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736 Cards in this Set

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Define motivation.
factors that energize, direct, or sustain behavior, concerned with how behavior is initiated, directed, and sustained
What are the four qualities of motivational states
1. motivational states are energizing in that they activate or arouse behaviors
2. Motivational states are directive, they guide behaviors toward satisfying specific goals are needs
3. Motivational states help people persist in their behavior until goals are achieved or needs are satisfied
4. Motives differ in strength, depending on both internal and external factors
What are needs?
state of deficiency, state of biological or social deficiencies within the body
We have social needs
What is our need hierarchy?
basic survival needs are lowest and personal growth needs are highest in terms of ultimate priority
What must happen in order to experience personal growth?
People must have their biological needs met, feel safe and secure, etc
What is humanistic psychology?
people are viewed as striving toward personal fulfillment
When does self-actualization occur?
When someone achieves his or her personal aspirations
What drives us?
What is the relationship between need and motivation?
The greater the need the greater the motivation to satisfy it
What are drives?
psychological states activated to satisfy needs
What do needs create?
arousal which motivates behaviors that will satisfy these needs
What is arousal?
a generic term used to describe physiological activation
Define homeostasis
the tendency for body functions to maintain equilibrium
How do drives work?
A specific drive increases in proportion to the amount of deprivation, The drive state creates arousal, which activates behaviors until performing one of them reduces the drive
When does something become a habit?
If a behavior consistently reduces a drive,
What is the likelihood that a behavior will occur due to?
Both drive and habit
What are incentives?
external objects, rather than internal drives, that motivate behaviors
What is the Yerkes-Dodson Law?
dictates that performance increases with arousal up to an optimal point, after which it decreases with increasing arousal, you perform best with moderate anxiety
When do we function better?
with some arousal and we prefer to be aroused
What type of arousal are animals motivated to seek out?
Animals are motivated to seek out an optimal level of arousal, which is the level of arousal they most prefer
How can we view motivation?
as Capability that initiates, directs, and sustains behaviors that promote survival and reproduction
What does the pleasure principle do?
tells organisms to seek pleasure and avoid pain
What is one limit of biological drive theories?
that animals engage in behaviors that do not necessarily fulfill biological needs ie eating two slices of pie when you’re not hungry
What do animals often choose over biological drive reduction?
What taste can newborns recognize very early?
What system do adaptive behaviors use?
the dopamine system ie anticipated sexual activity increases dopamine
What three things motivate behavior?
Needs, drives, and arousal
What can also motivate adaptive behavior?
What is extrinsic motivation?
emphasizes the external goals toward which an activity is directed, such as drive reduction or reward ie working for a paycheck
What is intrinsic motivation?
refers to the value or pleasure that is associated with an activity but that has no apparent biological goal ie listening to music
What is curiosity?
a mental state that leads to intrinsically motivated behavior
What does play let us do?
learn about objects in the environment
What do many intrinsically motivated behaviors allow people express?
What is creativity?
the tendency to generate ideas or alternatives that may be useful in solving problems, communicating, and entertaining ourselves and others
What are some behaviors motivated for?
Their own sake
What can extrinsic rewards do to intrinsic motivation?
Extrinsic rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation and decrease the likelihood that people will perform the reward behavior
What inspires people to do their most creative work and why?
Feelings of personal control and competence make people feel good about themselves
Are people aware of their specific motives?
What is the need to belong theory?
the need for interpersonal attachments is a fundamental motive that has evolved for adaptive purposes
Why do children stay with adults for so long?
Children who stayed with adults into their reproductive survived better because they were protected and nurtured
What does the social exclusion theory say?
that anxiety warns individuals that they may be facing rejection from their group
Why are people socially excluded?
for immorality, unattractiveness, and incompetence
What do people seek when they’re anxious?
Other people
What could anxiety motivate?
The desire for company
What is a social Dilemma?
when there is a motivational conflict both to cooperate and to be selfish
What maximizes short term interests? Long term?
Typically selfishness maximizes short term interests and cooperation maximizes long term interests
What is self-regulation?
process by which people initiate, adjust, or stop actions in order to attain personal goals
What are goals?
a desired outcomes and are usually associated with some specific object or some future behavioral outcome
What do long term goals often motivate?
What are the most productive goals?
Challenging, specific, and difficult goals
What do good goals do?
Enhance confidence
Self-efficacy is…?
the expectancy that ones efforts will lead to success and this belief helps mobilize your energies
What do is an achievement motive?
the desire to do well relative to standards of excellence: the desire to achieve helps people succeed
How do people evaluate their goals?
People possess mental representations of their goal states and compare how they are doing on those goals
What is mechanism that directs behavior based on?
negative feedback
What is the TOTE model?
requires people to keep track of their goals and to be self aware in order to monitor their progress toward achieving those goal
What happens when self-awareness is low?
inhibitions disappear and they lose touch with those standards: mental states of deindividuatlization
What do self-awareness discrepancies between ideal and current states lead to?
either negative or positive affect which then guides subsequent behavior
What is one way people try to use to reduce/avoid negative affect?
avoid self-awareness through escapism ie taking drugs or alcohol
What is delay of gratification?
the process of transcending immediate temptations in order to achieve long term goals
What are hot and cold cognitions
Hot cognitions and cold cognitions help with delay gratification, hot cognitions focus on the rewarding pleasurable aspects of the objects, whereas cold cognitions focus on conceptual or symbolic meanings, hot is amygdala based and cold is hippocampus
What can self regulation best be conceptualized as?
an individual strength, self-regulatory strength is a limited resource that is renewable over time and can be increased with Practice
What area of the brain is important for self regulation?
Frontal lobes
What does self regulation require us to do? What two things are need for this?
Self regulation requires us to control behaviors when they are not appropriate: this requires two things: we need to be aware of societal standards that tell us what is appropriate, ability to inhibit doing those actions such as overriding the impulse (frontal lobes are important for both of these)
How does the prefrontal cortex help us evaluate goals?
Prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in working memory which allows people to compare current performance with past standards and future goals
Why is working memory important for self regulation?
Working memory is important for the temporal organization of memory which is often required for self regulation
What is critical for living with other people?
Frontal lobes
What does living in groups require?
Frontal lobes
What does living in groups require?
people to control their emotional reactions and violent urges
What is physical dependence?
synonymous with addiction, a physiological state in which failing to ingest a substance leads to symptoms of withdrawal, a state characterized by anxiety, tension, and cravings
What is physical dependence associated with?
tolerance so that a person needs to consume more of the drug to achieve the same subjective effect
What is psychological dependence?
refers to habitual compulsive substance use despite the consequences, can be this without tolerance or withdrawal
What will teenagers do to fit in?
Hang with a group even if it is considered deviant
What genes are involved with alcoholism?
No single gene inherited for alcoholisms, inherit a cluster of characteristics
Who is better adjusted as adults?
Those who had experimented with drugs and alcohol as adolescents
What are psychoactive drugs?
Mind altering substances that change the brains neurochemistry by activating neurotransmitting receptors ie stimulants depressants etc
What are stimulants?
drugs that increase behavioral and mental activity ie cocaine, they activate the sympathetic nervous system (increase blood pressure) improve mood, cause people to become restless, and disrupt sleep
How do stimulants work?
by interfering with the normal reuptake of dopamine by the releasing neuron, which allows dopamine to remain in the synapse and thus prolong its effects
Where did coke come from?
Pemberton added cocaine to soda water for easier ingestion
What are amphetamines?
stimulants synthesized user lab techniques
What is MDMA?
Why does LSD have hallucinogenic effects?
due to activation of serotonin receptors
How does pot work?
enhance mental activity and perhaps alters the perception of pain, large concentration of receptors on the hippocampus so it impairs memory
What are opiates?
include heroin, morphine and increase dopamine activation in the nucleus accumbens and binding with opiate receptors giving relaxation and pleasure
Why did we not have thousands of addicts after Vietnam?
because of classical conditioning, all the cues for drug use were connected to Vietnam
Define alcoholism
abnormal alcohol seeking with some loss of control over drinking, accompanied by physiological effects or tolerance with withdrawal
What does alcohol reduce?
What are larger doses of alcohol related to?
Worsening of mood
Why is bad to drink after a sucky day?
Drinking after a hard day can actually increase peoples obsession with their problems
What does alcohol do?
Alcohol impairs motor processes, information processing and mood, Leads to disinhibition of a variety of social behaviors, such as sexual arousal and aggression
What does alcohol activate?
receptors for GABA, opiates and dopamine
What is Korsakoff’s syndrome?
an alcohol-related disorder characterized by severe memory loss an intellectual deterioration
What is the relationship between emotion and cognition?
completely intertwined
Define emotion
refers to feelings that involve subjective evaluation, physiological processes, and cognitive beliefs, they are immediate responses to the environment
What are moods?
Moods are diffuse and long lasting emotional states that influence rather than interrupt thought and behavior
What do moods reflect?
people’s perceptions of whether they have the personal resources necessary to meet environmental demands
What is stress?
a pattern of behavioral and physiological responses to events that match or exceed an organisms abilities
Why are emotions adaptive?
because they prepare and guide behaviors
Why do people interpret facial expressions?
to predict the behavior of other people
When do infants express certain emotions?
At birth an infant is capable of expressing joy, interest, disgust, and pain at two months they can express anger and sadness and by six months fear
What are part of the face is more important for communicating emotion?
The lower half of the face may be more important than the upper half of the face in communicating emotion
What does the face do?
innately communicates emotion to others and these are understandable to all people
What does the universality of facial expressions tell us?
probably biologically based
What do display rules do?
govern how and when emotions are exhibited, learned via socialization and dictate which emotions are suitable to a given situation
What is the difference between men/ woman and emotions?
Women are more likely to display emotion, but that does not mean they actually experience emotions more intensely
What do our instaneous evaluations do?
guide decision making, memory, and behavior
What do people use when they are in good moods
Heuristic thinking
What do positive moods facilitate?
creative, elaborate responses to challenging problems and motivate persistence
How do emotions help with decision making?
Emotions are heuristic guides, providing feedback for making quick decisions
What influences risk judgments?
