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126 Cards in this Set

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psychoparmacology
study of the effects of drugs on the nervous system and on behavior
Drug Effects
the changes a drug produces in an animal's physiological processes and behavior
Sites of Action
locations at which molecules of drugs interact with molecules located on or in cells of the body, thus affecting some biochemical processes of these cells
Pharmacokinetics
the process by which drugs are absorbed, distributed within the body, metabolized, and excreted
IV (Intravenous) Injection
Injection of a substance directly into a vein
-fastest
IP (Intraperitoneal) injection
into peritoneal cavity; space around stomach etc.
IM(Intramuscular)Injections
Injection of a substance into a muscle
Subcutaneous (SC) Injection
Injection of a substance into the space beneath the skin
Oral administration
Administration of a substance into the body by swallowing
Sublingual administration
administration of a substance by placing it beneath the tongue
Intrarectal administration
into the rectum
Inhalation
vaporous substance into the lungs
Topical
substance absorbed through the skin
Intracerebral administration
directly into the brain
Intracerebroventricular (ICV)
into one of the cerebral ventricles
Dose response curve
drug dose vs. effect; after a certain point it doesn't produce a stronger effect
Margin of safety
between the analgesic (nothing) and depressive (bad) effets of a drug
Tolerance
a decrease in the effectiveness of a drug that is administered repeatedly
Sensitization
an increase in the effectiveness of a drug that is administered repeatedly
Withdrawal
sympotoms opposite to those produced by a drug when the drug is administered repeatedly and then suddenly no longer taken
Placebo effect
an inert substance given to an organism in lieu of a physiologically active drug
-used experimentally as a control
Antagonist
opposes or inhibits the effects of a particular neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic cell
Agonist
facilitates of mimigs the effects of a particular neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic cell
Contingent Tolerace
drug tolerance that develops as a reaction ot the experience of drug effects rather than to drug exposure alone
Conditioned tolerance
tolerance effects are maximally expressed when a drug is administered in the same situation in which it has prevously been administered
Neurospychopharmacology
-theraputic uses of drugs
-addictive properties of drugs
-effects on behavior
-effects on NT systems
3 Major dopaminergic systems
-mesolimbic
-mesocortical
-nigrostriatal
Catecholamines
AMPT blocks L-DOPA formation from tyrosine
Mesolimbic DAergic System
-soma in Ventral temental area
-axons project to the nucleus accumbens and amygdala (associated w/ reward)
-addictive properties of drugs
Mesocortical DAergic system
-soma in the VTA (ventral tegmental area)
-axons project to prefrontal cortex
-planning behavior
-short term memory
Nigrostriatal DAergic system
-soma in substantia nigra
-project to corpus straitum-coordinating movements
-loss here in Parkinson's disease leads to progressive motor deficits
Reserpine
-makes synaptic vesicles leaky
-inhibition of storage
Cocaine
blocks dopamine reuptake
Amphetamine
reverses reuptake mechanism
PCPA
blocks serotonin synthesis from tryptophan
serotonin
-9 diff receptor types
-SSRI-serotonin reuptake inhibitor (prozac-depression)
-Fen-fen; fenfluramine
ecstacy
reverses reuptake mechanism for serotonin
-also affects norepinephrine
Direct agonists of Serotonin
LSD
ACh Receptors
Nicotinic and Muscarinic
Nicotinic
Ionotropic; found in brain, skeletal muscle
Muscarinic
metabotropic
-found in brain salivary grands, sympathetic ganglia, heart muscle, eye, stomach, colon bladder
Curare
blocks nicoinic receptors
-paralysis b/c signals can't get from neurons to muscles
Botulinum toxin
prevents ACh release
-paralysis
Black Widow Spider Venom
facilitates ACh release;
many symptoms
Atropine
blocks muscarinic receptors
-dry mouth
-pupillary and bronchial dilation
-decrease in secretions
Glutamate
-amino acid NT
-most important EXCITATORY in brain
-produced in neurons by metabolism
-no effective way to block synthesis without disrupting other cell activities
Glutamate Receptors (4)
-NMDA
-AMPA
-Kainate
-Metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGlur)
AMPA
most common Glu receptor
-ionotropic Na+ channel
Kainate
stimulated by Kainic acid
-ionotropic; Na+ channel
NMDA
6 diff binding sites-4 extracellular and 2 deep in ion channel
-ionotropic; permeable to Na+ and Ca2+ after depolarization
-important for memory and learning
-Mg blocks at rest
Dynamic Regulation of Synapses
NMDA receptors cascade into making more AMPA receptors
"silent synapses"
post synaptic current applied, but no current flow
GABA
synthesized from Glutamate
IPSP
2 GABA receptors
A & B
GABAa
ionotropic; Cl- channel
GABAb
metabotropic; K+ channel
Barbituates, Benzodiazepines, and steroids
indirect agonists on the GABAa receptor (alcohol)
Neuropeptides
most are neuromodulators and some are neurotransmitters
Endogenous Opiods
-receptors stimulated by opiates
-3 types of receptors (mu, kappa, delta)
Enkephalins
first discovered endogenous opiods
-abuse-->reward pathway
-important for analgesic effects
Lipid NTs
-derived from fat molecules
THC
