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127 Cards in this Set

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Spreading activation
Thinking about one of the concepts shown in this figure will activate or prime, the concepts linked to it
• Ex. You hear flower, you are primed to think of rose, violet, and other flowers. If you also hear red, the combination of flower and red primes you to think of rose.
Automatization in Perception
o EX. The Cat (inferring that the h and a are different letters, although they resemble one another if the top portion is missing)
Stroop effect
the interference between automatized and deliberate ways of thinking • When we are speaking written words grab our attention, making it difficult to attend to the color of the letters.
• Ex. the tendency to read the words instead of saying the color of ink
Mental rotation and map image-scanning studies
mental images resemble vision in certain respects.
Change blindness
we often fail to detect changes in a scene if they occur slowly or during an eye movement (the failure to detect changes in parts of a scene)
• Ex. If anything moves or changes its appearance suddenly, it automatically draws your attention, but you seldom notice similar changes that occur slowly or while your moving your eyes.
• Especially not likely to notice changes if your working memory is occupied with other matters, such as the plot of a movie
Attentional blink
we frequently fail to detect a stimulus that appears 100-700 ms after a first stimulus that required attention.
• During a brief time after perceiving one stimulus, it is difficult to attend to something else.
Nature of expertise-
becoming an expert requires years of practice and effort. Experts recognize and memorize familiar and meaningful patterns more rapidly than less experienced people do.
Algorithms and heuristics-
People solve problems by algorithms (repetitive means of checking every possibility) and heuristics (ways of simplifying a problem)
Algorithms
a mechanical, repetitive procedure for solving a problem or testing every hypothesis
Heuristics-
strategies for simplifying a problem and generating a satisfactory guess
o These strategies provide quick guidance when you are willing or forced to accept some possibility of error, and they work more often than not
o Ex. If you want to guess which child is oldest, choose the tallest.
o Ex. If you want to know which city has a larger population, choose the one you have heard of or the one you have heard the more often
Base-rate information
how common the two categories are
Overconfidence
the percentage of confidant you are in providing an answer
Confirmation bias
accepting a hypothesis and then looking for evidence to support it instead of considering other possibilities
Framing bias
• Framing effect- the tendency to answer a question differently when it is framed (phrased) differently.
Natural selection
The differential reproductive success of individuals within a population because of hereditary differences among them
• personal fitness
o direct reproductive prowess
• Inclusive fitness
o assistance of kin’s reproduction
o Leads to cooperative behavior
o “altruism” = genetic self-interest?
• not self interest
Kin selection
help select the mate of family members in order to make sure some of your genes survive and improve
Vervet monkeys and calls-
lives in Kenya and different parts of Africa
• Utter strings of chatter similar to humans in pitches
• Detailed knowledge of social family relations
• Have calls that they issue that they all repeat
o Survival strategies
o Ex. When they see an eagle flying overhead and they run and hide after they hear a specific call
Taxis
movement toward or against a simple stimulus
Fixed action patterns & releasing stimuli
• Triggered by releasers
• More flexible than once thought
• Now sometimes called modal action pattern
Tryon behavior-genetics study
1930’s study on rats, which interbreed the most successful & unsuccessful rats on mazes until the 7th generation of rats made almost no errors or a lot of errors
• Maze bright or maze dull
• Maze bright rats are more likely to suffer from alcoholism
o Tied a connection with creative humans to be more likely to suffer from depression and more likely to become addicted to alcohol and use of drugs
• Controversial study:
o IQ was hereditary
o Human intelligence was hereditary
o Certain races or racial groups were more intelligent
o Studies went on attack because
• Breeding for intelligence?
