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130 Cards in this Set

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Mode of a distribution
Most frequently occurring score in the distribution
--a distribution may be unimodal, bimodal, trimodal
Median of a distribution
Score that splits the distribution exactly in half
--commonly used as index of central tendency in a distribution that has outliers or lonely scores falling a long way from center of gravity
Mean
Average of the scores in the distribution
--every number must contribute to the measure
Variance
The average squared deviation from the mean of each score in the distribution
Why can we not use the simple average of deviations?
Because these will by definition add up to zero
Standard deviation
Square root of the variance
Range
Different between the lowest and highest score
ex) 9-4=5
What happens to the curve if there is a high variance?
The curve will be very spread out
Percentile ranking
Tells us the place the score falls in the parent distribution, providing part of the context needed to understand meaning of a score
What does a higher z score mean?
A more positive percentile ranking
Z-scores
Indicates distance of a score from mean in SD units
ex)Given z-score mean of 0:
--z-score of +1 falls 1 SD above the mean
-z-score of -2 falls 2 SD below the mean
--z-score of 0 falls right at the mean
Z-score formula
X-M
Z= ------
SD

x=raw score, m=mean of parent distribution, SD=sd of parent distribution
Psychological Test
Objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior; used to predict other behavior; gather important imformation about the test-taker
Where were the earliest psychological tests found?
The Chinese Empire about 2000 years ago but roots of testing can be traced to 19th century attempts to measure intelligence
WHO developed the modern psychological tests to study error?
Wundt & Error
What happened to psychology in the mid-1800s?
It broke away from philosophy and began focusing on studying contents of the mind
What did Wundt hope to do in his psychological lab?
In Germany he hoped to formulate general laws of behavior, just as physics and chemistry had discovered general laws of matter
--basic elements of consciousness bc he wanted to hinder thought
What was unfortunate for Wundt?
There were always variations from one person to another no matter how many times he standardized the procedures
--individual differences
Francis Galton
Interested in "geniuses" -intelligence; said they ran in families
-faced problems that there wasnt a mathematical test to measurements--correlational statisitcs
--also no tests available to objectively measure intelligence so he developed one
--empiricists belief
James Cattall
Left America to study under Wundt but later met Galton and was influenced by his ideas on intelligence; after returning to the u.s he opened a psych lab that focused on objective mental tests--mostly measured sensory and reactions
What did Cattall's tests fail to show?
Construct validity; his measurements failed to correlate with GPA's, teacher ratings and other forms of intelligence but he did lay the groundwork for future tests
Alfred Binet
Frenchman, also interested in intelligence; identifying mentally retarded children
--proposed direct evaluation
--his tests from both years correlated with other alternative measurements of intelligence demonstrating construct validity
Louis Terman
American Prof at Stanford-trained with Binet brought the test back to Stanford and revised it. It is not called the Stanford-Binet; intelligence test that measured IQ's specifically to test mentally retarded intelligence levels
What was developed and used in World War 1?
Group intelligence tests were used bc the Stanford Binet could not be used since one of the requirements is that examinees be tested one at a time
What is psychology sometimes characterized as?
The study of human behavior
What is psychology dependent on? (like chem, physics, geology)
Measurement
What are constructs?
Abstract, inferred organizing principles thought to determine behaviors of interest; must always be inferred from observable data
Examples of constructs
Intelligence, personality
When observing constructs, what are psychologists most interested in?
In assessing UNDERLYING constructs, which are assumed to determine observed behavior but cannot be directly measured
What are constructs always inferred from?
Observable data
Are psychologists operating at a disadvantage compared to other scientists?
Yes bc they are interested in a phenomena that aren't directly measurable
What does the classical test theory emphasize?
There are no perfect tests, every test score determined to some extent by error
In classical theory tests what are they trying to determine?
Not if there is error present but HOW MUCH error is present
Standardization
A way to minimize error; aimed at minimizing differences among examinations; test should be administered and scored in the exact same way across different examinees and examiners
Controlling Test Materials
2nd way to minimize errors; minimize exposure to test manuel; but to purchase test manuel, many qualifications must be met-intended for examiners only
What should the examiner do before tests to minimize error?
