion, prayers, mantra (repeat a word), yantra (stare at an object), mudra (focusing on a movement), and mandala (stare at a design).
What are Methamphetamines?
A powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with sped-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels.
What is Ecstasy?
A synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition.
Psychodynamic Theory of Hypnosis
Overall, this theory tells us that when offered suggestions; the subconscious mind can make positive change.
What is a Mantra?
A scared syllable, a nucleus of spiritual energy, which through repetition purifies the energy in the body and generates healing. word means-to think, tra- to protect, to free bondage.
What is LSD?
A powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid (lysergic acid diethylamide).
What is the Role Theory of Hypnosis?
People only play the "role" of being hypnotized, which includes complying with the hypnotist's directions.
What is the Neodissociation Theory of Hypnosis?
Hypnotic suggestions act on the dissociated part of the ECS (Executive Control System) and the subject is aware of the results of the suggestions, but is not aware of the process by which they came about.
Hidden Observer
What is Dualism?
The presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact.
What is Monism?
The presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing.
What is Classical Conditioning?
A learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus.
What are Alpha Waves?
The relatively slow (approx. 8-13 cycles per second) brain waves of a relaxed, awakened state.
What are Delta Waves?
The large, slow brain waves (approx. 0.1- 4 cycles per second) associated with deep sleep.
What are Beta Waves?
The brain waves emitted when consciously awake or agitated.
What are Theta Waves?
The brain waves emitted (6-8 cycles per second) when we are in a state of drowsiness with reduced consciousness.
What is Sleep?
Aperiodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness—as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation.
What are Hallucinations?
False sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus.
What are Psychoactive Drugs?
Chemical substances that alter perceptions and mood.