Current feelings
What has more impact when cognitions and emotions are in conflict
What happens when people are ware of the source of their mood?
their feelings no longer impact judgment
What is the somatic marker theory?
posits that most self regulatory actions and decisions are affected by the bodily reactions, called somatic markers that arise from contemplating outcomes
What are somatic markers?
bodily reactions that arise from the emotional evaluation of an action’s consequences
What happens when you contemplate an action?
You experience an emotional reaction
How do emotional reaction help us?
help us select responses that are likely to promote survival and reproduction
how might somatic markers guide us?
guide organisms to engage in adaptive behaviors
What does the emotional stroop task tell us?
shows that cognitive processes are biased toward emotional stimuli
Why does attentional blink occur?
occurs because attention is focused on the first word and there is temporary impairment in processing subsequent words, emotion lessens this
What does the emotional content of a word do?
captures attention and reduces the attentional blink
How is memory influenced by emotion?
People have improved memory for emotion-producing events or stimuli, Increased emotional arousal enhances memory across a variety of tasks for many species
What type of drugs impair memory for emotional words?
Drugs that block norepinephrine receptors impair memory for emotional words but have little effect on memory for neutral words
What do betablockers do?
Impair the ability to recognize emotion
What does anxiety do?
serves as an alarm function that motivates people to behave according to group norms
What is guilt?
a negative emotional state associated with anxiety, tension, and agitation
Does guilt make sense out of context?
The experience of quilt including its initiation, maintenance, and avoidance rarely makes sense outside of the context of interpersonal interaction
When does guilt occur?
Occurs when people believe that something they did either directly or indirectly caused another person ham, they experience feelings of anxiety, tension and remorse
How is guilt an adaptive benefit?
Guilt protects and strengthens interpersonal relationships through three mechanisms: prevents harmful behaviors ie cheating while encouraging good behavior, demonstrates that partner cares and affirms social bonds, influence tactic for manipulating the behaviors of other
What is more important for the way children experience guilt?
Socialization is more important than biology for
What is associated with greater guilt in children?
Parental warmth is associated with greater guilt in children, feelings of guilt arise in healthy and happy relationships
\When does embarrassment occur?
following social events such as violations of cultural norms, loss of physical poise, teasing, and self image threats
What may embarrassment do?
serve to reaffirm close relationships after a transgression
What is blushing? What does it do?
Blushing is a nonverbal apology which is an appeasement that elicits forgiveness in others and repairs and maintains relationships
Does jealousy serve adaptive functions?
Why does a person display jealousy?
displays and feels jealousy as a sign of commitment to a relationship
What does jealousy do in the threatened partner?
Revives sexual passion
What are the three components emotions consist of?
the subjective experience that people refer to when they say how are you feeling, physical changes, cognitive appraisal which involves peoples beliefs and understandings about why they feel they way they feel
What are examples of mood disorders?
Depression and panic attacks
What is Alexithymia?
a disorder in which people do not experience the subjective component of emotionsa disorder in which people do not experience the subjective component of emotions
Describe primary emotions
adaptive, shared across cultures and associated with specific biological and physical states including anger, fear, sadness, disgust, happiness, as well as surprise, and contempt
What are secondary emotions?
blends of primary emotions and they include remorse, guilt, submission, and anticipation
What is the circumplex model?
approach to understanding emotion in which two basic factors of emotion are spatially arranged in a circle, formed around the intersections of core dimensions of affect
What is valence?
the degree of pleasantness or unpleasantness
What is activation?
the level of arousal or mobilization of energy
What is positive activation? Negative?
Positive activation (pleasant effect) and negative activation (unpleasant affect)
Negative and positive affect are independent, such that people can experience both
What is associated with positive and negative activation states?
Positive activation states are associated with an increase in dopamine and that negative activation states are associated with an increase in norepinephrine
What is motivations are typically associated with pleasure and what is associated with pain?
The motivation to seek out food, sex, and companion ship is typically associated with pleasure whereas the motivation to avoid dangerous animals is associated with pain
What did James believe?
that physical changes occur in distinct patterns that translate directly into a specific emotion
What is the James Lane Theory of emotion
the experience of emotion is elicited by a physiological response to a particular stimulus or situation
What is the facial feed back hypothesis? Why can’t this hold up?
facial expressions trigger the experience of emotions, We experience more motions than there are distinct bodily reactions, Although the human mind is quick to experience emotions, the body is much slower
How do the mind and body work when experiencing emotion?
What is the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion?
the information from an emotion producing stimulus is processed in subcortical structures, causing the experience of two separate things at roughly the same time : an emotion and physical reaction
What is the two factor theory of emotion?
proposed that a situation evokes both a physiological response such as arousal and a cognitive interpretation or emotion label
What happens when people are aroused?
They search for the source
What is misattribution of arousal?
when an emotion label is derived from the wrong source
What is excitation transfer?
misattribution during which residual physiological arousal caused by one event is transferred to another source (take date to a tear jerker)
How can people manage emotional states?
We can try to put ourselves in certain situations and avoid others
People can also focus their attention on certain aspects of a situation that will help manage their emotional states
How do people directly try to alter their emotional reaction?
by trying to changes or reappraise the event in more neutral terms ie a movie is not real
What is cognitive framing?
The way we think about an event
What plays an important role in how we cope with daily stress?
How people appraise and frame events plays
What is humor?
Humor is a simple and effective method of regulating negative emotions
What does laughter do?
stimulates endocrine secretion, an improved immune system and the release of hormones catecholamines and endorphins
What are the two common mistakes people make when trying to regulate mood?
1. is thought suppression in which they attempt not to respond or feel the emotion at all, suppressing anyt hough is very difficult and often leads to a rebound effect in which people think about something more after suppression than before ie polar bear
2. Rumination involves thinking about, elaborating, and focusing on undesired thoughts or feelings which prolongs the mood
What does rumination impede?
Successful mood regulation strategies?
What is the best way to avoid suppression and rumination?
Distraction is the best way to avoid the problems of suppression or rumination, since it absorbs attention and temporarily helps people to stop thinking about their problems
What do emotions tend to do?
overlap in their pattern of autonomic nervous system activity, although there are some differences between emotional states
How do facial expressions regulate mood?
through facial musculature, control the directional flow of air into the brain, warming and cooling the hypothalamus, Cooling the brain produces positive emotions whereas warming the brain produces negative emotions
What is the deal with polygraphs?
A polygraph is an electronic instrument that assesses the body’s physiological response to questions, Polygraphy produces a high rate of false-positives
What is the limbic system?
refers to brain structures that border the cerebral cortex, mainly used in a rough, descriptive way rather than in terms of directly linking brain areas to specific emotional functions
What are the two most important areas for emotions?
Amygdala and the prefrontal cortex
What does the amygdala do?
protects from danger, most important for emotional learning
What is Kluver-Bucy Syndrome?
results from removal of the amygdala, engage in unusual behaviors such as hypersexuality and putting objects into their mouths, they are fearless, but experience a variety of deficits in processing and responding to emotional cues, show impairments in fear conditioning
How does info reach the amygdala?
Information reaches the amygdala along two separate pathways, the first is a quick and dirty system that processes sensory information nearly instantaneously. Sensory information travels quickly through the thalamus to the amygdala for priority processing, the second pathway is somewhat slower, but it leads to evaluations that are more deliberate and thought, sensory material travels from the thalamus to the sensory cortex where the info is scrutinized in greater depth before it is passed along to the amygdala, Contemporary thinking is that the fast system prepares the animal to respond should the slower pathway conform the threat
What does the amygdala modify?
how the hippocampus consolidates memory
When does the amygdala react more?
when people observe faces with fear than anger due to the ambiguity of the stimulus, not being sure what they fear
When is amygdala activated by neutral faces?
When people are chronically anxious
What is the prefrontal cortex involved with?
in assessing the potential reward value of situations and objects , involved in processing emotional cues
What happens when the prefrontal cortex is damaged?
often act inappropriately and are generally insensitive to the emotional expressions of others, sometimes associated with excessive aggression and violence, suggesting difficulties with emotional control, fail to use somatic markers, can recall info but it has lost most of its affect on meaning
Why is there unequal activation of the left and right hemispheres?
associated with specific emotional states a pattern known as cerebral asymmetry (right is associated with negative affect and left is associated with positive affect
What might negative affective states such as anxiety suppress?
The left frontal lobes thus reducing motivation
What does the right hemisphere do?
Interprets the meaning of facial expressions
Are moderate levels of stress beneficial?
What is a stressor>?
environmental event or stimulus that threatens the organisms
What is a coping response?
elicited by a stressors and is any response an organism makes to avoid, escape or minimize an averse stimulus
What is the fight or flight response?
physiological preparation of animals to deal with any attack, this physical reaction includes increased heart rate, contraction of the spleen, redistribution of blood supply from the skin and viscera to muscles and brain, deepening of respiration, dilation of pupils, inhibition of gastric secretions and an increase in glucose released from the liver
How do females respond to stress and what is this called?
Females response to stress by protecting and caring for their offspring as well as forming alliances with social groups to reduce individual risks
Tend and Befriend response : females are more likely to protect and care for thei offspring and form social alliances than flee or fight in response to a threat
In response to stress females tend to show a greater release of the hormone oxytocin, which plays an important rile in maternal behavior as well as in feelings of relaxation and love
What symptoms of nonspecific stress responses?
Bloated adrenal glands, damaged lymphatic structures and stomach ulcers are symptoms of nonspecific stress response (these are not helpful)
What is general adaptation syndrome?
-a consistent pattern of responses to stress that consists of three stages alarm, resistance and exhaustion, Alarm Stage is an emergency reaction that prepares the body for flight for flee, the immune system kicks in and the body begins to fight back, Resistance stage: the defenses are prepared for a longer, sustained attack, immunity continues to increase, Exhaustion: a variety of physiological and immune systems fail
What system does a stressor activate?
The presence of a stressor leads to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system, during stress H secretes a hormone that triggers the P to release another hormone into the bloodstream which causes cortisol to be released from the adrenal glands, cortisol produces many of the bodily reactions to stress such as breaking down protein and converting to glucose, When cortisol levels are high, a feedback loop is triggered that shuts down HPA
What do the adrenal glands release?
norepinephrine and epinephrine which activate the sympathetic nervous system
What are major life stressors?
changes or disruptions that strain central areas of peoples lives
What are daily hassles?
small day-today irritations and annoyances
How does threat pose a threat?