Memorize instructions, check and prepare stimulus materials, post signs to prevent interruptions; create te best test environment possible-temperature, lighting, etc; minimize test anxiety, remain alert
Most important key point that must be grasped in statistics
A test score is meaningless in isolation
What are statistics used to describe?
Distributions of numbers as well as the rank of any single test score in that distribution
"Skewed"
Asymmetrical distributions and have different names depending on direction of their symmetry
Positively skewed
Pointing to the high end-right end; scores piling up at the low end; add easy items
Negatively skewed
Pointing to the low end-left end; scores piling up at the high end; add hard items
Ceiling effect
High end; interpreted as indicating that test is unable to make fine discriminations at high end
Floor effect
Low end, interpreted as indicating the measurement procedure is unable to make fine discriminations at the low end
Central Tendency
provides information about the center of gravity of a distribution; mean, median, mode
Dispersion
Provides information about where the scores fall away from the central tendency of a distribution--how tightly scores clump or fall away from central tendency; range, variance, standard deviation
Percentile rank
EX) percentile rank of 50 means that 50% of scores from a normal distribution fall below score with that percentile rank-high percentile rank is good; percentage of scores in istribution that fall below a given score
How do we determine the percentile rank?
If we know how far above/below the mean the score falls in standard deviation units, we can determine the percentage of scores that fall below our score
Standard Scores
Transformations of raw, original scores; all standard scores exoress distance of raw score from mean of parent distribution in standard deviation units; Zscore
Z scores
Indicate distance of a score from mean in SD units
=given the z-score mean of 0 and SD of 1:
zscore of plus 1 falls 1 sd above mean
zscore of -2 falls two sd below mean
zscore of 0 falls right at the mean
What do z scores provide?
A common language to compare scores from different distributions
Bivariate statistics
Correlations-describing two or more distributions or variables; ex)hours spent studying and scores on midterm
-plot /graph data
Correlation coefficient
Allows us to quantify the relationship between two variables; weakest correlation=0; 100=perfect positive correlation
Statistical Significance
Given this many subjects and the size correlation, what is the probability that obtaining these results due to chnce alone (if there is no real relationship present) --if you have alot of subjects it isnt hard to real statistical significance
Does the thresold required to obtain statistical significance vary by subject number?
Yes
When examining a correlation, what else must the reviewer check?
Not only statistical sig but also magnitude or strength of the correlation--AKA square the correlation coefficient which tells us the percent linear variance shared by the two variables
Along with correlations being used as a tool to see a relationship between two variables, they can also....
...Predict one variable from another-never interested in the test score itself, interested in what can be predicted from the test score
Best-Fit regression Line
line determined to result iin least possible distance from itself and 8 data points
When working to zscores, what is the slope of the best first regression line?
Correlation coefficient
How do we predict scores using the best fit regression line?
We move from z score of variable x on horizontal axis, vertically to regression line, then from regression line to horizontal axis to find predicted y value
Standard Error of the Estimate
The square root of the average distance from the line
What represents error?
The length from the points to the line; we want points to fall close to the line bc that minimizes error
Normative Groups
Should be large (to minimize sampling error)& representative of individuals who will actually be give psychological test in question
What are the three categories normative groups usually fall into?
