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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what was Freud’s World like
-Victorian Era
-rise of the Nazis
what are Instincts
Strong innate forces that provide all the energy in the psychic system
Freud's original theory was influenced by darwin's theory of evolution
what were freud's 2 initial formulations of instinct classes
Self-preservation instincts, sexual instincts... which correspond with darwin's 2 major components of his theory... selection by survival and selection by reproduction
Freud later collapsed his 2 initial instincts into what, what was it... he also created another one, what was it
the life instinct = libido
the death instinct = thanatos
according to freud, could his 2 revised instincts be combined
yes such as in eating... you kill the food then use it 2 bring you life/health
what is the Unconscious
Part of the mind holding thoughts and memories about which a person is unaware; includes unacceptable sexual and aggressive urges, thoughts, and feelings
what are the 3 parts to the human mind
-Conscious: Contains thoughts, feelings, and images about which you are presently aware
-Preconscious: Contains information you are not presently thinking about, but can be easily retrieved and made conscious
-Unconscious: Largest part of the human mind
According to Freud do we do anything by accident
Freud argued that nothing happens by accident—instead, there is a reason behind every act, thought, and feeling
Everything we do, think, say, feel is an expression of our mind—either conscious, preconscious, or unconscious
what is the difference b/w Jung's collective unconscious and personal unconscious
the personal unconscious grew out of personal unique experiences, like Freuds's. the collective was inherited and contained a collection of primordial images common in all humans
what are archetypes
expressions or images of basic human needs and instincts that we are all born with. ties in with Jung's collective unconscious
what did freud think caused mental illnesses
unconscious motivations
How did Freud believe you cured pssychological symptoms
To cure psychological symptoms, the unconscious cause must be discovered
what are Freud's 3 structures of personality
what is the Id and what does it operate according to
the Id is somthing we are born with and is the source of all drive and urges.
It operates according to the pleasure principal which the desire for immediate gratification
what is primary process thinking and with with structure does it belong to
it is thinking without logical rules of conscious thought or an anchor in reality. it operates under the id... ex are dreams and fantasies
what is wish fulfillment
when something unavailable is conjured up and the image of it is temporarily satisfying. part of the id
what is the ego and what principal does it operate according it and when is it developed
the part of the mind that constrains the id to reality.
it operates according to the reality principal
it is developed within the 1st 2-3 years of life
what is secondary process thinking and which structure is it under
the development of strategies for solving problems and obtaining satisfaction. under the ego
what is the superego and when does it start
the part of the mind that internalizes the values, morals, and ideals of society. it starts are age 5
what is the development of the superego linked to
the child's identification with his or her parents
what is the reality pricipal
Ego understands that urges of id are often in conflict with social and physical reality
which structure of personality is sometimes referred to as the conscious
the superego
which is the only structure of personality that is bound by reality
what is anxiety
an unpleasant state, which acts as a signal that things are not right and something must be done
what is objective anxiety
what is neurotic anxiety
when there is a direct conflict between the id and ego. the danger is that the ego may lose control over an unacceptable dire of the id
what is moral anxiety
conflict b/w the ego and superego.
what is the 1st stage of freud's personality development and how long does it last
oral stage (birth -18 months)
Main sources of pleasure and tension reduction are the mouth, lips, and tongue
what is the 2nd stage of freud's personality development and how long does it last
Anal stage (18 months to 3 years)
Child obtains pleasure from first expelling feces and then, during toilet training, from retaining feces
what is the 3rd stage of freud's personality development and how long does it last
Phallic stage (3 to 5 years)
Child discovers he has (or that she doesn’t have) a penis
Sexual desire directed toward the parent of opposite sex
Produces Oedipal and Electra conflicts—unconscious wish to have opposite-sex parent all to self by eliminating the same-sex parent
what is the 4th stage of personality development and how long does it last
Latency stage (six year to puberty)
Little psychological development occurs
Focus of child is on learning skills and abilities necessary to succeed as adult
what is the final stage of personality development
Genital stage (puberty through adult life)
Libido is focused on the genitals, but not in manner of self-manipulation associated with the phallic stage
This stage is not accompanied by specific conflict
what is psychoanalysis
also a method of psychotherapy— a method of deliberately restructuring personality
what is the goal of psychoanalysis and its 2 aims
to make the unconscious conscious
First aim of psychoanalysis is to identify unconscious thoughts and feelings
Once a patient is aware of this material, the second aim is to enable the person to deal with it realistically and maturely
what are some techniques for revealing the unconscious
Free association
Dream analysis
Projective techniques
what is the imagination inflation effect
when a memory is elaborated upon the imagination, leading the person to confuse the imagined event w/ events that actually happened
what is Confirmatory bias
Tendency to look only for evidence that confirms belief, and not to look for evidence that disconfirms
what is the Spreading activation model of memory
Mental elements are stored in memory along with associations to other elements in memory
what kind of memory do humans posses and what is it
a constructive memory- memory contributes to or influences in various ways what is recalled (by adding, subtracting, and so on)
cognitive unconscious vs. motivated unconscious
the cognitive unconscious view acknowledges that info can get into our mind w/o us being aware, but it is unconscious b/c we are not conscious of it and not b/c they have been repressed and represent unacceptable urges like the motivated unconscious view
what is subliminal perception
when info is flashed on a screen so quickly that you dont recognize the actual words
what is priming
priming makes associated material more accessible to conscious awareness than is material that is not primed
who emphasized the ego as a powerful independent part of personality
erik erikson
what is the primary fuction of the ego according to erikson
establishing a secure identity. it is also involved in mastering the environment, achieving goals and establishing identity
what happens when you have difficulty establishing your identity
you have an identity crisis
what are erikson's 8 stages of development
Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Initiative vs. Guilt
Industry vs. Inferiority
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Integrity vs. Despair
what did erikson believe needed to happen during each stage
a developmental crisis needed to be resolved
what is identify foreclosure
when a person forms an identity w/o exploring alternatives or not experiencing a crisis
what is moratorium
taking time to explore options before making a commitment to an identity
what is karen horney's interpretation of psychoanaysis
that the penis was a symbol of social power, rather than an organ women actually desired
what is fear of success
Accounts for gender difference in response to competition and achievement situations
what is Narcissism
Inflated self-admiration and constant attempts to draw attention to self and keep others focused on self
what is the narcissism paradox
Although the narcissist appears high in self-esteem, he or she has doubts about his or her worth as a person
what is the object relations theory
Emphasizes social relationships and their origins in childhood
what is one Assumptions of the object relations theory
Internal wishes, desires, urges of child not as important as developing relationships with significant others, especially parents
another assumption of the object relations theory
Others, particularly the mother, become internalized by the child in the form of mental objects
what are the 3 adult relationship styles
-secure, the person has few problems developing satisfying friendships and relationships
-avoidant, difficult in learning to trust others
-ambivalent, vulnerability and uncertainty about relationships
do parental divorces Have an Impact on Children’s Later Relationships
Object relations theory predicts that children of divorce will have difficulties forming their own intimate relationships later in life
what is the main focus of Contemporary psychoanalysts
interpersonal patterns of behavior and accompanying emotions and motivations