• Because certain findings proved they could find food sooner and not necessarily smarter
Types of mating systems
• Cooperative mating- inclusive fitness
• Monogamy
o Pair bonding
• Polygamy
o One animal has many mates
o Polyandry-one female mates with many males
• Ex. Insects (females lay their eggs and males wonder on tops laying their sperm)
o Polygyny- (harem)- one male mates with many females
• Pride polygyny
• Ex. Lion and cubs
• Promiscuity
o Ex. Female chimpanzees
Rationale for sexual reproduction
• Gametes (sex cells)
o Released 1-2 per month
o When women run out of cells, they experience menopause
• Sperm (40-600 million per ejaculate)
Sexual dimorphism
the means of competition can be structural or behavioral, and often lead to sexual
• In most of animal kingdom, females are much bigger than males
• Females choose mates based in part on these displays
o Overt female choice
o Cryptic female choice
• One major exception is in species with proportionately large brains
o Males compete for females with displays of strength and prowess
Evolutionary explanations of altruism
2 ways to make sure your genes make it into the next generation
• Not genetic self interest
o Helping others
• Mating with someone (direct reproductiveness)
• Inclusive fitness (indirect way to get your genes into the next generation)
o Assist your kin
Sexual selection
a type of natural selection in which members of one sex compete for reproductive access to members of the other sex
Incitement and "female choice" in mating
females instigate mating
• Check to see who is suitable for mating, then they indicate their state of readiness
• Called flirtation when humans do it
Aspects of human mating system
• Most humans allow polygyny
• Monogymy w/ some polygyny
• Male->female preference for sexual variety
o Number of partners—males are:
• less picky about people
• less careful about circumstances
o More diverse arousal patterns
• Fetishes
• Exhibitions
• Criminal patterns: rape, child sexual abuse
Sexual dimorphism
the means of competition can be structural or behavioral, and often lead to sexual
• In most of animal kingdom, females are much bigger than males
• Females choose mates based in part on these displays
o Overt female choice
o Cryptic female choice
• One major exception is in species with proportionately large brains
o Males compete for females with displays of strength and prowess
Evolutionary explanations of altruism
2 ways to make sure your genes make it into the next generation
• Not genetic self interest
o Helping others
• Mating with someone (direct reproductiveness)
• Inclusive fitness (indirect way to get your genes into the next generation)
o Assist your kin
Epigenetic landscape
we're all born with a collection of traits some of them can change easily others cannot
"Nature-nurture" problem
is it a trait die to hereditary or to the environment? Sometimes, the problem is stated as maturation vs. enculturation
• Whether a trait is genetically influenced does not imply that it is fixed (non- plastic)
• Trait plasticity
• Environment can be
o Chemical (environmental toxins; lifestlye exposure, e.g., smoking, drinking)
o Pathogen
o Psychological
o Pre-, peri-, or post-natal
• Error is to state the problem as either-or:
o Environments can release effects of genes
o Genes can control susceptibility to environment. (e.g., Baldwin Effect)
o Effects of genes
Identical vs. fraternal twins
• Monozygotic- identical twins- develop from a single fertilized egg and therefore have identical genes
• Dizygotic- fraternal twins- develop from two eggs and share only half their genes, like any brother and sister
Effects of drinking and smoking during pregnancy
the brain begins to mature long after birth. Exposure to drugs such as alcohol decreases brain activity and releases neurons’ self-destruct programs. Some people manage to do well in life despite unpromising circumstances
Fetal alcohol syndrome
a condition marked by stunted growth of the head and body; malfunctions of the face, heart, and ears; and nervous system damage, including seizures, hyperactivity, learning disabilities, and mental retardation
Capabilities of newborns
we easily underestimate newborns’ capacities because they have so little control over their muscles. Careful testing demonstrates greater abilities than we might have supposed
• Memory- newborns suck more vigorously to turn on a recording of their own mother’s voice than some other woman’s voice, indicating that they recognize the sound of their mother’s voice. Infants just two months old learn to kick and move a mobile, and they remember how to do it several days later
• Vision & hearing- newborns stare at some visual patterns longer than others. They habituate to repeated sound but dishabituate to slightly different sound, indicating that they hear a difference.
Cross sectional
several groups of subjects of various ages studied at one time
o Advantages
• Quick
• No risk of confusing age effects with effects of changes in society
o Disadvantages:
• Risk of sampling error by getting different kinds of people at different ages
• Risk of cohort effects
o Ex. Compare memory abilities of 3-,5-, and 7-year olds
Longitudinal
one group of subjects studied repeatedly as the members grow older
o Advantages
• No risk of sampling difference
• Can study effects of one experience on later development
• Can study consistency within individuals over time
o Disadvantages
• Takes a long time
• Some participants quit
• Sometimes hard to separate effects of age from changes in society
o Ex. Study memory of 3-year olds, and of the same children again 2 and 4 years later
Cohort effects
people born at different times grow up with different customs, education, nutrition, and health care.
