Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

334 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Disorder that lasts at least 6 months and includes at least 1 month of active-phase, typically psychotic symptoms
Social and/or occupational dysfunction must be present
Schizophreniform disorder
Symptomatic presentation that is equivalent to schizophrenia except the entire course of illness lasts 1-6 months and there need not be decline in function
Schizoaffective disorder
Mood episode and active phase symptoms of schizophrenia occur together and were preceded or followed by at least 2 weeks of delusions of hallucinations w/o mood symptoms
Delusional disorder
At least 1 month of non-bizarre delusions w/o other active phase symptoms of schizophrenia
Brief psychotic disorder
symptoms last more than one day and remit by 1 month
Psychotic disorder due to a general medical condition
Psychotic symptoms are judged to be a direct physiological consequence of a medical condition
Substance-induced psychotic disorder
Psychotic symptoms are judged to be a direct physiological consequence of drug abuse, a medication, or toxin exposure
Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders
Illnesses characterized by gross impairment in reality testing and the creation of a new reality
Direct evidence of psychotic behavior is the presence of either delusions or hallucinations
Mood disorders
Disturbance of pervasive and sustained emotion (mood) that color psychic life and are accompanied by elation (mania) or depression
Major depressive disorder
At least 2 weeks of depressed mood or loss of interest accompanied by other symptoms of depression
Dysthymic disorder
At least 2 years of depressed mood accompanied by additional depressive symptoms that do not meet criteria for MDD
Bipolar I disorder
One or more manic or mixed by MDD
Bipolar II disorder
One or more MDD episodes accompanied by at least one hypomanic episode
Cyclothymic disorder
At least 2 years of numerous periods of hypomanic symptoms and numerous periods of depressive symptoms
Mood disorder due to a medical condition/substance abuse
Anxiety disorders
Disorders characterized by apprehension, tension, and unease and are often accompanied by avoidant behavior
Panic disorder with agoraphobia
Recurrent panic attacks with avoidance of place or situations from which escape might be difficult in the event of a panic attack

Can also have PD w/o agoraphobia
Specific phobia
Anxiety provoked by exposure to feared object or situation often leading to avoidance
Social phobia
Anxiety provoked by social or performance situations often leading to avoidance
Recuurent intrusive thoughts (obesessions) which cause marked anxiety and distress and/or compulsions (acts) which serve to neutralize anxiety
Re-experiencing of an extremely traumatic event accompanied by symptoms of arousal and avoidance
Generalized anxiety disorder
At least 6 months of persistent and excessive anxiety and worry
Substance related disorders
Alcohol dependence
Alcohol abuse
Alcohol intoxication syndromes
Alcohol withdrawal syndromes
Substance intoxication syndromes
Substance withdrawal syndromes
Anorexia nervosa
Refusal to maintain minimally normal body weight
Bulemia nervosa
Binge eating followed by inappropriate compensatory behaviors
Somatoform disorders
Physical symptoms that suggest physical disorders for which there are no organic findings; symptoms are linked to psychological factors
Somatization disorder
Polysymptomatic disorder beginning before age 30 that persists for years
Conversion disorder
Symptoms of deficits affecting voluntary motor or sensory function; psychological factors are associated with symptoms
Fear or idea of having a serious illness
Body dysmorphic disorder
Preoccupation with imagined or exaggerated defect in physical appearance
Pervasive developmental disorders
Pervasive and severe impairments in several areas of development
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity
Separation anxiety disorders
Excessive anxiety concerning separation from home or from those to whom the person is attached
Sustained emotion which markedly colors behavior, affect, and thought
May not be obvious to a person when it is normal, but is certainly obvious when it is abnormal
What the person is feeling at the moment and is assessed through observation and inquiry; reported affect may be incongruent with the observations
Normal affect
Full affective play in response to internal and external stimuli
Restrict/blunt affect
Diminished to minimal emotional responsiveness that is inappropriate to situation
Flat affect
Significant lack of responsiveness, accompanied by an expressionless voice and face
Labile affect
Feelings that change rapidly
Inappropriate affect
Feelings that are incongruent with the content being discussed
Sexual dysfunction
Sexual desire disorders
Sexual arousal disorders
Orgasmic disorders
Pain disorder
How is thinking organized
Individual is unable to report with attention to useful detail before reaching the point or answering a question
Individual digresses into unnecessary detail to such a degree that he or she does not answer the question, but answers another question
Loosening of associations
Links between thoughts are destroyed and bizarre; illogical and chaotic thinking results
Flight of ideas
A succession of thoughts with rapid shifting from one idea to another
The point of conversation or the answer to a question is never reached
Sudden interpretation of a train of speech before the idea has been completed
The sound of a word, rather than its meaning, gives the direction to subsequent associations
Creation of new words coined by a person and not understandable to others
Persistent repetition of words, ideas, or subjects, so that once a person begins to speak about aa particular subject, it continually recurs
Obsessive thoughts
Recurrent, persistent thoughts are experienced as intrusive and inappropriate
Phobic preoccupation
Fears which are often experienced as excessive, but nonetheless lead to avoidance behavior
Ex: fear of germs, fear of contamination
Odd or bizarre thinking
Ideas of references, extremely superstitious or superstitions that fall short of delusional intensity
Thought, idea, or belief with three characteristics
-Not true
-Cannot be reasoned with
-Out of harmony with the individual's educational or cultural background and surroundings; not shared by individual's cultural/religious group
Systematized delusion
If certain premises are granted, one can derive a whole set of delusions that appear to have a coherent and connected organization
Unsystematized delusion
Beliefs appear bizarre, contradictory, and fragmented
Schneiderian symptoms
Delusions of thought insertion, thought withdrawal, thought broadcasting, alien control
Distinction between self and non-self is lost, person is a "puppet"
Sensory misinterpretation which occurs without any external stimulus and is classified in terms of sensory spheres involved
Visual and auditory most common
Schneiderian symptoms of hallucination
Two or more voices having conversations about the self
Sensory misinterpretation which occurs with external stimuli
Alteration in perception or experience of the self so that one feels detached, as if one was an outside observer
Alteration in perception or experience of the outside world so that it seems strange or unreal
Axis I
Clinical syndromes
Axis II
Personality disorders
Mental retardation
Axis III
General medical conditions
Axis IV
Psychosocial and environmental problems
Problems with primary support group
Problems related to the social environment
Educational problems
Occupational problems
Axis V
Global assessment of functioning (GAF)
70 - mild symptoms
60 - moderate symptoms
50 - serious symptoms
40 - behavior considerably influenced by hallucinations and delusions, or inability to function in almost all areas
Mental status examination
Description - appearance, non-verbal behavior, characteristics of talk, relatedness to interviewer
Mood and affect
Thought - form and content
Cognitive function - LOC, attention, orientation, memory, general intellectual evaulation
Insight into the presence or nature of illness
Schizophrenia category A symptoms
Disorganized speech
Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior
Negative symptoms
Only 1 criterion A symptom is required if...