Developmental, within group, criterion referenced
Developmental Norms
Usually for children and recently with 60+; cognitive abilities vary considerably around these types of lifespans (dementia, or children getting smarter, etc)
Longitudinal Designs
When all individuals are followed and tested across period in question--they are expensive and rarely used bc ppl drop out; ideally used to normative groups
Cross Sectional Design
Different groups at selected ages are tested with results presumably showing the developmental change in question
Developmental Norms: grade equivalents
Grade equivalents are similar to age norms except use school grade as metric; grade equivalents suffer from same limitation as noted in mental age
Developmental Norms: ordinal scale
Capitalizing on different stages-step by step occurring in the same order; objects are assigned a numeral that indicate a ranking or ordering; for example football teams are ranked 1,2,3,4...25, etc
Advantages/disadvantages of developmental norms
Advantage:readily understandable by laypersons; use intuitively appealing concepts
Disadvantages:units may fluctuate across developmental periods(mental ages); hard to work with statistically; misleading
Within Groups Norms
Most common strategy; should be large and representative; looks at changes in behavior across different treatments; large percentile rankings-not good so, standard scores are preferred bc they decrease the problem; comparable to standardization groups
Criterion Referenced Tests
They give meaning to test performance by describing what test takers could actually do; used in a descriptive way to give useful performance info-similar to ordinal developmental scale but no strict progression implied
--mose useful where knowledge or performance may be thoroughly classified and described; for ex)driving test, high school math can do specific problems; not abstract-writing etc
Local Norms
Normative data derived from a specific setting
Issues in Norms
Tests differ in content even if they have similar names; tests may measure the same thing operationally but not interchangeably; not perfectly correlated with beck depression scale
Dorthea Dix
Crusader for improvement in hospital conditions; humanitarian
Horace Mann
Founder of the formal school board; most influential educator- drastic improvement for the way we evaluate students
Charles Spearman
"Two-factor theory of intelligence"; number cruncher; fist attempt at an empirically based theory of human intelligence; mathematical; mental measurements
What are the five major categories we classify tests?
Mental, achievement, personality, intelligence, neuropsychological
MAPIN
What are the three fundamental questions in testing relate to?
Reliability-the stability of a measure
Validity- what a test really measures
Norms- the framework for interpreting test scores
Developmental norms: nominal scale
simply distinguishes objects from one another; for examples males:0 females:1, or numbers on basketball jerseys
Developmental norms: interval scale
places objects in order and does so with equal intervals, no true zero point; for example-thermometer-0 degrees does not indicate the complete absence of heat; psych measurements usually done with interval and ordinal scales
Developmental norms: ratio
Has a true zero point and places objects in order-length and weight
What did Freud later conclude about hypnosis?
That it was not needed to get therapeutic results
Freud's two methods for understand the conscious and unconscious
Free association and dream analysis
Free Association
Have patients talk freely about themselves thus providing info about their feelings, thoughts, motives, etc
Dream Analysis
Patients record and describe their dreams;
What happens to the consciousness and unconsciousness during dreams?
The break between the two is weakened unconscious materials come through-still somewhat guarded so meaning is disguised
Oral stage-psychosocial
Birth-18months, the child's main need is food--therefore the mouth, lips, and tongue are the infants libido (gives pleasure)
Anal stage-psychosocial
18 months -3 years; libido is anal and urinary sphincter muscles; child learns pleasure to with-hold and expel poopy!
Phallic stage-psychosocial
3-6 years; pleasure comes from genitals
Latency stage-psychosocial
6-12 years-calm; children consolidate psychological and interpersonal lessons they have learned
Genital stage-psychosocial
Puberty; child learns pleasures and dangers of adult sexuality
What must happen during each of the psychosocial stages?
The growing person must resolve conflicts between what the Id wants and what the environment can offer
What might problems during the Oral stage lead to?
Overly optimistic, narcissism, gullibility, demandingness, dependency
What is the MOST important development crisis?
Occurs in the Phallic stage around age four in little boys-Oedipus Complex-boy fantasizes about sex with mother and simultaneous feelings of jealousy and rage toward father
Castration anxiety
Boy loves his penis so much (source of power and strength) so he must repress feelings about his mother
How is the Oedipus complex resolved?
By identifying with the father and adopting the societies rules which forbid relations with a mother
Electra Complex
Girl realizes she has no penis so wants to possess her father to gain the penis
How is electra complex resolved?
When she realizes she can eventually have a baby one day which will substitute a penis
What will happen if complexes are unresolved?