Pose a threat to coping responses by slowly wearing down personal resources
What can chronic stress lead to?
memory impairments because cortisol damages neurons in the hippocampus
How do people often cope?
through behavioral strategies that are bad for health, chronic stress leads to overstimulation of the sympathetic nervous system causing higher blood pressure, elevated levels of cortisol, increased release of fatty acids, more plaque
Describe type A people vs Type B
Type A behavior pattern-decribes competive achievement-oriented, aggressive, hostile, time pressed, impatient, confrontational people
Type B-behavior pattern-describes a relaxed, noncompetitive, easygoing, accommodating person
What is the most toxic factor of stress?
What type individuals are most likely to die of coronary problems?
Angry, depressed, or pessimistic individuals
What is the immune system?
physical mechanism that helps the body deal with infection
What is psychoneuroimmunogly?
studies the response of the body’s immune system to psychological variables
What are the three types of white blood cells?
lymphocytes: B cells T cells and Killer cells
B cells remember specific invaders, T cells are involved in attacking the intruders directly and also with increasing the immune response
Natural Killer Cells are especially potent in killing viruses and also help attack tumors
What does stress do to lymphocyte production?
Decreased production
Does perceived stress influence the immune system?
What is anticipatory coping?
Coping that occurs before the onset of a future stressor
What are primary and secondary appraisals?
Primary appraisals help people decide whether the stimulus is stressful, benign, or irrelevant, Secondary appraisals-evaluate response options and choose coping behaviors if something is deemed stressful
What is emotion focused coping?
involves trying to prevent having an emotional response to the stressor including strategies such as avoidance, minimizing the problem, distancing from the outcome, eating or drinking, numbing the pain, do nothing to solve the problem
What is problem focused coping?
involves taking direct steps to solve the problem, people adopt problem focused behaviors when they perceive the stressor as controllable and experience only a moderate level of stress,
Why are emotion-focused behaviors partially good?
enable people to continue functioning in the face of uncontrollable stressor or at a high level of stress
What is the best way to deal with stress?
depends in personal resources and on the situation
What is positive Reappraisal?
cognitive process in which people focus on possible good things in their current situation, these downward comparisons have been shown to help people coping with serious illnesses
What is creation of positive events?
refers to a strategy of infusing ordinary event with positive meaning
What do stress resistant individuals do?
have ability to adapt to life changes by viewing the events constructively
What are the three components of hardiness?
commitement, challenge and control,
Describe people with high and low hardiness
people with high hardiness are committed to their daily activities, view threats as challenges or oppurtunies for growth, People with low hardiness are typically alienated, view events as under external control, and fear or resist change
Describe the blood pressure of people with high hardiness?
higher blood pressure which is an indicator of active coping
What is social support?
refers to having other people who can provide, help, encouragement, and advice, an essential component of positive mental and physical health
Social support leads to fewer health problems
What does resilient mean for a child?
they have good outcomes in spite of being raised in deprived or chaotic situations
Who is very susceptible to isolation?
The elderly
How does social support aid?
aids coping because other people lessen the negative effects of the stress that occurs
What does the buffering hypothesis propose?
that others can provide support in helping people cope with stressful events
What does social support need to be affective?
to imply that people care about the recipient
Define psychopathology
a disorder of the mind, has its roots in psychological turmoil and biological dysfunction
Can the environment trigger some mental disorder?
Yes, some
How does behavior always need to be viewed?
According to the situation
Define etiology
factors that contribute to the development
How are mental disorder characterized?
Categorizing mental disorder in a systematic manner was first done in the book in 1952, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-A handbook of clinical disorders used for diagnosing psychopathology
What is the multiaxial system based on?
the growing realization that mental health is affected by variety of factors, the system used in the DSM that provides assessment along five axes describing important mental health factors
Define assessment
the process of examining a person ‘s mental functions and psychological health, the goal is to make a a diagnosis so that appropriate treatment can be provided for the specific disorder
Define prognosis
probable outcome which varies from disorder to disorder
What is Mental Status exam?
normally given in the emergency room, provides a snapshot of their mental health, useful in determining if the mental impairments are due to a psychological condition or to some sort of physical condition such as a stroke
What is the most common method of psychological assessment?
Clinical interview
What are unstructured interviews?
used at the beginning, the topics of discussion vary as the interviewer probes different aspects of the persons problem, guided by the clinicians past experiences as well as by any beliefs about the client, too dependent on the quality of the interviewer
What are structured interviews?
use standardized questions that are asked in the same order each time, answers Have precoded formula,
What is the problem with testing?
People do not always answer honestly
What is DID?
Dissociative identity disorder (DID) commonly called multiple personality disorder involves the occurrence of two or more distinct identities in the same individual DID is an example of the DSM category of dissociative disorders which involve disruptions in identity, memory, and conscious awareness
What is dissociative amnesia?
when after an overwhelming trauma the person forgets the event ever happened or loses awareness of substantial blocks of time ie suddenly losing memory for personal facts
What are Fugue states?
losing memory of personal states, can move to new cities and even assume new identities
What is the commonality among Dissociative disorders?
confusion over personal identity and the splitting of some parts of memory from conscious awareness
Where is DID most common?
In woman that were abused as children
How do children cope with abuse?
Children cope with the abuse by pretending its happening to someone else, they dissociate their mental states from their physical bodies, Likely that physical or sexual abuse can cause psychological problems
What is the family systems model based on?
the idea that the behaviors of an individual must be considered within a social context, in particular the family, problems that arise within an individual are manifestations of problems within the family
What is the sociocultural model?
views psychopathology as the result of the interaction between individuals and their cultures
What are the differences in prevelances due to?
differences in lifestyle expectations and opportunities among the classes of society
What is the cognitive behavioral approach?
the central principle is that abnormal behavior is learned
Thoughts and beliefs should be considered as another type of behavior that can studied empirically
What can happen to thoughts?
Thoughts can become distorted and produce maladaptive behaviors and emotions
Does genetics influence mental illness?
What can put an individual at risk for mental illness?
Environmental toxins and malnutrition during childhood
Why do biological factors contribute?
Because they influence the CNS
Are mental disorder an interaction of multiple factors?
What is the diathesis stress model?
provides on such way of thinking about the onset of mental disorders, can have a predisposition in this model
How can a criminal get off the hook?
By pleaing insanity
Where does insanity come from?
Legal term
What is forensic psychology?
application of psychological science to the criminal justice system
What is anxiety disorder?
characterized by excessive anxiety in the absence of true danger, it is abnormal to feel strong chronic anxiety without cause People suffering from anxiety disorders feel tense, anxious and apprehensive, Constant worry can make falling asleep and staying asleep difficult and attention span and concentration can be impaired
Sweating dry mouth and rapid pulse, shallow breathing, increased blood pressure and increased muscular tension are all consequences of autonomic arousal
Exaggerated startle response is typical and behaviors such as toe tapping and excessive fidgeting are common
What does stress do to the hippocampus?
Can produce atrophy
What is phobia? Give some examples.
Phobia is a fear of a specific object or situation, out of proportion with the actual danger ie ophidiophobia=snakes, claustrophobia, and acrophobia=heights
What is GAD?
diffuse and omnipresent, the anxiety is not focused
What is agoraphobia?
fear of the market place
What is OCD?
involves frequent intrusive thoughts and compulsive actions
Obsessions are recurrent, intrusive, and unwanted, thoughts, ideas, or images
Compulsions are particular acts that the OCD patient feels driven to perform over and over ie checking, cleaning etc
What happens when anxious individual are presented with ambigious or neutral situations?
anxious individuals tend to perceive them as threatening whereas non-anxious individuals assume them to be non-threatening
Why is it good for children to throw tantrums?
hildren who have inhibited temperamental style during infancy and childhood are more likely to have an anxiety disorder later in life, When had inhibited in second year of childhood the amygdala is more active to novel faces, Some aspects of childhood temperament are preserved in the adult brain, Inhibited children especially at risk for social phobia
What is the irony of OCD?
People with OCD know that they are being irrational yet they are unable to stop
What does OCD result from?
operant conditioning: anxiety is paired with an event, the person engages in the behavior that reduces anxiety which reinforces the behavior, probably genetic
What is dysfunctional in people with OCD?
The caudate nucleus is dysfunctional in people with OCD,
The caudate is part of the basal ganglia, a region that helps suppress impulses
Patients with basal ganglia disease often manifest symptoms of OCD, causes a leak of impulses
What can improve symptoms of OCD?
Severing the connections between the prefrontal cortex and the caudate
What can trigger OCD?
OCD can be triggered by environmental factors ie streptococcal infections can cause symptoms of OCD
Streptococcal infections can cause symptoms of OCD in younger children-autoimmune response damages the caudate thereby producing OCD
How is the prefrontal cortex involved in OCD?
The prefrontal cortex becomes overactive in attempt to compensate for the caudate nucleus, this overactivity can establish associations between obsessions and behaviors that reduce the anxiety arising from the compulsions, these behaviors become compulsions through conditioning
Why do people with panic attacks think they are having a heart attack?
The symptoms of sympathetic nervous system arousal that occur during a panic attack often lead victims to believe that they are having a heart attack
What can produce a panic attack?
A tendency to catastrophize paired with some kind of trigger stimulus can produce a panic attack
What happens to people that have panic attacks?
People who have panic attacks fear having them again
What has a bigger impact on panic attacks?
Panic attacks themselves seem more influenced by biological factors
Panic attacks linked to abnormalities that result in the increased arousal of the central nervous system
What do mood disorders reflect?
extreme emotions, with depressive disorders featuring persistant and pervasive feelings of sadness and bipolar disorders involving fluctuation
Describe Major depression
Major Depression requires two syndromes, depressed mood or loss of interest in pleasurable activities, the person must have appetite and weight changes, sleep disturbances, loss of energy, difficulty concentrating, feelings of low self-esteem and guilt, and thoughts of death and suicide
What is Dysthymia?
mild to moderate severity, must have a depressed mood most of the day, more days than not, for at least two years, often precedes major depression
Describe bipolar disorder.
have periods of major depression, but also experience periods of mania
Manic episodes are characterized by elevates mood, increased activity, diminished need for sleep, grandiose ideas, racing thoughts, and extreme distractibility
Bipolar results in excessive involvement in pleasurable, but foolish activity such as sexual indiscretions, buying sprees, etc
What are hypomanic episodes?
characterized by heightened creativity and productivity snd can be extremely pleasurable and rewarding
What are the different types of bipolar disorder?