Delusions are bizarre or
Hallucinations consist of a voice keeping a running commentary on the person's behaviors or thoughts
Two or more voices conversing with each other
Schizophrenia diagnosis (B-F)
Social/occupational dysfunction
Continuous for at least 6 months including prodrome and residual
Schizoaffective/mood disorder exclusion
Substance/GMC exclusion
Relationship to pervasive developmental disorder
Paranoid schizophrenia
Preoccupation with one or more delusions ro frequent auditory hallucinations
No disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior, flat or inappropriate affect
Disorganized schizophrenia
All of the following are prominent:
Disorganized speech
Disorganized behavior
Flat or inappropriate affect
Catatonic schizophrenia
At least 2 of the following:
Motoric immobility as evidenced by catalepsy
Excessive motor activity
Extreme negativism
Peculiarities of voluntary movement
Echolalia or echopraxia
Undifferentiated schizophrenia
Criterion A met, but criteria for other subtypes not met
Bleulerian criteria
Four A's
Association (loose)
Autism (preference for fantasy over reality)
Schneiderian criteria
Somatic hallucinations
Commenting auditory hallucinations
Hearing one's thoughts spoken aloud
Thought broadcasting
Positive symptoms - functions distorted
Disorganized speech
Bizarre behavior
Negative symptoms - functions diminished
5 A's

Alogia - loss of fluency
Affective blunting
Avolition - loss of drive
Anhedonia - problems with pleasure
Attention impairment
Dopamine hypothesis (Schz.)
Positive symptoms are due to overactivity of DA pathways
Neurodevelopmental hypothesis (Schz.)
Primary event(s) resulting in Schizophrenia are the result of changes in utero or in the perinatal period that disrupt the developmental aspects of brain structure and function such as myelination or synaptic pruning
Males with schizophrenia
Earlier onset (3-4 years)
Poorer premorbid function
Poorer outcome
Minor physical anomalies
Greater structural brain anomalies
Females with schizophrenia
Greater temporal and spatial variations in rate of occurrence
Greater susceptibility to second trimester influenza
Greater susceptibility to first trimester dietary insufficiency
Difference may be related to protective effects of estrogen via DA blocking effect at D2 receptors
DRSC theory of schizophrenia
Early in development, synaptogenesis creates connections randomly, with subsequent selective elimination of weaker connections based upon experience and endogenous factors
In schizophrenia, reduced synaptic density in PFC and other areas of association cortex
Schizophrenia treatment
Individual psychotherapy
Family evaluation and therapy
Conventional antipsychotics
Primarily D2 blockers
More effective against (+) symptoms
High incidence of serious side effects
Conventional antipsychotic side effects
Tardive dyskinesia
Parkinsonian like symptoms
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Uninhibited prolactin secretion
Atypical antipsychotics
Do not elevate prolactin
Effective against positive and negative symptoms
Atypical antipsychotic side effects
Weight gain

Orthostatic hypotension
Positive prognostic signs in schizophrenia
Supportive family
FH of an affective disorder
Premorbid history of good social relationships, school performance
Poor prognostic signs
Insidious onset
FH of schizophrenia
Presence of negative symptoms
DSM diagnosis of psychosis
Delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior
Delusional disorder
One or more bizarre delusions that persist for a month or more
Cannot diagnose if patient has ever been diagnosed with schizophrenia
Hallucinations are not prominent
Psychosocial functioning is not impaired except by the direct impact of the delusion
Types of delusions are few and strikingly repetitive regardless of cause
Types - erotomanic, grandiose, jealous, persecutory, somatic
Risk factors for delusional disorder
Increased age
Sensory impairment
Family history
Social isolation
Recent immigration
Shared psychotic disorder
Delusion that arises in someone who is involved in a close relationship with someone who already has a psychotic disorder with prominent delusions
Secondary case is usually passive, gullible, lower self esteem
May resolve with separation
Schizoaffective disorder
Chronic illness characterized by concurrent symptoms of schizophrenia as well as major mood disorder
Period of at least 2 weeks when delusions or hallucinations are present w/o prominent mood symptoms
Mood symptoms present for a substantial portion of the total duration of the illness
Negative symptoms usually less severe than in schizophrenia
Psychosis in mood disorders
Hallucinations or delusions
See in severe depression and mania
Usually mood congruent (delusions of persecution/guilt in depression; grandeur in mania)
About 15% of MDD will develop psychosis, more common in mania
Psychosis in personality disorders
Personality disorders are enduring, pervasive patterns of behavior that deviate from the cultural norm
May see transient psychotic symptoms (lasting minutes to hours)
Usually paranoid delusions
Psychosis in delirium
Disturbance in consciousness with change in cognition
Occurs over hours or days, fluctuates
