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104 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
study basic mental processes such as sensation and perception, learning and memory (including if pple can repress traumatic experiences) judgement, decision making, and problem solving
analyze biological factors influencing behavior and mental processes
seek to understand describe and explore how behavior and mental processes change over the course of a lifetime
develope statistical methods for evaluating and analyzing data from psychological research
clinical and counseling
seek access, understand, and modify abnormal behavior
who work to obtain psychological services for underserved client groups and to prevent psychological disorders by working for changes in social system
test IQ, diagnose students' academic problems and set up programs to improve students' achievement
study methods by which instructors teach and students learn, and who apply their results to improving such methods
study how people influence one another's behavior and attitudes, espicially in groups
study factors that affect the efficiency, productivity, and satisfaction of workers and the organizations that employ them.
study effects on behavior on health and the impact of illness on behavior and emotion
search for the keys to maximum athletic performance
create criminal profiles, assist in jury selection, and are involved in the legal aspects of insanity and psychology
engineering(human factors) psychologists
study the effects on the environment on people's behavior and mental processes
a philosophical view & knowledge comes through experience and observation (john locke, george berkeley, and david hume)
studied the abilites and limits of our sensory-perceptual systems. His goal was to use the methods of laboratory science to study consciousness (mental experience that arises from these systems)
Edward Titchener
structuralism was used to describe titcheners effors to define the structure of consciousness
Gestalt psychology
european psy. led by Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffa, and Wolfgang Kohler who aruged against the value of trying of to break down human experience of consciousness into its component parts
William James and functionalism
founded first psychology lab in US *harvard*. James rejected both wundts approach and titcheners structuralism. He was influenced by Darwins theory of evolution
understanding how consciousness functions help people adapt to their enviroments
John Watson and Behaviorism
believed that psychologists should ignore mental events and concern themselves only with observable behavior. Learning is the most important cause of behavior
studied how rewards and punishments shape, maintain, and change behavior called operant conditioning
biological approach
assumes that behavior and mental processes are largely shaped by biological processes.(hormones, genes, and the activity of the nervous system)
evolutionary approach
assumes that the behavior of animals and humans today is largely the result of evolution through natural selection
psychodynamic approach
assumes that behavior and mental processes reflect constant and mostly unconscious psychodynamic conflicts taking place in the human mind
behavioral approach
concentrate on studying observable behavior
cognitive behavioral/ social cognitive
approach topics as the ways in which we learn out thoughts, attitudes, and beliefs, and how they affect observable behavior
cognitive approach
focuses on how behavior is affected by the ways in which pple take in, mentally represent, process, and store information (ex. a guy cuts in line. we judge it was wrong. what we do about it)
humanistic approach
see behavior as determined primarily by each person's capacity to choose how to think and act
Naturalistic Observation
observation of human or animal behavior in the enviroment where it typically occurs
provides descriptive data about the behavior persumably uncontaminated by outside influences
observer biad and participant self consciousness can distort results
Case Studies
intensive examination of the behavior and mental processes asso. w/ a specific person or situation
provide detailed descriptive analyses of new, complex or rare phenomena
may not provide representative pic. of phenomena
standard set of ?'s asked by a large # of participants
gather large amt.s of descriptive data relatively quickly and inexpensively
sampling errors, poorly phrased questions, and response biases can distort results
manipulation of an independent variable and measureent of its effects on a dependent var.
can establish a cause-effect relationship btwn Ind and Dep Var.