Bipolar I-msjor depression and mania
Bipolar II-major depression and hypomania
Cyclothymia-hypomania and mild depression
What alleviates depression?
Increased norepinephrine alleviates depression
What does prozac do?
Prozac selectively increases serotonin
Damage to what often leads to depression?
left prefrontal cortex
How are Biological rhythms linked to depression?
Depressed patients enter REM more quickly and have more of it
There are cyclical patterns depending on the season
What is SAD?
There are cyclical patterns depending on the season
SAD (seasonal affect disorder) corresponds to shorter days of winter
What can often trigger depression?
Life stressors
Who is less likely to become depressed?
A person who has a close friend or group of friends is less likely to become depressed when faced with stress, not number based, but quality based
What do depressed people think about?
Depressed people think about themselves, their situation, and their future in a negative manner, which he refers to as the cognitive triad
How do depressed people view positive and negative experiences?
Misfortunes are seen as the result of personal defects, whereas positive occurences are seen as the result of luck
What are errors in logic often made by the depressed?
overgeneralizing based on single events, magnifying the seriousness
What is the learned helplessness model?
people see themselves as unable to have an effect on events in their lives, Expect that bad things will happen and they have little control
Are dysfunctional cognitive patterns a cause or effect?
Dysfunctional cognitive patterns are a cause rather than a consequence
What is bipolar predominantly?
What happens if bipolar is not treated?
Left untreated approximately 20 persent of those with bipolar commit suicide
What does mania link to strongly?
Strong association between manic depression and artistic genius ie Van gogh, heminway, Dickinson
What is schizophrenia?
is a psychotic disorder which means that it is characterized by alterations in t houghts perception or consiousness-refers to split between thought and emotion
Schizophrenia can sometimes masquerade as other disorders
Schizophrenia is characterized by a combination of motor, cognitive, behavioral, and perceptual abnormatities that result in impaired social, personal, and or vocational functioning
What are positive vs. negative symptoms?
Positive symptoms are excesses whereas negative symptoms elcitit deficitis in functioning
Positve: Delusions, and hallucinations
What are delusions? Give examples?
Delusions are false personal belieds based on incorrect inferences about external
reality, will perisist in spite of evidence
Paranoid delusions
Delusions of grandeur belief that they have great power, knowledge, or talent
Delusions of harassment
Delusions of persecution-belief that others are persecuting, spying on, or trying to harm them
What are hallucinations?
Hallucinations are perceptions with no clear external cause, false sensory perceptions that have no external source, frequently auditory
Often voices give running commentary about what a person is doing
Hallucination are associated with activation in cortical areas that process external sensory stimuli
What might cause auditory hallucinations?
a difficulty in distinguishing inner speech from external cells
What is the loosening of association?
a speech pattern among patients in which their thoughts are disorganized or meaningless
What are clang associations?
stringing together of words that rhyme but have no other apparent link
What is Catatonic schizophrenia?
might mindlessly repeat baack words that they hear, ccalled echolalia, this might be extreme fear response
What happens to schizophrenic patients?
Patients become isolated and withdrawn, do not express emotion, slowed speech, monotone, reduction in overt behavior, movements may be slowed, little initiation of behavior, no interest in social participation (negative)
What is associated with a poorer prognosis?
Negative symptoms
How do meds affect Schizophrenia?
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia can be dramatically reduced or eliminated with meds, the negative symptoms often persist
Do positive and negative symptoms come from the same place?
Positive symptoms are thought the result of a neurotransmitter dysfunction
Negative symptoms are associated with neuroanatomical factors
What role do genetic play in schizophrenia?
Multiple genes contribute in subtle ways, Genetics plays a role in the development of schizophrenia, but implies a predisposition not destiny
What kind of disorder is schizophrenia?
How is the brain altered in schizophrenics?
Ventricles, are enlarged, so brain tissue is reduced
More negative outcomes are associated with greater reductions
Reduction is escially prevalent in the frontal lobes and the medial lobes
Dopamine may play an important role in schizophrenia, drugs that block decrease symptoms
Schizophrenia might involve abnormalities in the glial cells that make up the myelin sheath which would impair neurotransmission throughout the brain
What can be observed long before the disorder is diagnosed?
Neurological signs
What doubles the risk of developing schizophrenia?
Born or raised in urban area
What is one possible cause of schizophrenia? Why do people think this?
Schizoviirus, cities increase the spread
Those diagnosed with schizophrenia are more often born during late winter and early spring-second trimester would be during flu season when a lot of fetal development occurs
Found antibodies that differ in those without the disorder
Twins-early splitters have separate placenta, but late have same , same hand preference is 10 to 30% and late have 60%
The prenatal environment plays a significant role in the development of the disorder
What is antisocial personality disorder? What contributes to it?
Antisocial personality disorder-do not become anxious, lowe arousal which may result in sensation seeking behavior, amygdala abnormalities
Genetics may be at the root of antisocial behavior, but low class, dysfunctional families, and abuse may contribute
What is autism?
characterized by deficits in social interaction, impaired communication, and restricted interests
Clumsier than normal kids
What is aspergers?
high functioning autism, normal intelligence, but have specific deficits in social interaction, such as having impoverished theory of mind, don’t understand others intentions
What are some characteristics of an autistic child?
Children with autism actively reject physical contact with others, no eye contact
Autistic children show sever impairments in both verbal and nonverbal communication
Show odd speech patterns such as pronoun reversal and echolalia
Interpret words in al iteral manner
Oblivious to people, but acutely aware of their surroundings
Have extreme agitation and tantrums
Focus is on the sensory aspect of objects
What did people originally think caused autism?
Used to believe autism was an innate disease resulting from cold and unresponsive mothers
Parents of children were seen as insensitive, meticulous, introverted, or highly intellectual
Why is difficult but necessary to research the genetic component of autism?
Difficult to research the genetic component because most autistic people do not marry and have children,
There is a strong hereditary component
Describe the brain growth of a child with autism?
The brains of children with autism grow unusually large during the first two years of life then growth slows until age 5
Has undergrowth/overgrowth pattern
What complication often arise during pregnancy in autistic children?
Mothers of autistic children have experienced significant bleeding during the second trimester of pregnancy, suggesting some kind of trauma during the critical period for neuronal development
Austic children have a higher rate of neonatal complications ie seizures and delay in breathing
How is oxytocin related to autism?
A deficit in oxytocin may be related to some of the behavioral manifestations of autism
What did the find was elevated in autistic children?
A deficit in oxytocin may be related to some of the behavioral manifestations of autism, Levels of four proteins in the blood elevated in 97% of autistic children and 92% of retard children, but none in the healthy controls, all four proteins involved in brain development
What is ADHD
ADHD-a disorder characterized by restless, inattentive, and impulse behaviors, they need directions and rules repeated over and over again
-miss subtle social cues and make unintentional social mistakes
What is characteristic of older children with ADHD?
Older children do not display excessive motor activity, but rather are restless and fidgety
What are some possible causes of ADHD?
ADHD-most likely a heterogenous behavior, more likely to grow up in disturbed families, Connection between the frontal lobes and the limbic system was impaired in ADHD patients, symptoms of ADHD are similar to those in patients with frontal lobes damage, Underarousal of frontal lobes, also implicates subcortical structure ie differences in the basal ganglia which is involved in behavior and impulse control which may contribute to hyperactivity
What is psychotherapy?
the generic names given to formal psychological treatment
What do biological therapies reflect?
the medical approach to illness and disease
What is Psychopharmacology
the use of medications that affect brain or bodily functions, has proven to be effective
How many approaches are there to treatment
400, but we want a mix
What is free association?
the patient says whatever comes to mind
What is dream analysis?
interpets hidden meanings of dreams
Define insight
personal understanding of their own psychological processes,
Patients are freed from unconscious influences and symptoms disappear
What are psychodynamic approaches?
the later adaptions to freuds approaches
People still embrace Freud’s talking therapy, but in a more conversational format
What does the humanistic approach to personality emphasize?
personal experience and belief symptoms and the phenomenology of individuals
What is the goal of humanistic therapy?
to treat the person as whole, not a collection of behaviors or a repository of repressed and unconscious thought
What is client centered therapy?
humanistic therapy, encourages people to fulfill their individual potentials for growth through greater self understanding, safe and comforting so they can access their true feelings
What is motivational interviewing?
uses a client centerd approach over a very short period, valuable treatments for drug and alcohol abuse
What is insight based therapy?
sees maladaptive behavior to be the result of an underlying problem, behavioral therapists see the behavior itself as the problem and directly target it in therapy
What is the idea of behavior modification?
based on operant conditioning, rewards desired behaviours and ignores or punishes unwanted ones, Behavior is learned and can be unlearned using the principles of classical and operant conditioning
What does social skills training do? What is the first step of therapy?
helps elicit desired behavior, modeling in which the therapist acts out the correct behavior
What is interpersonal therapy?
integrates insight therapy and behavioral therapy, it focuses on relationships that the patients attempts to avoid
What is exposure?
for phobia, client is repeatedly exposed directly to the anxiety producing stimulus or situation
How does a phobia become reinforced?
They experience reductions in anxiety that reinforce avoidance
What is systematic desensitization?
uses relaxation techniques and pairs it with anxiety producing stimulus-exposure technique
What is cognitive therapy?
based on the theory that distorted thoughts can produce maladaptive behaviors and emotions
What is cognitive restructuring?
clinicians help their patients recognize maladaptive thought patters and replace them with ways of viewing the world that are more in tune with reality
What is rational emotive therapy?
therapists act as teachers who explain and demonstrates more adaptive ways of thinking and behaving
What is assumed of maladaptive behavior?
assumed to result from individual belief system
What is the most widely used therapy?
cognitive behavioral therapy
CBT-tries both to correct faulty cognitions and trains clients to engage in new behaviors
CBT- is good for anxiety disorders
What advantages does group therapy offer?
preferable-costs benefits, improve social skills
How are groups often organized?
around a problem or type of person
How are behavioral and cognitive-behavioral groups structured?
often highly structured with specific goals and techniques designed to modify thought and behavior patterns
What are less structured groups like?
more focused on increasing insight and providing social support
What is the systems approach?
an individual is part of a larger context and any change in individual behavior will affect the whole system
What is expressed emotions?
a pattern of interactions that include emotional overinvolvemnt, critical comments, and hostility, Negative expressed emotions correspond with the rate of relapse
Why do some therapists insist on families being involved?