Perceptual disturbances, including hallucinations, are common
May have delusional conviction of reality of hallucination
Essential to determine cause
Psychosis in PTSD
Symptoms develop following extreme traumatic stressor
Include reexperiencing the event, avoidance, numbing or responses, and increased arousal (anxiety, sleep problems, anger)
May have hallucinations (usually auditory) and paranoid ideation in severe cases
Psychosis in post-partum mood disorder
May see with major depression, bipolar disorder, or brief psychotic disorder
Usually delusions about infant or command hallucinations to harm infant
Often accompanied by disorganized thoughts or behavior
Occurs in 1:500-1:1000 deliveries, much more common if history of prior disorder
Psychiatric emergency
Substance induced psychotic disorder
Need to R/O drug use in any new onset psychosis
Many illicit drugs can cause psychosis
Many legal drugs can cause psychosis in OD
Drug interactions can lead to high blood levels of drugs which may lead to psychosis
Prominent hallucinations or delusions that are the direct physiological effect of a substance
Distinguish from primary psychosis because always associated with intoxication or withdrawal
Consider in any person >35 with new onset psychosis
Alcohol induced psyhosis
Can see with intoxication or withdrawal
Hallucinations are usually auditory unless delirium is present
Usually associated with prolonged, heavy ingestion of alcohol
Psychosis clears spontaneously, but will recur if drinking recurs
Delirium tremens
Delirium superimposed on withdrawal symptoms
Often severe confusion
Tactile and visual hallucinations are common
May have seizures
Cocaine induced psychosis
Common as part of intoxication syndrome
Usually paranoia and hallucinations (tactile or visual)
Do not see with cocaine withdrawal
Cocaine abuse often co-exists with a primary psychotic illness
Often have visual/auditory misperceptions and then visual/auditory/tactile hallucinations
Paranoia can be extreme
Amphetamine psychosis
Psychosis usually associated with high doses and long duration of use but may see after even low dose if susceptible
May not resolve for days after drug cessation and may be followed by amnesia
Will become sensitized aften an episode of psychosis so even small dose may cause recurrence
MDMA (Ecstasy)
Synthetic derivative of amphetamine
Selective serotonin neurotoxin - may be long lasting effects on the serotonin system
Psychiatric symptoms - panic, dysphoria, paranoia
After heavy use, may get longer lasting paranoia
Increased vulnerability to other disorders
High doses can induce brief psychotic symptoms
Usually persecutory delusions of auditory/visual hallucinations
More common in people with underlying primary psychiatric diagnosis
"Hemp insanity" more common in places with highly potent drug available
Probably exacerbates schizophrenia, but not causative
Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (flashbacks) - may include visual hallucinations though usually recognized as not real
Post-hallucinogen psychotic disorder is rare and usually do not see negative symptoms as seen in schizophrenia
Perceptual disturbances (lights, change in sounds, illusions) but reality testing remains intact
Occasionally see psychotic disorder, may last for up to 6 weeks after other symptoms of intoxication are gone
Single low dose of PCP can rekindle symptoms in someone with schizophrenia
Use most prevalent in teens
May see hallucinations and delusions during intoxication
If in excess of what is normally seen with intoxication, diagnose substance induced psychotic disorder
Controversy over whether inhalants can produce persisting psychotic state
May see prominent hallucinations or delusions with opioid intoxication or withdrawal
Prescription opiates often abused in combination with other drugs
Purer form of heroin available - can be snorted
Medication induced psychosis
May occur as side effect of therapeutic dosing or as a result of overdose
Highest risk are elderly, renal, and liver disease
Psychosis due to GMC
Seizures (aura, TL)
Trauma (subdural hematoma)
Liver failure
Tumor (TL)
Metabolic disease
-Vitamin def.
Vascular disease
Renal failure
Decreased cognitive function
May get delirium and psychosis
Hepatic encephalopathy
Impairment in consciousness
Often delirium with hallucinations (visual)
Acute intermittent porphyria
50% have psychiatric symptoms
Filling in gaps in memory with imaginary events
Usually momentary, may misplace true memory in time
Often trying to please interviewer or hide memory loss
May appear delusional but short lived, transient and varying
See in amnesia, dementia, Korsakoff's (Wernicke's)
See commonly in elderly
Severe psychomotor retardation
Events do not register so appears to have poor memory
May actually have true cognitive failure secondary to depression
Also common to see depression as early response to dementia
Main actions of typical antipsychotics
D2 receptor antagonists
M1 muscarinic antagonists
Alpha-adrenergic antagonists
H1 histaminic antagonists
Mesolimbic DA pathway
Blockade of postsynaptic DA2 receptors reduces the (+) symptoms of schizophrenia
No difference in efficacy among conventional agents
Mesocortical DA pathway
DA blockade causes DA def.