Lead to guilt about sexual desires, fears of intimacy or other difficulties developing relationships
Regression
You avoid thoughts and feelings from the past by returning to a psychologically earlier less painful time
ex)A man whose self esteem has been shattered returns to a childlike "show off" behavior
Displacement
You take out hostile pent-up feelings on object less dangerous than those that caused the feelings
ex)Man hates his boss so comes home and kicks the dog
Fixation
Attaching oneself in an unreasonable or exaggerated way to some person
ex) an unmarried middle age man still relies on his mother to provide the most basic needs
Repression
Putting thoughts and feelings into unconsciousness; repressed memories, child molestation; comes out as dreams or slits of the tongue etc
Identification
You defend against threatening feelings aroused by the behavior of another person by experiencing a strong link with that person
ex)oedipus complex
Projection
You attribute your unacceptable motives or characteristics on others
ex) you like a person a lot but your friends disapprove so you say he likes me
Reaction formation
You prevent the expression of unacceptable desires by adopting the opposite behavior
Sublimation
You transform psychological energy associated with threatening or aggressive feelings into socially acceptable pursuits such as art, music, politics, or intellectual activities
Rationalization
You use contrived explanations for how you conceal and disguise inworthy motives for behavior
ex)A racist uses passages from the bible to explain motives towards minorities
Problems with defense mechanisms?
Can't prove it!
Behavioral Model
John Watson-goal of psychology was to predict and control behavior; psych should be like science and physics; no need for introspection or study of unconsciousness
Observational Learning
We learn behavior by watching others
ex)mother afraid of snakes so we are afraid of snakes
Problems with behavioral method
Not everything is learned, biology plays a role too so you can't always "unlearn" behavior
Cognitive-Behavioral Model
The way you think has something to do with developing a mental disorder; no hidden drives or motives but must work on the way a person thinks to fix psychopathology
ex)not enough just to stop depressing behaviors-need to work on thoughts too
Biopsychosocial Model
Need to consider all relevant factors--biology (neurotransmitters,genes)
social factors(racial, social tensions)
contextual factors (family, work, poverty)
cultural factors(generations)
psychological factors (relationship, learning)
demographic factors (age, gender, race)
What neurotransmitter most implicated with OCD?
SSRI's block re-uptake of serotonin
What dies agoraphobia grown from?
Panic Disorders
Problems with behavioral method
Not everything is learned, biology plays a role too so you can't always "unlearn" behavior
Cognitive-Behavioral Model
The way you think has something to do with developing a mental disorder; no hidden drives or motives but must work on the way a person thinks to fix psychopathology
ex)not enough just to stop depressing behaviors-need to work on thoughts too
Biopsychosocial Model
Need to consider all relevant factors--biology (neurotransmitters,genes)
social factors(racial, social tensions)
contextual factors (family, work, poverty)
cultural factors(generations)
psychological factors (relationship, learning)
demographic factors (age, gender, race)
What neurotransmitter most implicated with OCD?
SSRI's block re-uptake of serotonin
What dies agoraphobia grown from?
Panic Disorders
Problems with behavioral method
Not everything is learned, biology plays a role too so you can't always "unlearn" behavior
Cognitive-Behavioral Model
The way you think has something to do with developing a mental disorder; no hidden drives or motives but must work on the way a person thinks to fix psychopathology
ex)not enough just to stop depressing behaviors-need to work on thoughts too
Biopsychosocial Model
Need to consider all relevant factors--biology (neurotransmitters,genes)
social factors(racial, social tensions)
contextual factors (family, work, poverty)
cultural factors(generations)
psychological factors (relationship, learning)
demographic factors (age, gender, race)
What neurotransmitter most implicated with OCD?
SSRI's block re-uptake of serotonin
What dies agoraphobia grown from?
Panic Disorders
Personality disorder goes on which axis?
DSM 2
Three most important things to consider in Disgnostic system?
Reliability, validity, bias
Wake up in the middle of the night, heart racing, hot and cold?
B. panic attack
Treatment choice for PTSD?
Imagine exposure