Because family attitudes are often critical to long term prognoses
What are biological therapies based on?
the notion that mental illness results from abnormalmalities in neural and bodily processes, such as imblanances in specific neurotransmitters or malfunctions in certain brain regions
What are psychotropic medications?
those that act on the brain to affect mental processes, change the brain neurochemistry ie by inhibiting action potentials or altering synaptic transmission
What are antianxiety drugs used or and how do they work?
are used for short term treatment , increase activity of GAB, an inhibitory neurotransmitter
What is buspirone
has fewer side effects and does not appear to have the addictive nature of others, but must be taken daily
counter depression
What were the first antidepressants?
MAO were the first antidepressants discovered
Monoamine oxidase is an enzyme that converts serotonin to another chemical form, so MAO inhibitors result in more serotonin being available in the synapses of the brain, also raise the levels of norepinephrine and dopamine
What are tricyclic antidepressants?
inhibit reuptake of a number of different neurotransmitters and this inhibition results in more of each neurotransmitter being available in the synapse
What are SSRIs
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, inhibit reuptake of serotonin, they act on neurotransmitters to a significantly lesser extent
What are antipsychotics?
treat scihzophrenia, reduce symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations, bind to dopamine receptors without activating them, which blocks the effects of dopamine, have significant side effects and not always effective
Tardive dykinsia
involuntary twitching of muscles
What is used to treat bipolar?
Lithium is the most effective treatment for bipolar
Anticonvulsants regulate mood in bipolar disorder
What therapy is most effective?
No specific type of therapy yielded more positive results than any others
What is increasing for treatment?
Increasing use of medications to treat psychological disorders
What yields the best outcomes?
What is an important aspect of physical and mental health?
good relationship with the health care provider
What do certain messages evoke?
evoke powerful emotional reactions and subsequent relief
talking or writing about emotionally charged events reduces blood pressure, muscle tension, an skin conduction during disclosure and immediately after
Writing about emotional events improves immune function
Clinical psychologist
have doctoral degree, provide treatment and conduct research
have medical degree and prescribe drugs
Psychiatristric social workers
work with patients and commonly visit people
Psychiatric nurses
specialize in the care of the mentally ill
Counseling psychologists-
have a PhS in counseling psychology, deal with problems of adjustment and live stress that do not involve mental illness
have limited training
What is increasingly important for prescribing?
Evidence based medicine
Psychological treatments-
evidence based treatment from more generic talk psychotherapy
Treatments should be tailored soecifically to the specific symptoms of a clinet, the techniques have been developed in the lab by psychologists, especially behavioral, cognitive and social ones, no overall grand theory guides treatment
How are fears acquired?
either through experiencing a traumatic event or observing similar fears in others
What is the fear hierarchy?
a list of situations in which fear is aroused, in ascending order
How do people learn to cope with fear?
Teach relaxation, then do exposure therapy, progressively get worse
The theory behind is that the relaxation response competes with and eventually replaces the previously exhibited fear responses
What are virtual environment?
expose people to fear without putting them in danger
Does psychotherapy rewire the brain?
What does a panic disorder result from?
Panic disorder is the result of multiple components
prevents panic attacks but does not reduce anticipatory fear surrounding them
What can be effective for panic disorder?
Why do panic attacks occur?
because of a conditioned response to the trigger
what is the goal of therapy for panic disorder?
to break the connection between the trigger symptom anf the resulting panic
What is OCD
is a combination of recurrent intrusive thoughts and behaviors that the client feels compelled to perform over and over
What is OCD related to?
related to tourettes, a neurological disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics
What is drug of choice for Schizophrenia
A sort SSRI
How can researcher lean about mental disorder?
Researchers can learn a great deal about mental disorders by studying successful treatments
What are tics related to?
dopamine dysfunction
Does dopamine play a role in OCD?
What was high OCD patients? What does this mean?
Found high levels of oxytocin in the cerebrospinal fluid of people with OCD
Women are more likely to develop OCD during pregnancy
How many types of OCD are there?
There may be two distinct types of OCD one tic related and on non-tic related
What are the two most important components of behavioral therapy for OCD?
The two most important components of behavioral therapy for OCD are exposure and response prevention: clients are exposed to stimuli that trigger, but are prevented from engaging in the behavior
Can nonbiological therapies change how the brain functions?
What is the deal with tricyclics?
extremely affective antidepressants, but cause sedation and weight gain etc
What is depression the result of?
result of a cognitive triad of negative thoughts about oneself, the situation, and the future
Whats the difference between people with anxiety and depression?
People with anxiety disorder worry aboiut the future, but people with depression feel they have failed in the past, they are dealing poorly with the present, and how terrible the future will be
What is the goal of CBT?
to help the patient think more adaptively which in turn should improve mood and behavior
What do people with SAD respond to?
What does aerobic exercise do?
Aerobic exercise reduces depression because it releases endorphins which can result in overall feelings of well being
Aerobic exercise may also serve to regularize bodily rhythms, improve self esteem, and provide social support
What are the pros and cons of an ECT?
ECT-gives a current strong enough o produce a seizure, single most effective treatment for those that are severly depressed and do not respond to conventional treatment
ECT works quickly
ECT maybe treatment of choice for pregnant women
ECT has high relapse rate and causes memory impairments
What affects the degree of memory and cognitive impairment after ECT?
Degree of memory and cognitve impairment may be related to levels of cortisol, higher levels equal more impairments
What is TMS?
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-transmits high intensity magnetism to the brain, the rapid build up and collapse causes momentary electrical current to the brain, creates a brief transient brain lesions, does not have major sideeffects
TMS seems to be more effective for nonphsycotic depression whereas ECT seems to be more effective for psychotic depression
What does Lithium work better on?
What is the difficulty of bipolar treatment?
Compliance is difficult
What treatment is superior for schizophrenia
Pharmacological treatments are superior for schizophrenia
Medications have little impact on the negative symptoms
What can drugs for schizophrenia cause?
cause symptoms that resemble Parkinson’s disease
Tardive Dyskinesia-
involuntary movements of the lips, tongue, face, legs,etc
drug that acts on multiple neurotransmitters and is benefical in treating both the negative and positive symptoms, creates no Parkinson symptoms, can cause fatal reduction in white blood cells, very expensive,Although medication is effective in stopping hallucinations it does not help much with social functioning
When is antipsychotic medication most effective?
Antipsychotic medication is most effective when used in combination with other treatment approaches ie social skills training
What is schizophrenia due in part to?
Schizophrenia may be due in part to limited cognitive resources and an inability to inhibit the intrusion of inappropriate thoughts
With schizophrenia what do you want from CBT?
IN CBT for schizophrenia want the patient to trust and therapist to be nonjudgemental and will try to understand from patients perspective
Over a lifetime what do we see with schizophrenia?
Most patients diagnosed with schizophrenia experience multiple psychotic episodes over the course of the illness
Most schizophrenic patients improve over time though some can get progressively more sever
What may result in fewer psychotic episodes?
Changes in the brain that occur with aging may somehow result in fewer psychotic episodes
Whats up with SSRIs and teens?
SSRIs for teens were first found to be effective, but cause increased thoughts of suicide, Getting adolescents to comply with psychotherapy can be challenging
How are children regarded in terms of human development?
Most theories of human development regard children as more malleable than adults ad therefore for amenable to treatment
What is up with ADHD treatment?
Most common treatment for ADHD is a central nervous sytem stimulan, it is thought to affect multiple neurotransmitter in particular dopamine
ADHD patients have underactive brains and their hyperactivity may be a way of raising their arousal levels
CNS stimulants decrease overactivity and distractibility and increase attention and the ability to concentrate
Children on Ritalin are happier, more socially adept, and more academically successful
Behavioral treatments of ADHD reinforce positive behaviors and ignore or punish problem behaviors
What are the core symptoms of autism?
Core symptoms of autism include impaired communication, restricted interests, and deficitis in social interaction
Autistic children are oblivious to social praise and small prizes
This tendency to focus on specific details while ignoring other interferes with generalizing learned behavior to other stimuli and situations
What therapies are more effective for autism?
Structured therapies are more effective for these children than unstructured interventions such as play therapy
What is ABA?
Apllied Behavioral analysis is based on principles of operant conditioning
What is increased in autistic urine? What does it mean?
Autistic children have increased levels of peptides in their urine
Peptides may negatively affect learning, attention, brain maturation and social interaction
Given diet, peptides were normal, children demonstrated reductions in odd behavior and improvemtn in social, cognitve, and communicative abilities
What helps with outcome for autism?
Early diagnosis allows for more effective treatment
Early language ability is associated with better outcomes
What are the characteristics of diseases that cause EIDs?
*have increased in incidence, geographical or host range
*have changed pathogenesis
*have newly evolved
*have been recently discovered or are newly recognized
Why Should we care about plant pathogens?
Major food crops, cash crops, trees,
what are the main sources of global food consumption?
wheat, rice, maize, and potato
What are the major taxoomic groups of pathogens that cause plant EIDs?
virus, bacteria, fungi
what percent of diseases do bacter, fungi, and viruses account for in people vs plants?
Viruses cause 47% of plant EIDS and 44% of humans
Bacteria cause lower proportion of plant EIDS (16%) compared to that caused in human (30%)
Fungi cause 30% in plants and 9% of EIDS in humans
What happens to plants when stressed?
Their immune systems don't function as well
What factors drive the emergence of EIDs?
Most important driver is pathogen introduction (56%)
Weather is 25%
Changes in farming techniques 9%
What often causes the expansion of a disease?
A chnage in vector distribution ie misquitos
What makes farms so susceptible to disease?
Farming is growing more of the same genotpe so that everything will die, lots of plants close together,
What happened in 1969/1970 with maize crops?