Results in negative symptoms and cognitive slowing
DA def. may be primary or secondary
Nigrostriatal DA pathway
Pathway extends from SN to BG
Part of extrapyramidal NS
Reciprocal relationship between DA and ACh in BG
DA blocks ACh release suppressing ACh activity
DA receptor blockade results in ACh over activity
Anti-cholinergic drugs help treat these movement disorders
Drug induced Parkinsonism
-Shuffling gait
-Muscular rigidity

Akithisia - subjective sense of inner restlessness
Propanolol or benzos

Dystonia - painful, involuntary muscle spasms, usually in head or neck muscles
Diphenhydramine or cogentin
Elevated prolactin
Sexual dysfunction
Weight gain
Anti-cholinergic side effects

Blurred vision
Urinary retention
Dry mouth
Anti-Adrenergic side effects
Orthostatic hypotension
Anti-histamine side effects
Weight gain
Typical antipsychotics
Classified based upon potency and affinity for post-synaptic D2 receptors
Increased affinity leads to increased EPS
Strong anti-cholinergic SE
Weak DA effect --> decreased EPS
Chlorpromazine -> blocks alpha receptors -> OH and sexual dysfunction
Thioridazine -> pigmented retinopathy
IM injection
Strong anti-cholinergic effects
Weak DA antagonist
Useful for low compliance patients - lasts for 30 days
Most potent DA antagonists
Less anti-cholinergic SE
High potency typicals
Greater association with EPS due to increased affinity
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Muscle rigidity, fever, ANS instability, decreased level of consciousness, elevated CPK
Stop anti-psychotic
Administer DA agonist and dantrolene
Atypical antipsychotics
Blocks D2 and 5-HT2A receptors
Serotonin inhibits DA release
Less likely to cause EPS
More likely to improve negative symptoms
All require monitoring for metabolic syndrome
Side effects - "WASH HO" weight gain, sedation, OH, anti-cholinergic SE, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia
Greater propensity to cause EPS - dose related
More likely to lead to hyperprolactinemia
SE - "Women's SHOE" weight gain, sedation, OH, EPS, hyperprolactinemia
Significant blockade at H1 receptors -> sedation, weight gain
Split doses
QTc prolongation
Less likely to cause weight gain
Slow titration needed -> SE
Common SE - "SWIM" sedation, weight gain, increased salivation, metabolic syndrome
Serious side effects - "CAS" Cardiopulmonary arrest, agranulocytosis, seizures
Useful in treatment refractory patients with reduced risk of suicide and improves TD
Antagonist at 5-HT2A, but partial agonist at D2 receptors
PA - block a receptor if over stimulated and stimulate same receptor when needed
SE - akathisia
Metabolic syndrome
Weight gain
Glucose intolerance
Greatest risk - clozapine, olanzapine
Typical course of antipsychotic response
First few days - agitation, psychomotor excitement
T -> H -> D
Thought disorder, hallucinations, delusions
Evaluate response in 3-5 weeks
Medical illnesses that may present as psychosis
Head trauma
Vascular diseases
Autoimmune diseases
Metabolic derangements
Endocrine dysfunction
Liver and renal failure
Features of depression
Depressed mood
Absence of emotion
Negative perception of self, present and future
Altered physiology
Children of prodrome have disease earlier and more severely
Assortive mating
Non-random mating associations
Atypical depressive symptoms
Increased appetite
Mood reactivity
Atypical depression
More frequently bipolar
Associated with mood reactivity, sensitivity to rejection, personality problems
More likely to respond to SSRI or MAOI
Psychotic depression
More severe
More recurrent
Greater familial presence
Less likely to respond to antidepressants
More likely to have bipolar outcome
Seasonal affective disorder
Depression begins in fall or winter
Normal mood or hypomania in spring and summer
Responds to artificial bright light
More frequently bipolar than non-seasonal depression
Medical illnesses that commonly cause depression
Substances that commonly cause depression
Physiology of depression
Increased CRF
Increased cortisol
Due to decreased negative feedback ability of cortisol on the hypothalamus in MDD
(-) response to DST
Response reverses with treatment
Sleep in MDD
More awakenings
Decreased REM latency
Increased REM density
Decreased slow wave sleep
Imaging in MDD
Reduced frontal lobe volume
Loss of hippocampal volume
May be due to neurotoxicity of cortisol and excitatory amino acids
Neurotransmitters in MDD
NE - increased
5-HT - decresed
DA - decreased
ACh - increased
GABA - decreased
Glutamate - increased
Pathophysiology of MDD
More likely due to intracellular changes
-Increased 5-HT inactivation
-Downregulation of Bcl-2
-BDNF - increased by AD's
Mind-body interactions in MDD
The same psychological event is more liekly to produce depression in people with vulnerable stress response systems
Risk of chronicity in MDD
Onset - 10-15%
>6 months - 30-40%
>1 year - 50%
>2 years - 95%
Tricyclic antidepressants
Tertiary amines - block reuptake of both NE and 5-HT
Secondary amines - inhibit NE reuptake
Side effects - anticholinergic, postural hypotension, heart block, weight gain, sudden death after AMI
Risk of suicide OD
-LD50 = 1 week supply
Amitriptyline - migraines, chronic pain
Nortriptyline - refractory MDD, migraines
Imipramine - Enuresis
Desipramine - refractory MDD
Clomipramine - OCD
Fluoxetine - long acting
Paroxetine - more weight gain; anti-cholinergic
Escitalopram - S-enantiomer of citalopram
Side effects - sexual dysfunction, aggravation or improvement of migraine headaches, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, weight loss/gain, sedation/activation, withdrawal with paroxetine, anti-DA effect
Serotonin-dopamine interaction
5-HT3R - increases DA - nausea
5-HT2R - decreases DA - Parkinsonian symptoms
Consequences of anti-DA effect of SSRI
Emotional blunting
Decreased motivation and activity
Memory loss
Tardive dyskinesia (rare)
5-HT2 antagonist
1/2 life - 5-8 hours
Sedation common
May reduce SSRI sexual dysfunction
Risk of priapism
SRI and 5-HT2 antagonist
Does not suppress REM sleep
Short half life - divided dose
Anxiogenic metabolite
DA and NE reuptake inhibitor
No sexual or cardiac side effects
First choice for PD patients with depression
Risk of seizures at high doses
May be helpful for ADD ad dementia
Multiple NT uptake inhibitor
-5-HT at low doses
-NE at moderate doses
-DA at high doses
Useful for severe and refractory depression
Higher rate of remission than SSRI
Reduces hot flashed associated with menopause
XR form most common
Side effects - sedation, sexual dysfunction, HTN at higher doses, withdrawal syndromes
5-HT2, 5-HT3, alpha 2 antagonist
Useful for patients with weight loss, nausea, sleep disorder
Side effects - weight gain, sedation
Useful in cancer especially Carcinoid
NE and serotonin reuptake inhibitor
Useful for severe depression
Side effects - nausea, sexual dysfunction, others, HTN unlikely
Electroconvulsive therapy
Most effective antidepressant therapy
Usual course - 6-9 treatments
CI - recent AMI, space occupying lesion
Induction of localized electrical current by magnetic field
No anesthetic or sedation needed
Effective as ECT in some studies, not in others
Artificial bright light
Effective as AD for SAD
Minimum intensity of light 2500 lux
Duration - 30 min - 2 hours
Works within 3 days - 2 weeks
Effect lost 3 days after treatment cessation
Can induce hypomania
Prescribing antidepressants
Start with low dose