-active ingredient in marijuana--> produces analgesia, sedation, and relieves nausea
-congintion, concentration, memory
Anandamide
first endogenous cannabinoid discovered
Nucleosides
-based on a sugar molecule
-neuromodulator
-present in ALL cells
-released when cell short of fuel or oxygen
Adenosine
receptors usually suppress neural activity
-sleep control
-CAFFEINE blocks
Soluble Gases
Nitric Oxide-synthesized by oxide synthase
-used as a chemical messenger
-NO RECEPTORS
-diffuses out of cell
-activates an enzyme responsible for producing a second messenger molecule (cGMP)
Neuraxis
imaginary line drawn through the center of the CNS from the bottom of the spinal cord to the front of the forebrain
Layers of the Meninges
Dura-->Arachnoid mater-->subarachnoid space-->pia mater
Cerebrospinal fluid
supports the weight of the brain and reduces shock
Ventricles
4 follow spaces located in the brain CSF
Choroid Plexus
specialized network of blood vessels that produce CSF
Neural Plate
in begining of neural development
Notochord
makes certebrates; signals induce cells to thicken and fold
Neural Groove
tube forming by motion of cells folding in; becomes ventricles
Anencephaly
brain doesn't develop
Hydrocephaly
large ventricles, not a lot of brain
Spina Bifida
menigoscele-evagination of meninges through back filled w/ csf
encephalocele
part of brain sticks out of head
brain end product
around 1400 g or 3 lbs
founder cells
cells of the ventricular zone that divide and give rise to cells of the CNS
Symmetrical division
division of a founder cell that gives rise to 2 identical founder cells; increases the size of the ventricular zone
-->brain that develops from it
asymmetrical divison
division of a founder cell that gives rise to another founder cell and a neuron which migrates away from the ventricular zone toward its final resting place
apoptosis
death of a cell caused by chemcial signal that activates a genetic mechanism inside the cell
radial glia
special glia w/ fibers that grow radially outward from the ventricular zone to the surface of the cortex; provide guidance for neurons migrating outward during brain development
forebrain
rostral; telencephalon and diencephalon
cerebral hemisphere
covered by cerebral cortex
subcortical region
w/in the brain
-contains limbic system and basal ganglia
gyrus
a convolution of the cortex of the cerebral hemispheres
sulcus
groove in the surface of the cerebral hemisphere
fissure
a major groove in the surface of the brain, larger than a sulcus
major sulci of the brain
central sulcus, parieto-occipital sulcus, and sylvian or lateral fissure
lobes of the brain
occipital, temporal, frontal, parietal
postcentral gyrus
somatosensory cortex
touch
precentral cyrus
motor cortex
forebrain
telencephalon
diencephalon
midbrain
mesencephalon--tectum
hindbrain
mylencephalon (medulla) and metencephalon (cerebellum)
telencephalon
neocortex
limbic cortex
prefrontal cortex
corpus callosum
neocortex
priamry sensory cortex, primary motor cortex, and association octex
limbic cortex
old; hippocampus; olfactory cortex
prefrontal cortex-
formulating plans and strategies
corpus callosum
large bundles of axons that intercconnects corresponding regions of teh cortex on each side of the brain
Limbic System
amygdala and cingualte gyrus
amygdala
structure in the interior of the rostral temporal lobe involved in emotions
cingulate gyrus
srip of limbic corex lying along the medial walls of the cerebral hemispheres
Basal Ganglia
-telencephalon
-caudate nucleus, globis pallidus,and putamen
-provide fine control move movement
Diencephalon
b/w telencephalon and mesencephalon
-surrounds 3rd ventricle
-thalamus and hypothalamus
thalamus
project info to specific regions of the cerebral cortex and receive info from it
lateral, medial, ventrolateral nuclei (vision, hearing, and motor)
hypothalamus
beneath the thalamus
-controls AUTONOMIC nervous system
-4 F's-fighting, feeding, fleeing, and mating
-controls anterior and posterior pituitary glands
Pituitary gland
hypophesis
adenohypophesis
anterior pituitary gland
-"Master gland"
-ENDOCRINE GLAND whose secretions are controlled by hypothalamic hormones
nuerohypophesis
posterior pituitary gland
-has hormone secreting terminal buttons of axons whose cell body lie in the hypothalamus
"nuerosecretory cells"
Mesencephalon
midbrain
-region that surrounds the cerebral aqueduct
-tectum and tegmentum
Tectum
dorsal part
-superior colliculus (vision)
-inferior colliculus (hearing)
Tegmentum
-ventral
-periaqueductal gray matter
-reticular formation
-Red nucleus
-Substantia nigra
Periaqueductal gray matter
pain fibers
reticular formation
sleep, arousal, attention
red nucleus
motor control
substantia nigra
motor control
Hindbrain
metencephalon and myelencephalon
Cerebellum
-metencephalon
-dorsal to pons
-2 cerebellar hemispheres covered in cerebellar cortex
-motor system
Medulla oblongata
meyelencephalon
-most caudal
-nuclei that control vital functions-cardiovascular, respiration,and skeletal muscle tone
direct agonist
a drug that bidns w/ and activates a receptor
direct antagonist
receptor blocker
indirect antagonist
attaches to a binding site on a receptor and interferes with the action of the receptor; doesn't interfere with the binding site for the principle ligand
indirect agonist
drug that attaches to a binding site on a receptor and facilitates the action of the receptor; doesn't interfere with the binding site for the principal ligand