Schemas (Piaget)-
an organized way of interacting with objects
o Ex. Babies putting objects in their mouth to find out if they’re edible
Assimilation
applying an old schema to new objects or problems
o When you meet someone and you categorize them under a stereotype
Accommodation
modifying an old schema to fit a new objects or problem
o When you meet someone who doesn’t fit into a stereotype
Object permanence and how it's measured
age 1 ½ to 2 a child understands the meaning of what an object is.
• Sensorimotor stage (birth approx. 2 years)
o Lack of object permanence
• Ex. toy
Conservation of number, volume, mass-
children lack the concept of conservation. They fail to understand that objects conserve such properties as number, length, volume, area, and mass after changes in the shape or arrangement of the objects
o Stage 2-Preoperational stage (2-7 years)
o Lacks perspective-taking (egocentric)
o Lacks conservation of mass and quantity
Erikson's social development model-
description of the human life span as a series of eight ages or stages, each with its own social and emotional conflicts
o Stage 3- Concrete operational stage (7-11 years)
o Conservation tasks & perspective taking
o Solve problems that apply to actual (concrete) objects or events, not abstract concepts
Key issues in adolescence, midlife and old age
• Adolescence- identity
• Midlife- generatively
• Old age- ego integrity
Primacy effects on social impressions
other things are equal; we pay more attention to the first information we learn about someone than to later information. First impressions form rapidly, and in some cases, they are surprisingly accurate
Methods of assessing prejudice
• media
• Competition breeds hostility, and cooperation leads to friendship
• Increasing contact between groups
• Multiculturism- accepting, recognizing, and enjoying the differences among groups
Results of Implicit Association Test
measures reactions to combinations of categories, such as flowers and pleasant
• Overestimates people’s prejudices, simply because it requires people to pay attention to race
External attributions (situational)
explanations based on the situation, including events that presumably would influence almost anyone
o Ex. Brother walked to work, because his car broke down
Internal attributions (dispositional)
explanations based on someone’s individual characteristics, such as attitudes, personality traits or abilities
o Ex. Brother walked to work, because he likes to walk
Fundamental attribution error
) - make internal attributions for peoples behavior even when we see evidence for an external influence
Culture
people in Asian cultures are less likely than those in Western cultures to attribute behavior to consistent personality traits and more likely to attribute it to the situation
Actor-observer effects
people are more likely to make internal attributions for other people’s behavior and more likely to make external attributions for their own.
Self-serving attributional bias-
attributions that we adopt to maximize credits for success and minimize blame for failure
Self-handicapping strategies
intentionally put themselves at a disadvantage to provide an excuse for failure
Factors affecting persuasiveness of messages:
• Liking and similarity
• Special norms
• Reciprocation
"Foot-in-the-door"-
getting someone to agree to small request first increases chance s/he will agree to a large one
Door-in-the-face
getting someone to decline a large request first increases chance s/he will agree to a small one
Bait-and-switch
getting someone to agree to an extremely favorable deal, then making more demands
That's-not-all
someone makes an offer and then improves the offer before you have a chance to reply
Cognitive dissonance
state of unpleasant tension that people experience when they hold contradictory attitudes or when their behavior contradicts their stated attitudes, especially if the inconsistency distresses them
Factors promoting friendship
People generally choose friends and romantic partners who live near them. In the early stage of romantic attraction, physical appearances are the key factor, but similarity of interests and goals becomes more serious later.
Biology and physical attractiveness
theoretically, physical attractiveness should be a cue to someone’s health and therefore desirability as a mate. Someone with approximately average features is attractive, presumably because average features have been associated with successful breeding in the past. However, attractiveness is only a weak predictor of human health.
Characteristics of successful marriages
Relationships are most likely to thrive if each person believes that he or she is getting about as good a deal as the other person is.