In 1969 85% of US maize produced was on one variety that was susceptible to SOthern leaf blight and yellow corn leaf blight, In 1970 outbreaks of these disease destroyed 17% of all US maize crops
What is the most important constraint to the production of potatoes worldwide?
Potato Late Blight
What is phytophthora infestans and what does it do?
an oomycete, this fungus probably coevolved with the wild potato and initially emerged as a pathogen when P. infestans was transported to Mexico from the Southern American Andes
Do we currently have an effective way to control potato late blight?
What did Pasteur enjoy studying?
grape disease ie mildew?
What helps prevent grape mildew?
can use chemicals to control fungi (use copper and lyme), Soil and lyme are used by copper makes the soil toxic and lyme changes the pH
What are the characteristics of diseases that cause EIDs?
*have increased in incidence, geographical or host range
*have changed pathogenesis
*have newly evolved
*have been recently discovered or are newly recognized
Why Should we care about plant pathogens?
Major food crops, cash crops, trees,
what are the main sources of global food consumption?
wheat, rice, maize, and potato
What are the major taxoomic groups of pathogens that cause plant EIDs?
virus, bacteria, fungi
what percent of diseases do bacter, fungi, and viruses account for in people vs plants?
Viruses cause 47% of plant EIDS and 44% of humans
Bacteria cause lower proportion of plant EIDS (16%) compared to that caused in human (30%)
Fungi cause 30% in plants and 9% of EIDS in humans
What happens to plants when stressed?
Their immune systems don't function as well
What factors drive the emergence of EIDs?
Most important driver is pathogen introduction (56%)
Weather is 25%
Changes in farming techniques 9%
What often causes the expansion of a disease?
A chnage in vector distribution ie misquitos
What makes farms so susceptible to disease?
Farming is growing more of the same genotpe so that everything will die, lots of plants close together,
What happened in 1969/1970 with maize crops?
In 1969 85% of US maize produced was on one variety that was susceptible to SOthern leaf blight and yellow corn leaf blight, In 1970 outbreaks of these disease destroyed 17% of all US maize crops
What is the most important constraint to the production of potatoes worldwide?
Potato Late Blight
What is phytophthora infestans and what does it do?
an oomycete, this fungus probably coevolved with the wild potato and initially emerged as a pathogen when P. infestans was transported to Mexico from the Southern American Andes
Do we currently have an effective way to control potato late blight?
What did Pasteur enjoy studying?
grape disease ie mildew?
What helps prevent grape mildew?
can use chemicals to control fungi (use copper and lyme), Soil and lyme are used by copper makes the soil toxic and lyme changes the pH
What is claviceps purpurea?
fungus infection, on wheat, used to make LSD, responsible for bewitching people, cause arogot disease, aflotoxin
What is innate immunity?
the most primative immunity,recognizes pathogens by identifying unique microbial molecular sequences not found on host cells, this is called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) and includes such structures as LPS, peptiglucan, flagellam fungal cell walls
Innate immunity can recognize at least 1000 PAMPS
Why do plants rely more on their innate immunity?
Because they have no circulatory system
What are TLRs?
Toll-like Receptors-recognize different PAMPS, in humans the TLR family has at least 10 members, when TLRs bind to a particular PAMP signals are sent to turn on synthesis of cytokine genes
What are examples to two TLRs?
TLR-4 recognizes LPS
TLR-5 recognizes flagellin, recognizes 22 amino acid flagellin
What is the difference between plants and humans w/ pamps?
they also use flagellin, but a different epitope than TLR-5
What do some plants use to recognize flagelin? What type of evolution might this represent?
Plants use a receptor kinase called FSL2 to recognize flagellin
Some believe that FLS2 is not that similar and might be an example of convergent evolution
Plant pathogens share what in common with some strains of ecoli?
Plant Pathogens also use Type III secretion (TTSS) to deliver effectors
What happens if a virulence gene gets recognized?
It will not virulent on the host
Who will always win?
The stupid pathogen
Why is DEnnis Gonsalves important?
Dennis Gonsalves helped breed papaya
Papaya is the second most important agricultural crop in Hawaii
The Papaya ring sport disease caused a 50 percent drop in production from 1995-19987 before seeds of the virus resistant papaya we deregulated and made available for free to Hawaiian growers
In 2001, production was back to pre1994 levels
What is Bollgard cotton
was engineered for insect resistance using gene from naturally occurring bacterium (cotton carries BT toxin)
What is the BT toxin?
Toxin is made from Bacillus thuringiensis, a gram positive spore forming soil bacterium, the spore is eaten by the insect, crystal dissolves and protxin is processed to smaller active form by gut enzymes, activated toxin binds to receptor in the midgut epithelium, toxin inserts into the membrane making it permeable to ions and small molecules so the cell bursts
Why organic farmers pissed about this genetically engineered cotton
Organic farmers use this as a natural pesiticide because its not genetically engineered, caterpillars will now develop resistance because we are asking for evolution
How do we deliver genes to plants?
Using genetic engineering to make disease resistant plants, can use nature’s genetic engineer, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, to deliver genes,
What is A tumefacians ?
a gram negative soil bacteria, form at crown of the plant and cause plant cancer
What does A tumefacians carry?
Ti plasmid (tumor inducing) encodes a number of important genes, tDNA is the DNA we transfer to the host, oncogenes encode enzymes necessary for hormone biosynthesis, opines are modified amnip acids, Serve as C and N source for agrobacteria
What is the structure of the Ti plasmid of A tumeficiens?
. T-DNA is the region actually transferred to the plant. vir, virulence genes; onc, oncogenes (tumorigenesis genes); ops, opine synthesis genes. Arrows indicate the direction of transcription of each gene. The entire Ti plasmid is about 200 kb of DNA, and the T-DNA about 20 kb (Section 31.7 for further discussion of Ti).
What are oncogenes
necessary for hormone synthesis, host cell starts making more cells, opine catabolism
How id T-DNA transferred to the plant?
Mechanism of transfer of T-DNA from agrobacterium to the plant, two component regulatory system virQ-sensor kinase, VirG-transcriptional activator
VirD-endonuclease, VirE single stranded DNA binding protein, Vir B-type IV secretion sytem, Good host to infect and transfer DNA tto and can tell by checking for virA which can receive signal it will transfer protein to Virgene, transcription factor that turns on other VIR genes, together called two component regulatory system
Endonuclease nicks tip strand
Type IV secretion system-pass through type 4 system, pass tdna, has to end up in chromosome of host plant, like conjugatyion between bacterial cell and eukaryotic cell
We need to keep tDNA borders because that’s where the nick is going to occur, need to put drug resistance marker so we can follow the events
Who is the father of the green revolution?
Norman Borlaug is the father of the green revolution, bland breeder, saved more lives than anyone who has ever lived, bread dwarf wheat
What plants can tolerate growth on low iron mediums?
What is the number one deficiency?
What encodes for FE chelate reductase?
FRO2 encodes FE chelate reductase
What are the benefits of using BT toxin?
We use less pesticide
What percent of what crops where transgenic?
Soybreans-89% transgenic, Alfalfa 1/2 % Canola 75% Corn 61% cotton 83%
What areas are more receptive to transgenic foods?
Developing is more receptive, because we can big and choose what we wanna eat
What percent of foods have GE ingredients?
about 75%
What are the few whole foods on the market that are GE?
corn, squash, papaya?
What are the issues with food safety?
No peer-reviewed safety tests, creation of allergens or activation of toxins, pharma crops contaminate food supply, labeling, changes nutrional content, gene flow from antibiotic food to intestinal bacteria could increase antibiotic resistance
Is toxin creation confined to GE foods?
No naturally occurring toxins happen due to classical breeding efforts also, such as potatoes and celery
What happened with breeding for insect resistance in celery?
produced a rash in farm workers. Found to contain 6200ppb of carcinogenic psoralens compared to 800 ppb in the control celery
Whatr are th six devastating diseases?
diptheria, pertussis (whooping cough) polio, measles, tetanus, and TB
What is the idea behind edible vaccines?
express an antigen in a food that is eaten raw maybe a banana or potato
Hep B tested in mice and then human volunteers, worked well if used as a booster
Tomato yields large masses of edible raw fruit (don’t want to denature antigens), tomato has a well established greenhouse production, can freeze dry it, inexpensive provides antigen stability at room temp
Issue you still need to control the dose
Tomato mutant makes white fruit, white fruited tomato
Where else could we implant transgenic antigens?
in milk from recombinant cow
why does the 5 second rule suck?
tested salmonella using wood floors, tiles, and carpet, contaminated surfaces for 8 hours, bread and bologna accumulated 150 to 8000 bacteria
Infectious doses of salmonella are as few as 10 cells and as few as 100 for ecoli
What is our current pandemic?
How many people are living with AIDS?
39.5 million
How how many new infections and deaths were there in 2006 from AIDS?
There were 4.3 new HIV infections in 2006 and 2.9 million death
Compare Africa and the US?
America has about 1.4 million and Sub-Saharan Africa has about 25.7 million
Its slowed over here, where there is high prevlance there is also high infection rates
We have aids manageable
Can’t really afford drugs
We had 43,000 new infection, Africa had 2.8 million
We had 18,000 death Africa had 2.1 milllion
How did it start? Who is mainly infected?
It started as a disease for needle users and gay men because that was easy to spread
Sex workers and drug users are the main
HIV remains common intravenous drug use and those who have unprotected sex
In Africa and the Caribbean who is mainly infected?
High prevalence of women with HIV, 60% of individuals infect are women
Is HIV back on the rise?
What do all organisms have?
Some form of immune system
What is the job of all immune systems?
To recognize what is self and destroy everything that is foreign
How many immune systems do we have?
We have two immune systems-Innate and Acquires
What does our immune system?
We can judge and learn what is foreign and what is self
What unique feature does the vertbrate immune system have?
the amazing antibody?
What causes autoimmune disorders?
Autoimmune diseases (arthritis, some diabetes) are the result of mistaking self for foreign
Why do allergies happen?
Allergies are mistakes of targeting harmless substances for foreign
What makes up an antibody?
An antibody is made up of two heavy and two light chains, the variable region which differs from one antibody to the next which allows an antibody to recognize its matcing antigen, Antibodies are four proteins with , epitopes fit in between the heavy and light chain
What do antibody recognition sites do?
