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77 Cards in this Set

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Parkinson's drug that selectively inhibits MAO-B
selegiline
epilepsy drug that can cause agranulocytosis
carbamazepine
what do you use to treat benzodiazepine overdose?
flumazenil (competitive antagonist at GABA receptor)
seizure drug that can cause SLE-like syndrome
phenytoin
what is the mechanism of dilantin/phenytoin?
use-dependent blockade of Na+ channels
chronic use of this anti-epileptic can cause gingival hyperplasia in kids, peripheral neuropathy, hirsutism, megaloblastic anemia, and malignant hyperthermia
phenytoin
mechanism of action of barbiturates?
facilitate GABA action by increasing duration of Cl- channel opening, thus decreasing neuron firing
what seizure drug is contraindicated in porphyria?
barbiturates
barbiturates do what to the P-450 system?
induce it
what epilepsy drug is associated with hepatotoxicity and neural tube defects?
valproic acid
what drug is used to treat neuroleptic malignant syndrome (rigidity, myoglobinuria, autonomic instability, hyperprexia)
dantrolene and dopamine agonists
tardive dyskinesia can result from long-term use of what class of drugs?
neuroleptics (antipsychotics) - thioridazine, haloperidol, fluphenazine, chlorpromazine
schizophrenia drug that can cause agranulocytosis
clozapine
side effects of lithium?
polyuria (ADH antagonist causeing nephrogenic diabetes insipidus), hypothyrodism
what is the mechanism of action of atypical antipsychotics (clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone)
block 5-HT2 and dopamine receptors
what is 'serotonin syndrome'?
can occur when SSRIs are given with MAOI's - hperthermia, muscle rigidity, CV collapse
fluoxetine, sertaline, paroxetine, and citalopram are what type of drugs?
SSRIs
how do TCAs work?
block reuptake of NE and serotonin - imipramine, amitrptyline, desipramine, nortriptyline, clomipramine, doxepin
what TCA can be used for bedwetting?
imipramine
which TCA is the least sedating?
desipramine
which class of antidepressants has convulsions, coma, arrythmias, respiratory depression as potential toxicities?
tricyclics
tricyclics can cause confusion and hallucinations in elderly due to anticholinergic side effects - what do you use?
nortriptyline
which of the SSRIs inhibits the P-450 system?
fluvoxamine
which atypical antipsychotic can also be used to treat OCD, GAD, depression, mania?
olanzapine
what is the mechanism of antipsychotic drugs?
block dopamine D2 receptors
this parkinson's drug agonizes dopamine receptors
bromocriptine
mechanism of action of amantadine? what is it used for?
increased dopamine - parkinson's
entacapone and tolcapone are parkinson's drugs that inhibit what?
COMT - prevent dopamine breakdown
this parkinson's drug curbs excess cholinergic activity
benztropine - antimuscarinic, improves tremor and rigidity but has littel effect on bradykinesia
mechanism of l-dopa
increased level of dopamine in brain
what is l-dopa administered with and why?
carbidopa - a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor - increases the bioavailability of l-dopa in the brain and to limit peripheral side effects
what is sumatriptan and what is it used for?
5-HT1D agonist - causes vasoconstriction; used for acute migraine & cluster headache attacks
sumatriptan is contraindicated in patients with what? why?
can cause coronary vasospasm, so contraindiicated in pts. with CAD or prinzmental's angina
which 2 epilepsy drugs can cause stevens-johnson syndrome?
lamotrigine, ethosuximide
what is the first line drug for absence seizures?
ethosuximide
what is the first line drug for acute status epilepticus?
benzodiazepines (diazepam or lorazepam)
what is the first line drug for prophylaxis of status epilepticus?
phenytoin
what is the first-line seizure drug for pregnant women, children?
phenobarbital
this drug is a first-line treatment for tonic-clonic seizures and trigeminal neuralgia
carbamazepine
what is the mechanism of action of benzodiazepines?
facilitate GABAa action by increasing frequency of Cl- channel opening
this class of antidepressants can cause sedation, alpha-blocking effects, atropine-like effects (tachycardia, urinary retention)
TCAs
what is the mechanism of action of venlafaxine?
heterocyclic antidepressant - inhibits serotonin, NE, and dopamine reuptake
mechanism of action of mirtazapine?
alpha2 agonist - increases release of NE and serotonin, and potent 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptor antagonist
this heterocyclic antidepressant blocks NE reuptake
maprotiline
what is the clinical use of MAOIs?
atypical depression (i.e. with psychotic or phobic features(, anxiety, hypochondriasis
MAOIs are contraindicated with what two classes of drugs?