If no response at all in 2-4 weeks change AD
Wait up to 6-8 weeks for full effect
Goal of treatment is full remission
Best predictors of risk of depression
Childhood loss of a parent
FM of depression
Bipolar disorder
Mania or hypomania
>99% have depressive episodes
Activation alternates or mixed with depression
Pathophysiolgy probably involves altered second messenger signalling and gene expression
Ongoing treatment is usually necessary
20-50% of cases of depression
Anticipation present
Linkage studies
Highest rate of substance abuse of all psychiatric illness
Gross impairment
Symptoms last days
No impaired functioning or psychosis
No hospitalization
Mild mood swings
Elevated activity
Reduced sleep
Bipolar I vs. II
Bipolar I - mania
Bipolar II - hypomana, family members have hypomania, but not mania
Medical causes of mania and mood swings
Adrenal steroids
Cushing's disease
RT sided cerebrovascular disease
Thyroid disease
Evolution of bipolar mood disorders
Pseudounipolar depression -> recurrent depression -> mania/hypomania -> rapid/ultradian/cycling/chronicity/psychosis
Mood stabilizers
Antimanic action
Prevent recurrences of mania and depression
Better against mania than depression
Advantages - once a day, AD properties, neuroprotective
Disadvantages - narrow TI, measure blood levels, long term side effects
Weight gain
Cognitive dysfunction
Interference with insulin signaling
Renal damage
Advantages - better tolerated than lithium, no weight gain, may improve depression, may be useful for PTSD
Disadvantages - induces metabolism of drugs (oral contraceptives), side effects
Occasional hypothyoidism
Bone marrow suppression (rare) - agranulocytosis
Advantages - sleep improvement, anxiolytic, anti-agressive
Disadvantages - not an AD, side effects - weight gain, sedation, hair loss, cognitive impairment, polycystic ovaries, pancreatitis
Antidepressant properties
Prevents recurrences of depression but not mania
Side effects - "CRIS"
CNS side effects
Induction of mania
Atypicals for bipolar
All antipsychotics have antimanic properties
Clozapine is most reliable mood stablizer in refractory bipolar disorder
AD risky in bipolar disorder
Transient improvement
Increased rate of recurrence of depression
Induction of hypomania
Psychotherapy in bipolar disorders
Effective therapies
-Social rhythms
-Family focused
Treatment of bipolar disorder
Mood stabilizer -> antipsychotc -> add anti-depressant -> stop anti-depressant
Generalized anxiety disorder
Excessive worry about everyday events
Global feeling of anxiety
>6 months duration
Difficulty concentrating
Muscle tension
Panic anxiety
Intense, unprovoked fearfulness
Usually associated with ANS arousal
Last just a few minutes
Symptoms of hyperarousal
W/ or w/o agoraphobia
Can resemble cardiac problem
Medical causes of anxiety
Medications that cause anxiety
Tranquilizers - interdose withdrawal
Beta agonists
Serotonergic drugs
Substances that cause anxiety
CNS depressant withdrawal
Psychiatric disorders associated with anxiety
Bipolar disorder
Personality disorders
Etiology of anxiety disorders
Indentification with anxious patient
Conditioned fear
Hyperactive arousal systems
-NE - locus coeruleus
Deficient braking system
Panic disorder - abnormal CO2 response
Anxiety about being in situations from which escape might be difficult or embarrassing and help might not be available
Specific (simple) phobia
Marked, persistent, unreasonable fear of circumscribed objects or situations
-Blood injection - familial
Social phobia (social anixety disorder)
Anxiety about hummilating oneself in social or performance situations
Benzodiazepine use in anxiety
Acute anxiety - especially cardiac pt.
Initial treatment of anxious depression
Treatment of chronic anxiety in patients who do not do well with other treatments
Pharmacology of benzos
Changes conformation of GABA receptor such that it increases GABA binding (lower Km)
Leads to increased Cl- --> hyperpolarization
Inverse agonist
Acts on a receptor but has the reverse action as the typical agonist
Benzo receptor subtype effects
Type 1 - A
Type 2 - SCAMP
Type 3 - WD
High potency - smaller dose, more receptor occupancy, more intense withdrawal
Low potency - higher dose, less intense withdrawal
Lipid solubility
High - drug gets into brain fast, perferable if rapid onset is needed, increased risk of dependence (buzz feeling)
Low - get into and leave brain slowly, slow onset of action, effect lasts longer after a single dose, lower abuse potential
Half life
Long - less frequent dosing, more accumulation, slower onset of withdrawal
Short - dosed more frequently, less accumulation, faster onset of withdrawal
Benzo metabolic pathways
Complex - diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, flurazepam
Simple - midazolam, alprazolam, lorazepam, oxazepam
Bezodiazepine side effects
Psychomotor impairment
Interdose withdrawal
Interactions - EtOH
Benzo withdrawal features
BZD-1 receptor selective agents

Less sedation, impairment, withdrawal
Partial agonist
Not quite as good at activation as natural ligand
High natural ligand + PA --> decreased effect
Low natural ligand + PA --> increased effect
Nonselective parital BZD receptor agonists

Weaker acute effect than benzos, less dependence and withdrawal
Alternatives to BZD agonists for anxiety
AD - excpet buproprion
Beta blockers
Not sedating, no withdrawal or impairment of driving
Common side effects - nausea, HA, dizziness
Beta blockers for anxiety
Most useful for autonomic arousal
Propanolol for performance anxiety - sedation and sexual dysfunction
Treatment choices for anxiety
Acute - benzo
Chronic - AD
Substance abuse - buspirone
Prominent ANS - beta blocker
Pulmonary patient - buspirone, AD
Behavioral treatments should always be considered
Taking over and making one's own attitudes and behaviors of significant others
Removing threatening or unacceptable memories, impulses, and thoughts from awareness. The repressed material is not subject to voluntary recall
Protecting one's self from unpleasant reality by refusing to perceive it
Emotions, ideas, or wishes are transferred from their original object and directed to a more acceptable substitute
Reaction formation
Directing overt behavior and attitude in precisely the opposite direction of one's underlying, unacceptable impulses
Attribute to others one's own unacceptable impulses, thoughts, and desires
Thinking up logical, socially approved reasons for our past, present, or proposed behavior
Separating emotional components from a thought, resulting in repression of either emotion or the idea
Perception of one's self and others as "all good" or "all bad" rather than experiencing self or others ambivalently
A deliberate conscious effort to control and conceal unacceptable thoughts, feelings, or acts
Diverting basic drives or impulses into socially appropriate channels
Seeing the comic side of situations
Taking a negative experience and turning it into a socially positive one
Duration is >1 month
Acute - <3 months
Chronic >3 months
Associated with sexual abuse, physical assault, torture, accidental trauma, disasters, illness diagnosis
Risk factors for PTSD
Prior trauma
Prior mood and/or anxiety disorder
PTSD etiology
Significance facilitates remembrance
Stress hormones (E, CRH, ACTH, AVP, cortisol)
Amygdala - BLA
Hippocampus - volume reduction
PTSD treatment
CBT may speed recovery when given 2-3 weeks after exposure
SSRI - 1st line
TCA - only amit. and imip.