Antibody has recognition sites that bind to epitopes, antigens are entire foreign body
What does the body try to find?
things with antibodies sticking on it
Where are all blood cells made?
All blood cells are made from stem cells in bone marrow
Where do T-lymphocytes mature?
the thymus
What is the spleen's job?
Spleen is a battleground where immune defenses confront invaders
Where do lymphocytes travel?
in “lymph” through lymphatic vessels that parallel the blood vessels
What are lymph nodes?
major sites where foreign bodies are passed from the circulatory system and where immune cells congregate and encounter foreign material
What does invasion of foreign do?
Invasion by foreign material sets of a high cascade of events in the immune system
What do T cells do?
Te cells do not recognize free floating antigens, instead their cell surfaces contain antibody-like receptors that see antigens on the surfaces of infected or cancerous cells, T cells differentiate into either helpers or killers
What do Helper T cells do?
Helper T cells have primarily CD4+ receptors on cell surface to recognize diseased or cancerous cells, some forms stimulate B cells to dump antibodies, others call on phagocytes, and others activate other T cells
What do killer T cells do?
Killer T cells (CTL) have CD8+ receptors on cell surface to recognize foreign or abnormal molecules
What are CTLS especially good at?
attacking cells infected with viruses because they target small fragments of viruses on cell membranes
Most CTLS only recognize antigens carried on MHC complexes on cell surface
What are Natural Killer cells up too?
Natural Killer T cells are filled with granules of potent chemicals to kill cells
NKT cells target cells lacking self MHC molecules and are thus general purpose killers
What does histamine contribute to?
The inflammation response
What are neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
Neutrophils are also phagocytic
Eosinophils and basophils spray chemicals onto harmful cells
What do blood platelets stimulate?
blood clotting and immune responses
What is the complement system?
The complement system is an ancient protein cascade that works in parallel to antibody responses
Complement proteins also cause blood vessels to leak (ie swelling)
The complement system builds a complex that ultimately puctures cell wall and membranes of bacteria
What component of the immune sysyem is crucial to understanding of HIV?
helper cell
What attacks everything? what does this apply?
All groups of bacteria and all eukaryotes have viruses which implies that viruses are as old as life itself
Describe HIV?
HIV is a retrovirus, has a viral envelope from the cell that produced the virus
HIV has 9 genes for 15 proteins
HIV has a single stranded RNA genome and has 2 copies of the genome
Describe the HIV Life Cycle?
HIV Life Cycle-1 binds to the cell, 2 fusion of viral and cell membranes 3 uncoating genes and enzymes which releases reverse transcriptase, genome, integrase, and protease into the cell, 4 Reverse Transcription HIV its RNA to DNA 5 genome integration-viral integrase splices viral DNA into cellular DNA, 6-Genome replication-cell uses the viral DNA as a template for reproducing the HIV RNA genome 7-protein synthesis cell uses HIV RNA as a template for synthesizing proteins 8-protein cleavage protease enzymes cuts long protein chain into individual proteins 9-Virus assembly and spread-New viral particles bid from cell and move on to infect other cells
HIV Life cycle-HIV particles preferentially bind to the CD4 receptors of CD4+ helper T lymphocyte (the first cell in the mammalian immune response)
What are the spikes made out of?
One spike is made of three gp120 and gp41
Gp120 is a glycoprotein. Gp41 is an envelope protein. Three each together form a complex in the viral mebrane
What happens after crossing the nuclear envelope?
he integrasse proteon mediates integration of viral DNA into the host’s genome
WHat is LTR and what does it do?
The long terminal repeat (LTR) at the 5’ end of the viral genome serves as eukaryotic transcriptional activation site containing promoter and enhancer elements, a TATA box and thee sp1 sites recruit the RNA polymerase II complesx
What does Nef do?
Nef activates expression of FasL which induces apoptosis in cytotoxic T cells that express Fas, and which may otherwise act to kill infected cells, Nef makes it so it can’t tell immune system to kill the host cell
What is zoonosis?
the transfer of a virus from one animal host to another
What happens with SIVs in primates?
SIVs are generally not serious pathogens to primates
WHat are many human diseases the result of?
Many human disease, including flus, are also zoonotic transfers from birds or mammals
Why does HIV need protease?
In HIv you make one long protein molesule that needs to be cut up by protease
Where did we get HIV?
HIV is from monkeys SIV
Restricted the event to P. t. troglodytes somewhere in west-central Africa
When do we think HIV enter the human population and why?
Korber et al. applied a molecular clock analysis t the evolution of gp160 which is an env protein, and estimated that the HIV-1 strain entered the human population sometime between 1920-1940
What is the origin of HIV?
origin to Ivory Coast population of the sooty mangabey
Why does HIV suck sooo bad?
CD4 cells therefore the virus compromises the immune system that’s why AIDS patients die from so many unrelated cancers and infections
2. Reverse Transcriptase has a high mutation rate
Reverse transciptase has the highest mutation rate recorded, -just creates a high amount of variability
AIDS takes out our first line of defense
What has the highest mutation rate and why? What does this mean?
HIV has the highest mutation rate ever observed, every other copy of the genome made by RT in a cell has at least 1 mutation
Reasons: RT is error proned and HIV has no error-correcting machinery
Thus HIV genetic diversity rapidly accumulates in each HIV patient
What can cause large shifts in HIV?
Mutations combined wuth selection
What is the greatest impediment in defeating AIDS?
HIV evolution is the greatest impediment to defeating it
WHat are the only sucessful drug treatments?
Only drug therapies that thwart the evolution of HIV are successful
What does AZT do?
AZT has azide, when incorporated into DNA you can not ad nucleotides, stops copying process
The other copy, copies itself slower, not cure, but slows
How many antretroviral drugs are there?
How do RT inhibitors work?
RT-reverse transcriptase inhibitors are faulty DNA building blocks, incorporated into the HIV DNA so the DNA chain cannot be completed
How do protease inhibitors work?
Protease inhibitors-interfere with protease enzyme that HIV uses to produce infectious particles
How do fusion inhibitors work?
Fusion inhibitors-interfere with the viruses ability to fuse with the cell membrane, so it cannot enter
What was the first approved drug? What happened?
AZT-was the first approved drug
AZT prevents reverse transcription
AZT was wildly effective for a few years, but after a few years lost all ability to control HIV? HIV evolved
how does AZT work?
Reverse transcriptase mistakes AZT for the thymidine nucleotide when it is copying the viral genome into DNA Once an AZT nucleotide is incorporated, no more nucleotides can be added and so genome transcription to DNA stops
AZT selects for RT enzymes that preferentially incorporate thymidine over AZT because HIV genomes with those RT genes will leave more copies of themselves
A few different mutation will accomplish this and these few mutation are repeatedly seen arising in HIV patients being treated with only AZT
The selction pressues with and without AZT generate a trade off for HIV evolution and so this drug resistance is reversible
RT enxymes that indiscrininatley incorporate AZT or thymidine copy the viral genome much faster
The trade off is speed vs. accuracy-in the absence of AZT you don’t have to be accurate, but in the presence of AZT you do
What do protease inhibitors do>?
Protease inhibitors work to prevent cleavage of transcribed polypeptides into functional proteins at the life cycle of step 8, protein cleavage
What's up with integrase inhibitors do?
Integrase inhibitors look promising but non have been approved yet
What did David Ho say?
Give them both
What is the normal drug therpay for HIV?
Today triple drug therapies are th norm, 2 RT inhibitors and 1 protease inhibitor
What is HAART?
Highly active antiretroviral therapy
Why can a patient never stop taking the drugs?
Some HIV remains locked away in the human genome, so an HIV patient can never stop taking the drugs, however the virus remains only dormant
What is CCR5?
CCR5 is a chemokine coreceptor which HIV may need to enter the cell, its your delta 32
Altered amino acvids, result from a 32 nucleotide deletion resulting in frameshift neat the end of the CCR5 gene
HIV viruses cannot fuse and penetrate into CD4 T cells of individuals who are homozygous for this allele and heterozygous individuals have reduced penetration efficiency
There is still much discussion and work on what the selective agent favoring this allele in the opast may have been however no clear winner has emerged
What is Darwinian medicine?
We need to think about diseases in a new way
Asking evolutionary questions is crucial to understanding why our bodies are so vulnerable to so many diseases:
What questions need to be asked?? Why?
1. the mismatch between our bodies and novel aspects of the modern environment gives rise to many chronic disease, pathogens evolve so quickly that we cannot keep up, constraints such as a path dependence limit the perfection of traits shaped by selection, trade offs leave every trait in the body imperfect and vulnerable to disease, selection shapes organisms for maximal reproductive success, even if that compromises individual individual health and longevity, defenses such as pain, cough, a fever are not diseases, but responses shaped by selection and regulated so they are expressed when they are useful
Did we evolve in the environment we find ourselves in?
Are there usually aloty of steps in any disease?
Does evolution work to produce perfection?
What do physcians treat?
Physcians treat the symptoms (often masking disease)
when was Malaria eradicated? What happened?
Malaria was eradicated from US in the 1950s
1,337 malaria cases in the US in 202 including 8 deaths all but 5 were acquired in malaria endemic countries
Between 1957 and 2003 in the Unitred States, 63 outbreaks of locally transmitted miquito borne malaria have occurred
During 1963 and 1999, 93 cases of transfusion-transmitted malaria were reported in the US
What anopheles? What their deal in the US?
Of the ten Anopheles species in the USA, the two species that transmitted malaria prior to eradication are still widely prevalent thus there is a constant risk that malaria could be reintroduced in the US
Anopheles are species that can carry malaria
What else can cause malaria?
Blood transfusions can also account for malaria
What does malaria cause? Who is more susceptible?
Malaria causes anemia
Pregnant women and young children need lots of blood so more susceptible
What percent of the pop lives in areas with endemic areas of malaria?
How severe is Malaria globally?
Each year there are 350 to 500 million cases of malaria that occur worldwide and over 1 million people die most of them are pregnant women and children in sub-saharan Africa
2 Deaths per min
malaria cause almost 11% of childrens deaths in developing countries
In Malawi in 2001, malaria accounted for 22% of all hospital admissions, 26% of outpatients, and28% of hospital deaths
What are symptoms of malaria?
