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### 40 Cards in this Set

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 What is the annual per capita use of alcohol in 2000? Ranges from 14 liters in Russia to 0.4 liters in Algeria. US use is 8.1 liters (5 gal of Whiskey) What is the Liver Cirrhosis rate per 100,000 in the U.S.? 10 Cases per 100,000 How far back does historical documentation mention Alcohol Use? Alcohol Use was documentated 7,000 years ago by both the Sumerians and Egyptians How many Americans have at least one drink every month? 113 million, 41% of all Americans How many Americans are considered "Heavy" drinkers (5 or more drinks, 5 or more times per month)? 10 to 12 million What is the percentage of Americans who fit the discription of "wino, lush, sot or public inebriate"? Less than 5 percent Is there a correlation between the number of drinks per day and the grade average for college students? Yes A 3.3 Drinks B 5.0 Drinks C 6.6 Drinks D or F 10.0 drinks What percentage of Rapes in America in 2000 involved Alcohol? More than 50 percent What percentage of Domestic Violence involved Alcohol? greater than 75% What percentage of Violent Crimes in America involved Alcohol? 40 percent What were the earlist writings which advised moderation in drinking and when were they? By 1,500 BC Egyptian writings advised moderation. What is "Abstention" Although this pattern generall implies no use, some classify the ingestion of 12 or less drinks sporadically throughout a year as abstention. What is "Experimentation"? No alcohol seeking behaviour, use is infrequent, sporadic and without any pattern to satisfy curiosity about alcohol and its culture. What is "Social/Recreational" Use? There is alcohol seeking behaviour but use is infrequent and sporadic with no setablished pattern of use and is limited to only 1 or 2 drinks per episode of use. Note that women may suffer increased breast cancer and other medical risks even with this low level of use. What is "Habituation"? This and the previouus patterns qualify as low to moderate use if less than 5 drinks are imbibed and any single episode or the pattern occurs less than 5 times a month. Although a repetitive pattern of use has developed, there are no major negative consequences from use. What is "Abuse" or "High Dose Alcohol Use"" It is the continued use of alcohol despite negative life and emotional consequences. Studies demonstrate that both men and especially women suffeer increasing medical consequences after 3 or more drinks are ingested on a daily basis. Binge drinking (5 or more per episode, 5 or more times a month) is also regarded as High Dose Alcohol use. What is "Addiction" or "Alcoholism"? Compulsion to use with cravings, inability to slow down or stop, irritability-anger-guilt about use, tissue dependence, tolerance, withdraw symptoms, and continued drinking despite major life, health or emotional dysfunction. What is "Binge drinking"? 5 or more drinks per episode, 5 or more times a month How many drinks a day does it take to start having physical and mental pathology to take place? More than 2. What percentage of breast cancers are associated with even brief use of alcohol? 25% Some studies indicate that there is a 50% increase in breast cancer in women who drink as little as one drink a day. What percentage of heavy drinkers develop cirrhosis of the liver? 20% What percentage of automobile fatalities involve alcohol? 38% What percentage of workplace accidents involve alcohol? 47% What percentage of workplace deaths involve alcohol? 40% What organization uses a spiritual approch to help alcoholics to stop drinking? Alcoholics Anonymous Which of the three, genetics, environment, or stress contribute to alcoholism? All three How much money does each dollar spent on Alcohol treatment save? 7 dollars What drug is the greatest problem in America? Nicotine What drug is the second greatest problem in America? Alcohol What are the 6 major patterns of Alcohol use called? Abstention Experimentation Social/Recreational Habituation Abuse or High Dose Alcohol Use Addiction or Alcoholism What are the 3 major components of the "Diathesis Stress Model" of alcoholism? Genetics. Environment. Toxicology of Alcohol. What 3 major areas does the prevention of alcohol use focus on? 1. Reduce the supply. 2. Reduce the Demand. 3. Harm Reduction. Wha are the three major classes of depressants? 1. Opiates/opioids 2. Sedative-hypnotics 3. Alcohol p. 139 What are the four minor classes of depressents? 1. skeletal muscle relaxants 2. antihistamines 3. over the counter downers 4. lookalike downers p. 139 What are downers? In general downers are central nervous system depressants. Thery depress the overall functioning of the central nervous system to induce sedation, muscle relaxation, drowsiness, and even coma. They also often cause disinhibition of impulses and emotions. p. 139 What are Opiates/opioids? Refinements and synthetic versions of the opium poppy. morphine, codeine, hycrocodone (Vicodin), oxycodone, methadone, heroin, etc. p. 139 What are Sedative-hypnotics? A wide range of synthetic chemical substances developed to treat anxiety and insomnia. p. 140 What is Alcohol? The natural by-product of fermented plant sugars or starches. The oldest psychoactive drug in the world. p. 140 What are Skeletal muscle relaxants? They are synthetically developed central nervous system depressants aimed at areas of the brain responsible for muscle coordination and activity. p. 140 What are Antihistamines? They are synthetic drugs that were developed for traatment of allergic reactions, prevention of ulcers, shok, rashes, motion sickness, and even symptoms of Parkinson's disease. In addition to blocking the release of histamine, these drugs cross the blood-brain barrier to induce the common and oftentimes potent side effect of depression of the CNS resulting in drowsiness. p. 140