Benzos - addictive potential
Adrenergic modulators - alpha 2 agonists promising, beta blockers immediately post-event
Form of psychotherapy including exposure based therapy, eye movement, and recall and verbalization of traumatic memories
Psychiatry in primary care
Indications for referral
Failure to respond to 1 or 2 med trials or 2 trials in 2 months
Hospitalization may be necessary
Patient is actively suicidal
Patient is psychotic
Patient is bipolar
Pediatric or pregnant
SSRI - serotonin syndrome
From therapeutic does, OD, or drug interaction
Management - symptomatic, benzos, 5-HT2A antagonist
Health consequences of heavy drinking
GI, breast cancer
Liver disease
Health risk level of alcohol consumption
3 drinks per day (males)
2 drinks per day (females)
5 drinks per occasion
Alcohol abuse
Continued risky use despite problems over time
Alcohol dependence
Abuse + compulsive use + life centered +/- tolerance/withdrawal over time
Course persists over decades
Abuse or dependence
Risk factors for alcoholism
Childhood abuse - up to 50%
Risk taking behavior
Altered DA/transporters
Type 1 alcoholism
Milieu limited
Onset >25
Gradual course
Either parent alcoholic
Son or daughter
Environmental and genetic risk
Reward dependent; risk avoidant
Anxious, depressed, needy
Type 2 alcoholism
Male limited
Onset <20
Rapid course
Father alcoholic
High genetic risk
Impulsive, risk takers, alterations in frontal lobe/executive center
Conduct, ADHD
Non-familial alcoholism
Either gender
Onset >25
Either gender
Environmental, acquired
Various behaviors
Pharmacology of alcohol
Multiple NT - opiate (pain), GABA (sedation), serotonin (mood), DA (reward)
Alcoholism treatment
AA, 12 step program
Thiamine - intoxication
Benzos - withdrawal
Psychological dependence
Physiological dependence
Need to continue taking the substance to prevent withdrawal
Types of cocaine
Freebase - stripping cocaine of its HCl salt allowing it to vaporize at a lower temperature
Crack - mixture of cocaine HCl and NaHCO3
Mechanism - competitive blockade of DA reuptake via the DA transporter; blocks reuptake of NE and serotonin
Intoxication - increased HR, BP, RR, pupillary dilation
OD - delirium and tactile hallucinations, seizure, hyperthermia, sudden death, stroke
Withdrawal - dysphoric mood, fatigue, insomnia, increased appetite, HA
Mechanism - Release of DA ad NE, prevent reuptake of NE and DA, MAOIs; designer drugs - release of serotonin
Intoxication - increased alertness, insomnia, decreased appetite, euphoria, sympathetic activation
Withdrawal - DEPRESSION, fatigue, sleep disturbance, psychomotor agitation
MDMA - ecstacy
Amphetamine action + increased emotional openness, increased intrapersonal insight
Adverse effects are often due to adulterants or serotonin depletion
MDMA may be neurotoxic
Dissociative anesthetic with hallucinogenic effects
Mechanism - NMDA antagonist, activates DA neurons
Intoxication - hallcinations, delirium, mania, disorientation, nystagmus, HTN, tachycardia, ataxia, dysarthria, muscle rigidity, seizures, coma
Treatment - urine acidification may increase clearance, benzos, antipsychotics
LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, harmine, ibogaine
Mechanism - serotonin receptor agonist
Intoxication - visual distortions, illusions, altered perception, intense emotions, suggestibility increases, increased HR, pupillary dilation, tachypnea, tremors
Bad trip - panic, depression, confusion, fear of insanity, impaired reality testing
Treating a bad trip - benzos, reassurance
Flashbacks - more likely at times of stress or fatigue
LSD - 6-10 hours
Psilocybin - 2-4 hours
DOM - 24 hours
Benzos and barbs
Mechanism - increase affinity of GABA receptor for GABA
Intoxication - alcohol
Withdrawal - potentially life threatening, autonomic hyperactivity, hallucinations, tremor, seizures, psychosis
Withdrawal treatment - starting benzo ATC and tapering slowly, carbamazepine for seizure
Bind to opioid receptor found in PNS and CNS
-Mu1 - euphoria and analgesia
-Mu2 - respiratory depression
Tolerance - changes in the number and sensitivity of opioid receptors
Opioid effects - euphoria, analgesia, pupillary constriction, apathy, drowsiness, respiratory depression, constipation (does not remit with use), slurred speech, drowsiness
Withdrawal - dysphoric mood, nausea/vomiting, muscle aches, lacrimation, rhinorrhea, pupillary dilatation, diarrhea, fever, insomnia
Short acting opioid - short intense withdrawal
Long acting opioids - prolonged withdrawal
Treatment - IV naloxone, methadone
Mu receptor agonist
Must be activated hepatically - takes about 24 hours for steady state
More efficacious than morphine
Close to 80% bioavailability; morphine 25%
Anorexia nervosa
Refusal to maintain mininal body weight for age and height with weight loss 15% below expected body weight
Intense fear of weight gain or becoming fat
Disturbance in body image
Amennorhea-3 months
Restricting B/P
Suicide attempts rare
Substance abuse rare
Mortality 4-5% at 5 years
Bulimia nervosa
Recurrent episodes of binge eating
Recurrent use of compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain
At least 2 binges/purges per week for 3 months
Self deprecatory r/t body
Purging (80%)/non-purging (20%)
Suicide attempts common
Substance abuse common
Risk factors in the development of eating disorders
Traumatic life experience
Peer factors
Cultural/media influences
Sensitizing events
Chronic dieting
Location (western)
Age (<25)
Sexual orientation
Racial group (W>B)
Personality variables of eating disorders
3 groups
-High functioning perfectionist