Equity theories
social relationships are transactions in which partners exchange goods and services
Asch's conformity studies
a participant was asked which three lines matched another line. Before answering, the participant heard other people answer incorrectly.
Diffusion of responsibility
we feel less responsibility to act when other people are equally able to act
Milgram's experiment with shocking learner
Social loafing
the tendency to “loaf” (or work less hard) when sharing work with other people
Group polarization
o Group discussion on an issue
o Group members leaning in a same direction
o Group moves further in that direction
Groupthink
o Group has poorly thought out a decision
o Leadership overconfidence, conformity, underestimating problems/ opposition
o Group members suppress doubts
Ways to reduce prejudice
• Stereotype- a belief or expectation about a group of people
• Prejudice- an unfavorable attitude toward a group of people
• Discrimination- unequal treatment of different group
Basic setup of Prisoner's Dilemma and use
o You and your friend get charged for a crime
o If both cooperate (stay quiet), best outcome
o But will the other person confess?
Milgram obedience study & results
in Milgram’s obedience study, many people followed directions in which they thought they were delivering painful shocks to another person.
• People who were able to reach 150 would continue to shock until maximum voltage
Stanford Prison Experiment
college students were paid to act as guards and punish other volunteer college students who played the criminal role. The experiment had to be stopped because the guards were physically and emotionally bullying the “prisoners.”
Kohlberg’s view of moral development (general principle only)
from infancy through adulthood, people gradually develop tendencies toward altruistic and cooperative behavior. Kohlberg argued that we should evaluate moral reasoning on the basis of the reasons people give for a decision than the decision itself.
Problems with Kohlberg’s view
concentrated on justice and ignored views of morality. People’s answers to Kohlberg’s dilemmas correlate only weakly with their actual behavior. We make many, perhaps most, moral decisions by quick emotional responses, not by careful deliberation.
Structured personality testing
objective and projective
Objective (structured) test
mutiple choice test that profiles you into a category
o Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI) (1937)
Projective test
designed to encourage people to project their personality characterisitics onto ambiguous stimuli
o Draw- a-person, draw-a-tree
o Roschach inkblots
o Thematic Aperceptive Test (TAT)
MMPI (1937)-
tested on clients at Minnesota hospital and their families
• Gives profiles to people based on a 556 multiple choice questionnaire
Type A behavior pattern
• Chronic sense of time urgency

• Competitive achieving

• Sense of personal mission

• Many self-imposed deadlines

• High pace in mental and physical activities

• Aggression and hostility
• Found in ~50% of college freshmen and ~85% of corporate executives
• Can be diagnosed using stress interview or interactive gaming
• Type A’s achieve more than type B’s
• Grudge-bearing, bitter Type A’s are 2-6 times as likely to have a heart attack
Cattell's personality research
Raymond Cattell (1973) 16 personality Factors (16 PF test)
Projective testing w/rationale
no set answers, test your mood
Rorschach inkblot procedure (1920)-
a projective technique based on people’s interpretations of 10 ambiguous inkblots
• gives you shapes and you tell tester what you see in each card
• Tester also observes the way you hold card
• Best used as an ice breaker
TAT
the person is asked to make up a story for each picture, describing what events led up to this scene, what is happening now, and what will happen in the future
• series of pictures, where person is supposed to tell what leads up to the picture and what happens after
• Vulnerabilities come out through this test
Gordan Allport
)- lexical (dictionary) method
• Father of trait theory
Trait theories
• Behavioral dispositions: trustworthy, loyal, helpful, friendly, sexual orientation
• Emotional dispositions: happy, content, morose, even-tempered, bitter, impulsive
• Cognitive style: lumper, slitter, mental flexibility
• Outlook on life: romanticism, cynicism, optimism, pessimism
• Views about oneself: gender identity, self-esteem, helpfulness, masculinity-femininity, authoritarianism
Eysenck, “Big Five”-
• Five big traits (OCEAN)
o Conscientiousness-
o Agreeableness (submissiveness)-
o Neuroticism-
o Openness to experience-
o Extroversion-
Conscientiousness
tendency to show self- discipline, to be dutiful, and to strive for achievement and competence
Agreeableness (submissiveness)
tendency to be compassionate toward others
Neuroticism
tendency to experience unpleasant emotions frequently
Openness to experience
tendency to enjoy new intellectual experiences and new ideas
Extroversion
tendency to seek stimulation and to enjoy the company of other people
Two personality dimensions
o Extraversion (looks outside for stimulation) vs. introversion (turbulent inside)
o Neuroticism (measure of reactivity) vs. stability (not very reactive)
Psychodynamic personality theories
relates personality to the interplay of conflicting forces within the individual, including unconscious ones.