confounding var. may prevent valid conclusions
carries signals away from the cell body
action potential, an all or nothing electrochemical signal that shoots down the axon to vesicles at the tip of the axon, releasing neurotransmitters
Dendrite (tree branches)
detects and carries signals to cell body
postsynaptic potential, an electrochemical signal moving out of the body
provides an area for the transfer of signals btwn neurons, usually btwn axon and dendrite
chemicals that cross the synapse and reach receptors on another cell
chemical released by one cell that binds to the receptors on another cell
chemical msg. telling the next cell to fire or not fire its own action potential
proteins on the cell membrane that receive chemical signals
recongizes certain neurotransmitters, thus allowing it to begin a postsynaptic potential to the dendrite
Acetylcholine (small molecules)
memory movement
Alzheimer's disease
mood, sleeping, learning
mood, appetite, impulsivity
movement, reward
Parkinson's disease, Schizonphrenia
damage after stroke
Endorphins (peptides)
pain control
no est. disorder
Nitric oxide (gases)
no est. disorder
Spinal Cord
part of the central nervous system that receives information from the senses, passes these signals to the brain and sends messages from the brain of the body
simple, involuntary unlearned behaviors directed by the spinal cord without instructions from the brain
portion of the brain that lies just inside the skull and is a continuation of the spinal cord
area of the HB that controls vital automonic functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing
Reticular formation
collection of cells and fibers in the HB and Midbrain that are involved with arousal and attention
part of the HB that controls finely coordinated movements
small structure btwn HB and forebrain that helps produce smooth movements
part of the brain responsible for the most complex aspects of behavior and mental life
forebrain structure that relays messages from the most sense organs to higher brain areas
FB structure that regulates hunger, thirst, sex drive, with many connections to and from the autonomic nervous system and other parts of the brain
Fb structure that links information from various systems and plays a role in emotions
FB structure associated with the formation of new memories
Cerebral cortex
outer surface of the forebrain
corpus callosum
massive bundle of figers that connects to the left and right hemispheres
sensory cortex
part of the cerebral cortex located in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes that receives stimulus information from the skin, eyes, and ears
motor cortex
part of the cerebral cortex that controls voluntary movement
association cortex
parts of the cerebral cortex that integrate sensory and motor information and perform complex cognitive tasks
property of the central nervous system that has the ability to strengthen neural connections at synapses, as well as to establish new connections
endocrine system
cells that form organs called glands and they communicate with one another by secreting hormones
organs that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
chemicals secreted by glands into the bloodstream allowing stimulation of cells that are not directly connected
fight-or-flight syndrome
physical reactions initiated by the sympathetic nervous system that prepare the body to fight or run from a threatening situation
awareness of external stimuli and our own mental activity
state of consciousness
charistics of consciousness at any particular moment
conscious level
level of consciousness at which mental activities accessible to awareness occur
nonconscious level
level of consciousness at which reside processes that are totally inaccessible to conscious awareness
preconscious level
level at which reside mental events that are not currently conscious but can become conscious at will
another term describing the mental level at which influential but normally inaccessible, mental processes take place
slow-wave sleep
sleep stages 3 and 4 which are accompanied by slow, deep breathing; a calm, regular heartbeat; and reduced blood pressure
rapid eye movement (REM)
stage of sleep during which EEG resembles that of someone who is awake but muscle tone decreases automatically
sleep disorder in which a person feels tired during the day b/c of trouble falling asleep or staying asleep at night
daytime disorder in which a person suddenly switches from an active waking state into REM sleep
sleep apnea
sleep disorder in which pple briefly but repeatedly stop breathing during the night
sudden infant death sydrome (SIDS)
disorder which a sleeping baby stops breathing but does not awaken and suffocates
phenomenon that starts primarily in non-rem sleep, espically in stage 4 and involves walking while asleep
frightening dreams that take place during REM sleep
night terrors
horrific dream images during stage 4 sleep, followed by a rapid awakening and a state of intense fear
REM behavior disorder
sleep disorder in which a person fails to show the decreased muscle tone normally seen in REM sleep, thus allowing the person to act out dreams
circadian rythm
cycle such as waking and sleeping that repeats about once a day
jet lag
fatigue, irritability, inattention, and sleeping problems caused by air travel across several time zones
story-like sequences of images, sensations, and perceptions that last from several seconds to many minutes and occur mainly during REM sleep
lucid dreaming
being aware that a dream is a dream while it is occuring
altered state of consciousness brought on by special techniques, characterized by varying degrees of responsiveness to suggestions for changes in experience and behavior
hypnotic susceptibiliy
degree to which a person responds to hypnotic suggestion
state theory
theory proposing that hypnosis creates an altered state of consciousness
role theory
theory proposing that hypnotized pple act in accordance with a social role that demands compliance
dissociation theory
theory proposing that hypnosis is a socially agreed-upon opportunity to display one's ability to let mental functions becomes dissociated
psychoactive drugs
chemical substance that act on the brain to create psychological effects
study of psychoactive drugs and their effects
blood-brain barrier
feature of blood vessels in the brain that prevents some substances from entering brain tissue
drugs the bind to a receptor and mimic the effects of the neurotransmitter that normally fits that receptor
drugs that bind to a receptor and prevent the normal neurotransmitter from binding
substance abuse
use in psychoactive drugs in ways that deviate from cultural norms
psychological dependence
condition in which a person continues drug use despite adverse effects, needs the drug for a sense of well-being and becomes preoccupied with obtaining the drug if it is unavailable
development of a physical need for a psychoactive drug
withdrawal sydrome
set of symptoms associated with discontinuing the use of an addictive substance
condition in which increasinly larger drug doses are needed to produce a given effect
psychoactive drugs that inhibit the functioning of the central nervous system
psychoactive drugs that have the ability of increase behavioral and mental activity