-Rigid and overcontrolled
-Emotionally dysregulated and undercontrolled
Borderline and impulsive behaviors predict poorer outcomes
Key S&S and labs for anorexia nervosa
"Yellow skin"
Lanugo hair
Brittle hair
Cyanotic and cold hands and feet
Labs - hypercholesterolemia, QT prolongation, low WBC, low FH, FSH, estradiol, or testosterone
Key S&S and labs for bulimia nervosa
Calluses on back of the hand (Russel's sign)
Salivary gland hypertrophy
Dental enamel erosion
Mouth ulcers
Barret's esophagus
Melanosis coli
Labs - hyperamylasemia, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis
Indications for inpatient care of eating disorders
Body weight <75% ideal
BP <90/60
Psychiatric emergency
Imminent medical risk
Arrested growth or development
Need for NG feeding
Eating disorder treatment
Psychotherapy - mainstay of treatment for eating disorders
Pharmacotherapy is highly individualized
-AN - fluoxetine, olanzapine, cyproheptadine, zinc naltrexone
-BN - fluoxetine, imipramine, desipramine, trazodone, pheneizine, isocarboxazid, buproprion, naltrexone
BED - fluvoxamine, sertraline
Medical complications of AN
Metabolic alkalosis/acidosis
Low potassium, sodium
Leukopenia, anemia, TP, Fe2+ def.
Muscle loss
CHF (refeeding)
Peripheral neuropathy
Amennorrhea, infertility
Cerebral atrophy
Medical risks of refeeding
Cardiac dysfunction
Atypical abdominal pain
Refeeding hepatitis
Refeeding and weight gain
Starte with 1200-1500 Cal
Outpatient - .5-.9 kg/wk
Inpatient - .9-1.4 kg/wk
Somatoform disorders
Behavior - involuntary
Motive - unconscious
MD response - give face-saving way out typically don't confront
Can be contained but not cured
Factitious disorders
Behavior - voluntary
Motive - unconscious
MD response - confront, begin rehab Tx and refer to psychiatrist
Behavior - voluntary
Motive - conscious
MD response - +/- confront, do not treat
Factors predisposing to somatoform disorders
Alexithymia - lack introspective capacity
Abnormally focused attention on body
Conversion disorder
Sudden loss of sensory or motor function (blindess, paralysis)
Often associated with a stressful life event
Patients appear relatively unconcerned
Patients can have both organic pathology and conversion disorders
Somatization disorder
History of multiple physical complaints (nausea, dyspnea, menstrual problems)
Onset before age 30
Pain disorder
Intense, prolonged pain not explained completely by physical disease
Patient cannot be talked out of pain
The pain causes clinically significant distress or impairment
Onset in 30s and 40s
Exaggerated concern with health and illness lasting >6 months
Patient goes to different physicians seeking help
More common in middle and old age
May respond to SSRI/CBT
Body dysmorphic disorder
Normal appearing patients believe they appear abnormal
Clinically significant distress or impairment
Patients may refuse to
appear in public
Onset usually in late teens
Physician's annoyance
Confidentiality in pediatric psych patients
Pre-adolescent - disclosure to parents
Adolescent - non-disclosure to parents
-Disclosure to authorities only when suicidal or homicidal ideation
Impaired ability to communicate
Restricted repertoire of activities and interests
70% MR
Better prognosis - higher IQ, good language skills, better social skills
Separation anxiety disorder
Behaviors - school refusal
Physiological symptoms - nightmares, somatic complaints
Disruptive behavior disorder
Hyperactive, impulsive, distractible, inattentive
Symptoms of serious Axis I disorders commonly resemble, at first, ADHD as children
Depression in pediatrics
Children - irritable, aggressive, disruptive, sad, somatic complaints, tearful, poor self-esteem
Adolescents - depressed mood, decreasing school performance, social isolation, behavioral disturbances, truancy, change in sleep patterns, substance use, anhedonia, suicidal ideation
Bipolar disorder in pediatrics
Risk factors - early onset MDD, FH of BD, FH of MDD w/psychosis, FH of mood disorder, pharmacologically induced mania
Schizophrenia in pediatrics
If onset is preadolescent -> first degree relative w/schizophrenia
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
6/9 inattentive or hyperactive impulsive symptoms
Some symptoms that caused impairment were present before age 7
Some symptoms that cause impairment are present in 2 or more settings
Must be clear evidence of clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning
ADHD pathophysiology
Increased DAT density in adult ADHD
Anterior cingulate fails to activate in ADHD
MPH blocks 50% of DAT
Increased dopa was associated with subjects finding the task more interesting
2x as potent as MPH
Increase dopa through multiple pathways
Main adverse effects of CNS stimulants
Substance abuse
Rapid pulse
Evening rebound
Loss of appetite
Possible reduction in growth velocity
Sudden death (defect)
Potent inhibitor of presynaptic NE transporter
Leads to increase in prefrontal DA
NOT more efficacious than stimulants
Takes 1-4 weeks for onset of therapeutic effect
Black box - suicide
Serotonin neuron in depressed state
Low serotonin
Upregulated receptors
TADS study
Combined therapy better than all others (fluox + CBT) 71%
CBT was best treatment for suicidal ideation
Relatively permanent behavioral, emotional, cognitive, and interpersonal patterns which characterize the self
Personality traits
The enduring components of personality which are exhibited in a wide range of social and personal contexts - the building blocks of personality
Risk seeking <-----> risk aversive
Impulsive <-----> planful
Personality type
