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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define psychological testing.
It's a systematic, standardized means of assessing the cognivitve skills, personality traits, attitudes and behaviors, or psychiatric symptoms of an individual or group of people for purposes of description, categorization, diagnosis, or intervention. With respect to the domain of interest, an individual's or group's results are compared to the results of a comparison population to determine the relative degree of skill, pathology, attitude, or trait the person or group possesses.
Uses of psychological tests
1. Dx of pathology
2. Assessment of personality traits
3. Measurement of brain functions
4. Treatment planning/evaluation
5. Evaluation of achievement
6. Prediction
Three variables to consider in test construction
1. reliability
2. validity
3. norms
Describe reliability
If the conditions don't change between trials, we should get similar results between two or three tests.
Describe the validity
Does the test measure what it claims to measure?
What is face validity?
It's a direct question. Ex: "Are you depressed?"
What is construct validity?
Is the overall concept that you are trying to measure real? Is the question valid to the idea that you are trying to get at?
What is concurrent validity?
Does the test correlate with other tests that measure the same thing? May test a new test against an old test to see if you get similar results; if so then concurrent validity exists.
What is content validity?
Instead of directly asking a question, you ask other questions that relate to it. Ex: With depression, instead of asking, "Are you depressed?" you might ask "Do you feel tired or drained of energy?" or "Have you lost interest in things you used to enjoy?"
What is predictive validity?
Does the test measure what's going to happen in the future? Ex: may predict suicidal behavior, depression events.
Which (4) types of validity are most important?
1. face
2. predictive
3. content
4. concurrent
Which type of validity is perhaps most "tricky"? Example?
Construct validity. Ex: IQ tests and construct validity of intelligence.
What is test-retest reliability?
A repeated test should yield the same results as long as the conditions haven't changed.
What is split-half reliability?
If you break up the test or scramble the questions, do you get the same results if you only take part of the test?
What is alternate form reliability?
Giving an equivalent but different test that tests the same function. Ex: The same memory test shouldn't be given two hours later because the pt. may remember some of the answers, so the test may be inaccurate. But you could give a similar but different test.
Internal consistency reliability
related to split-half reliabilty
interrater reliability
multiple researchers independently arriving at the same conclusions
normative comparison
- relationship between an individual and a comparison group
- norms may be skewed if applying the same test to populations with different backgrounds
- important to consider the group we use to set the normal values
quality of normative data
- must have enough data present to suggest that the norms are stable
- e.g., normal lab values must be based on large population, not just on 20 people
categories of cognitive skills
1. general intelligence
2. attention and orientation
3. memory
4. processing speed
5. spatial problem solving
6. language
7. executive function
General intelligence tests
1. WAIS-3
2. Stanford-Binet
Memory tests
1. California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT)
2. Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT)
3. Benton Visual Learning Test (BVLT)
4. Wexler Memory Scale 3rd Edition (WMS-3)
Language tests
- good at determining the function of Broca's area
1. Controlled Oral Word Association (COWA)
2. Boston Naming Test
Executive function tests
- problem-solving tests; test frontal lobe function
1. Winsconsin Card Sort Test (WCST)
2. Categories
Processing speed tests
- ADD pts. often slower because they can't slow down enough to accurately process information
1. digit symbol test
2. symbol search test
Perceptual/spatial tests
1. Hooper Visual Organization Task (HVOT)
- tests general intelligence
- norms from about 18 to 79 y/o
- used widely, but "shaky" for some age groups
Stanford-Binet test
- Only accurate within a relatively normal range (e.g., up to 150)
Verbal Learning Tests
- e.g., CVLT, AVLT, BVRT
- specific tests of either verbal or visual memory
- measure the ability to remember lists or figures and how they are remembered (e.g., either by category or by cue)
Wexler Memory Scale 3rd Edition (WMS-3)
Comprehensive memory test that measures many memory related skills, paired, associated learning, including face recognition (which declines with age), verbal learning for context, etc.