SSRIs and beta blockers (prevent serotonin syndrome)
what is a sensitive indicator of alcohol use?
serum gamma-glutamyltransferase
disinhibition, emotional lability, slurred speech, ataxia, coma, and blackout are signs of what type of intoxication?
alcohol
tremor, tachycrdia, hypertension, malaise, nausea, seizures, agitation, hallucinations are signs of withdrawal from what?
alcohol
CNS depression, nausea and vomiting, constipation, pinpoint pupils, and seizures may be signs of what type of intoxication?
opiods
anxiety, insomnia, anorexia, sweating, dilated pupils, fever, rhinorrhea, piloerection, nausea, cramps, diarrhea, yawning are signs of withdrawal from what type of drug?
opiods
psychomotor agitation, impaired judgement, pupillary dilation, hypertension, tachycardia, euphoria, prolonged wakefulness and attention, cardiac arrythmias, delusions, hallucinations, and fever may be signs of what type of intoxication?
amphetamines
post use crash, including depression, lethargy, headache, stomach cramps, hunger, and hypersomnolence are characteristic of withdrawal from what?
amphetamines
euphoria, psychomotor agitation, impaired judgment, tachycardia, pupillary dilation, hypertension, hallucinations (including tactile), paranoid ideations, angina, and sudden cardiac death may be signs of intoxication with what drug?
cocaine
post use crash, including severe depression and suicidality, hpersomnolence, fatigue, malaise, severe psychologial craving are characteristic of withdrawal from what?
cocaine
belligerence, impulsiveness, fever, pschomotor agitation, vertical and horizontal nystagmus, tachycardia, ataxia, homicidality, psychosis, and delerium are indicative of intoxication with what drug?
PCP
recurrence of intoxication symptoms due to reabsorption in GI tract, sudden onset of severe, random, homicidal violence may occur with withdrawal from what substance?
PCP
what 2 drugs are not typically associated with withdrawal symptoms?
marijuana, LSD
marked anxiety or depression, delusions, visual hallucinations, flashbacks, and pupil dilation are characteristic of intoxication with what substance?
LSD
euphoria, anxiety, paranoid delusions, perception of slowed time, impaired judgment, social withdrawal, increased appetite, dry mouth, and hallucinations are characteristics of what type of substance use?
marijuana
which has a higher safety margin: barbiturates or benzodiazepines?
benzodiazepines
anxiety, seizures, delerium, life-threatening CV collapse are potential side effects of withdrawal from what?
barbiturates
what drug inhibits opiods?
naltrexone
this drug of abuse causes pupillary constriction/pinpoint pupils
opiods
these 3 drugs of abuse can cause pupillary dilation
amphetamines, cocaine, LSD
this drug of abuse can cause vertical and horizontal nystagmus
PCP
this drug of abuse can cause angina and sudden cardiac death
cocaine
which drug of abuse is associated wtih homicidality?
PCP
which epilepsy drug can cause kidney stones?
topiramate
name two MAOIs
phenelzine, tranylcypormine
what class of benzodiazepines are the most appropriate for acute insomnia and jet lag?
short-acting, e.g. triazolam
alpazolam is what type of benzodiazepine and what is it most often used for?
intermediate-acting; panic attacks
is secobarbital short- or long-acting?
short
what is xerostomia?
dry mouth
what type of drug is benztropine?
anticholinergic - leads to anti-SLUDG side effects
how do methamphetamine/amphetamine work?
gain entrance to dopamine and NE nerve terminals, causing the release of these NTs via the uptake carriers; DA is a significant factor in the reinforcing effects of stimulants
how does supatriptan work?
serotonin1D agonist