Certain constellations of traits tend to cluster together and form a whole which is distinguishable from other clusters of traits
Personality disorder
Personality traits which are so inflexible and pervasive that they become maladaptive and cause either significant impairment in satisfactory function, or, subjective pain and distress
PD are generally recognizable by adolescence and continue through adult life
Structure of personality
Temperament - biological component
Character - social/cultural component
Cluster A

Poor interpersonal relationships
Cold or aloof
Odd or suspicious
Socially awkward
Cluster B

Intensely emotional and reactive
Often dysphoric when undistracted and alone
Self-absorbed and entitled
Lacks empathy for others
Cluster C

Have personal agendas of need for approval or acceptance which override other considerations
Pervasive and unwarranted tendency to interpret people's actions as deliberately demeaning or threatening
Distrustful and suspicious of others - imagines motives are malevolent
Easily slighted; bears grudges
Socially and emotionally aloof
Pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of emotional experience and expression
Has neither capacity nor desire for closeness
Does not experience loneliness
Emotionally cold and detached
Pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits as well as cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior
Odd ideas, perceptual distortions, ideas of reference
Few friends because of lack of interest, social anxiety and/or eccentricities
Doctor should use emotionally neutral but engaged manner
Pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation
Socially awkward and uncomfortable
Excessively fearful of being embarrassed or acting foolish
Inhibited in new interpersonal situations because of feeling inept or inadequate
A persavive and excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation
Has difficulty making decisions w/o excessive advice and reassurance
Feels devastated and helpless when important relationships end
Needs others to assume responsibility for major areas of life
A pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency
Preoccupied with details, rules, lists, schedules
Devotion to work at expense of leisure and friendship
Perfectionistic, overconscientious
A pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking
Needs to be center of attention
Self-dramatizing, theatrical
Often acts provocative and seductive
A pervasive pattern of gradiosity, in fantasy or behavior, need for admiration and lack of empathy
Gradiose sense of self-importance
Sense of entitlement to special treatment and consideration
Often envious, arrogant, haughty
Lacks empathy
A pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring since age 15 in an individual who is at least 18
Risk taking and novelty seeking
Deceitful, irresponsible, w/o remorse, guilt
Often dysphoric
Diagnosis of conduct disorder in those <18
Most heritable form
A pervasive pattern of instability of affects, interpersonal relationships, and self-image and marked impulsivity
Often has history of physical or sexual abuse in the past
"Stably unstable" and intense interpersonal relationships
Marked reactivity of mood - intense and unstable
Unstable sense of self - feels chronically empty
Shows inappropriate intense anger
Suicide attempts for trivial reasons
Splitting - primary defense
Physical changes in the aging female
Decreased breast tissue
Decreased estrogen - decreased blood flow
Vaginal atrophy
Decreased lubrication
Sexual changes in the aging female
Longer time to arousal
Longer time to lubricate
Decreased engorgement of tissues
Decreased intensity of orgasm
Physical changes in the aging male
Decreased testosterone
Decreased sensitivity of the penis
Sexual changes in the aging male
Longer time to obtain an erection
Decreased ejaculation
Increased refractory period
Decreased nocturnal erections
Decreased desire
Impact of illness on sexual performance
Abdominal vascular surgery
Spinal cord injury
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Persistently or recurrently deficient/absent sexual fantasy/desire for sexual activity
Causes marked distress or interpersonal difficulty
Sexual aversion disorder
Persistent or recurrent extreme aversion to, and avoidance of all/almost all genital contact with a sexual partner
Causes marked interpersonal difficulty
Female sexual arousal disorder
Persistent or recurrent inability to attain or maintain an adequate lubrication-swelling response of sexual excitement
Male erectile disorder
Persistent or recurrent inability to attain or maintain an adequate erection
ED Screenings
May signal underlying disease
Can be associated with morbidity
Identifying ED can reveal medication and compliance issues
Medications which may cause ED
Beta blockers
H2 antagonists
Typical antipsychotics
Modifiable causal factors
Alcohol and substance abuse
Sedentary lifestyle
Treatments for ED
Pump/penile ring
Yohimbine - alpha2 antagonist
Alprostadil - PGE1
Silenafil, vardenafil, tadalafil - PDE5 inhibitor
Implant - destroys tissue
PDE5 inhibitors
Prevent conversion of cGMP to GMP
PDE5 is localized in vascular smooth muscle cells
Some overlap with PDE6, PDE10
Orgasmic disorders
AD's - SSRI, some TCA
Treatment - choice of AD, dose reduction, drug holiday, add secondary pharmacological agent
Recurrent or persistent genital pain associated with sexual intercourse in either a male or female
Recurrent or persistent involuntary spasm of the musculature of the outer third of the vagina that interferes with intercourse