Psychoanalysis
Freud’s method of explaining and dealing with personality, based on th interplay of conscious and unconscious forces
Catharsis
the release of pent-up emotional tension
The Unconscious
respiratory of memories, emotions, and thoughts, many of them illogical, that affects our behavior even though we cannot talk about them
• The goal of psychoanalysis is to bring those memories back to consciousness, producing catharsis and enabling the person to overcome irrational impulses
Oedipus complex
o Boys develop a attraction to their mother and hatred for their fathers
o Cant compete with father, so identify with him
Stages of psychosexual development
• Oral stage (birth to 1 ½ years)- pleasure from stimulation of the mouth, particularly by sucking on the mother’s breast
• Anal stage (1 ½ - 3 years)- pleasure from the sensations of the bowel movements
• Phallic stage (3 – 5 or 6 years)- begin to play with their genitals
• Latent period (5 or 6 - puberty)- suppress their psychosexual interest
• Genital stage (puberty onward)- people take a strong sexual interest in other people
Components of personality
Ego, Id, Superego
Ego
rational, decision-making aspect of the personality
Id
consist of sexual and other biological drives that demand immediate gratification
Superego
the memory of rules and prohibitions we learned from our parents
o Nice little boys/girls don’t do that
Defense Mechanisms
Reactions that try to ward off or decrease anxiety by various unconscious means
Repression
prevent threatening thoughts from entering consciousness
o Blocking traumatic event
Rationalization
make excuses or reason that nothing is wrong
o Ex. Miss job interview, convince yourself you didn’t want the job
Denial
refuse to accept information that provokes anxiety
o Ex. He’s not your father
Projection
attributing one’s own undesirable characteristics to other people
o Ex. Your worried about your own commitment, so you accuse partner for cheating
Sublimation
transformation of sexual or aggressive energies into culturally acceptable, even admirable behaviors
o surgeons who ejaculate often, do good things with their hands because society approves where as ejaculation is frowned upon
Reaction formation
present themselves as the opposite of what they really are to hide the unpleasant truth either from themselves or others
o Bragging about exam, when it was difficult for you
Regression
returning to more child-like state rather than handling in adult manner
o Child reverts to sucking thumb or wetting the bed
Displacement
placing emotion from one object onto another after target
o Getting mad at bf and throw a cell to relinquish anger
Overall evidence on validity
determination of how well a test measures what it claims to measure
Jung's collective unconscious and archetypes
believed that all people share a collective unconscious that represents the entire experience of humanity
Archetypes
images inherited from our ancestors and contained in the collective unconscious
Collective unconscious
inborn level of the unconscious that symbolizes the collective experience of the human species
Adler and "social interest
proposed that people’s primary motivation is a striving for superiority. Each person adopts his or her own method of striving, and to understand people, we need to understand their goals and beliefs
Social interest
sense of solidarity and identification with other people
Personality and criminal profiling
some psychologists try to aid police investigations by constructing personality profiles of the kind of person who would commit a certain crime. Research has been limited, and so far, it suggests low accuracy of personality profiles.
parenting styles
o authoritative
o authoritarian
o permissive
o indifferent or uninvolved
o indifferent or uninvolved
o spend little time
o provide basic needs
o children
• impulsive
• undisciplined
o permissive
o warm
o loving but understanding
o children
• socially irresponsible
o authoritarian
o firm controls
o emotionally distinct
o children-
• law-abiding but distrustful
• dependent
o authoritative
o high standards
o impose controls
o warm and responsive to child communications