Symptoms of malaria include fever and flulike illness including shaking, chills, headache, muscle aches, and tiredness, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea may also occur
Malaria may cause anemia and jaundice because of the loss of rbs
What happens with plasmodium falciparum?
if not promptly treated may cause kidney failure, seizures, mental confusions, coma, and death
What are two of the common antimalarial drugs?
Two important currently used antimalarial drugs are derived from plants who medicinal values had been noted for centuries
What is often used to prevent malaria?
Insecticide treated bed nets decreased the mortality of children agred 1 to11 months in trial in western Kenya 1997 to 1999
What are the average costs of treating malaria?
The average cost potentially life saving treatments of malaria are estimated to be $.13 for chloroquine and %.14 for sulfadoxinepyrimmethamine and $2.68 for a seven day course of quinine
What should one do if traveling to malaria endemic area?
If you are traveling to an endemic malaria area you should purchase antimalarial drugs and take plenty of dete
What plays a role in malaria transmission?
Because malaria is vector-borne climate plays an important role in transmission
Is malaria an EID
How does malaria infect infants
Malaria causes an 8 to 14% decrease in birth weight which in turn decreases the chance of survival
Malaria induces anemia and so children and moms are most at risk
What other species are affected by malaria?
How are insecticides on nets recharged?
communal dips
What causes Malaria?
Malaria is caused by a protozoan called plasmodium
Plasmodium has 175 species in the genus
how many parasites are there for people? In other animals?
Human malaria us caused by 4 different parasites
At least 29 species infect non-human primates, rodents outside the tropical parts of Africa are rarely affected
What are the most common parasites for humans?
P. vivax and falciparum are the most common and faciparum is the most deadly and is most common in Africa
What is falciparum doing today?
There are also worrying indications of the spread of falciparum malaria into new regions of the world and its reappearance in areas where it had been eliminated
What is causing the extinction in Hawaiian Birds?
Avain Malaria
What can remain dormant?
Vivac and Ovale can develop dormant liver stages that reactivate after symptomless intervals up to vivax (2 years) and ovale (4 years)
How does falciparum infect?
Aftyer a single sporozoite (the parasite from inoculated by the female misquito) of falciforum invades a liver cell, the parasite grows in 6 days and produces 30,000 to 40,000 to daughter cells which are released into thte blood when the liver cell ruptures
In the blood after a single merozoite invades an rbc the parasite grows in 48 hours and produces 8-24 daughter cells which are releaed into the blood when the red blood cell ruptures
Has complex life cycles, may have multiple hosts
What happens whan a misquito bites a human?
Misquito bites a human, diploid and infect cell, produce offspring and transported back into humans
First infects liver and goes through a series of stages,
Makes cells in liver and blood explode
A lot of parasites hide in your bodies
Difficult to get rid off
How did Malaria get to England?
British Raj
How quinine administered?
-gin and tonic
Quinine is very bitter to encourage men to take, the army put it in their gin ration, thus the gin and tonic
Quinine is still used to treat malaria strains that are drug resistant.
How did quinine come to be?>
“Discovered” by European medicine in South America in the 1600's, when Spanish explorers and missionaries used the bark of the Cinchona tree as medicine.
Jesuits introduced quinine to Europe in 1640.
Destruction of the cinchona trees, because of the demand for quinine, made them very rare, so a synthesis method of producing quinine from coal tar was discovered by Robert Woodward and William Doering in 1944.
Where does sickle cell anemia show up?
Sickle cell anemia is not restricted to those of African ancestry-pretty much it shows up where you find malaria
Are some people less susceptible to Malaria?
Some humans have genetic constitutions that make them less susceptible to malaria
How long has malaria been around?
Malaria has been around for about 80,000
Whats different about your blood when you are a baby?
different hemoglobin
What does SCA do?
The sicle cell allele is a mutation in the beta hemoglobin gene, heme group
Hemoglobin binds oxygen in rbcs
Sickle cell anemia causes a sickling of the cells that causes the blood cells to become stuck in smaller capillaries
Sickle cell anemia-beta hemoglobin chain, heme group in center of each, oxygen binds to hemoglobin which causes a conformational change, When they discharge their oxygen the hemoglobins line up and make the cell sickle
What is the goal of evolution?
To make you good enough, not perfection
What is the genetic basis of SCA?
The sickle cell allele is a single point mutation in the B-chain of the hemoglobin gene
Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease
It is passed from parents to offspring by medelian inheritance
When parents have child they randomly pass on one of their alleles to each child
Sickle cell genotypes express different levels of the sickle cell B-hemoglobin
What is the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
If a population of sexually reproducing individuals is infinitely large, mate at random. No force of evolution acts on the population than after one generation of random mating for an autosomal gene the population will have genotype frequencies that are given by terms in the polynomials
P2+ 2PQ+q2=1
P and Q=frequencies of given alleles
should allele frequencies change across the population?
Allele frequencies did not change across generations
What happens when all assumptions of the Hardy Weinberg equilibrium are met?
the population genotype and allel frequencies will never change
What will happen since normal and SCA alleles have different fitnesses
The sickle cell and normal alleles have different fitnesses and thus natural selection will occur-the sickle cell gene violates one major assumption of the equilibrium
What do frequencies have to add up to?
How does the body react to Sickle Cells?
Body wants to destroy sickle cells, concentrate in spleen
If there was no change across the populagtion than what couldn't have happened?
no evolution occurred
What doesn't Hardy Weinberg take into account?
Natural selection may be ccuring in the pop
Before selection we know the frequency. After selection the frequencies change
Average fitness in the population
What will genes move towards?
People will toward equilibrium
Why are the graphs underpredicative?
Fitness model assumes everybody is affected with malaria-not true silly
What does natural selection
Natural selection favors a polymorphism
Is B hemoglobin the only thing thats changed?
Other genes besides the B hemoglobin chain have also apparenyl evolved to reduce the effects of malaria
How many flavors does life come in?
Life now comes in three domains
What is a difference between membranes in bac/ eukaryotes?
Archaea and Eubacteria both have cell walls surrounding their plasma membranes
For eukaryotes the lack of cell wall and the presence of double membrane bound organelles is the primitive state
How many times did life evolve?
Evidence suggests that life my have evolved only once, life may have evolved twice, life may have evolved multiple times
What are th seven minimal metabolisms of all life on earth?
aa-trna biosynthesis, glycolysis, phospholipic biosynthesis, transmembrane electric potential generation, cofactor metabolism, non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, nucleotide biosynthesis
What does all life use for ATP production?
All life uses glycolysis to generate ATP
What is ATP?
ATP-the internal fuel used by all life, pop of two of the phosphate groups from ATP and you have the A in the genetic code (life is efficient)
How does glycolysis work?
Glycolysis-1. Glucoses uses ATP to become glucose6-phosphate-which is converted to fructose 6 phosphate, another ATP is used to converted that to fructose1,6 biphosphate, that is broken into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and Glyrceride 3-phosphate (2 molecules), and NAD +2Pi ised used to generate 1,3 biphosphoglycerate (2), 2 ATP are then generated as 3-phosphoglycerate is produced, becomes 2 phosphoglycerate, which becomes phosphoenolpyruvate and two more ATP are produced to get pyruvate, pyruvate is converted to Acetyl CoA, generates oxaloacetate
What do most organism use following glycolysis?
Part of the aerobic respiration biochemistry in most organisms is the krebs cycle
Many aerobic archaea and eubacteria run the citric acid cycle in their cytoplasm
Where do eukaryotes run krebs?
What does the citric acid cycle use/ produce?
The citric acid cycle uses H2O and liberates COO2 but does not consume O2
What does all life use that makes ATP?
All Life uses electricity (proton motive force) and ATP synthase to make ATP
The proton motive force is generated with an electron transport system that exports protons across the plasma membrane
Why is the citric acid cycle important?
The citric acid cycle produces the fuel to run the electron transport chain and not to make ATP
What does the electrobn transport chain do?
The electron transport chain generates the proton motive force across a membrane and does not make ATP
What does mitochondria do?
In addition to making lots of ATP aerobically in eukaryotic cells, mitochondria also have a circular DNA genome of their own
Mitochondria’s primary role in a Euukaryote is to make ATP from pyruvate and fatty acids
What is Os rule?
Os role in all this is as the terminal electron acceptor at the end of the ETC
Who is mitochondria's cousin?
What did margulis propose?
Margulis proposed that the eukaryotic cell was a chimera of arachea and eubacteria
We currently hypothesize that the eukaryotic mitochondrion is the result of one endosymbiotic establishment of an a-proteobacterium in an archaeal cell.
Mitochondrai genes are phylogentically closer to eubacteria
Most nuclear genes are closer to archaea
Some Eukaryotes got plastids (i.e., chloroplasts, and other photosynthetic organelles) in the same manner.
An Hypothesis for the MULTIPLE Endosymbiotic Origins of Plastids
What are the seven processes of life?
, shuts of some of the interminerares, synthesizes nucleotides, synthesis lipids
genes that could for machinery to make nucleotides, deals with cofactors, tRNA to AA niosynthesis, generates electricity
What tyope organisms use pyruvate?
What is the only wheel in biology?
One of only wheels that exist in biology is the silly ATP pump
Electricity flows through the wheels
Generates electrical current my moving h ions across the membrane
Get positive charge on outside and negative on the outside
How many mitchondrians do have for membranes DNA?
If you are mitochondrian-have inner membrane and an outer membrane
Has outer membrane around it
Circular DNA
What do mitochondria do?
In mitochondrion glycolysis is in cytoplasm than imports pyruvate and fatty acids, leaks back across inside membrane, all compartmentalized
Mitochondrion does not run glycolyyysis it hopes someone will give it pyruvate
Mitochondria reproduce
Most cells have 50 to 100 mitochondria
When and where do we think we got mitochondria from>?
1.8 billion years it was,
we think it was alphaphteo bacteria
Plastid-lite harvesting organelles in plants
Chloroplasts have peptidoglycan wall
Rikitsiae-intracellular parasite, in eukaryotes
Rickitsiae was probably the originally enosymbiotic that ultimately gave rise
Do you only evolve by gaining stuff?
Nope can lose stuff too!
What is blue-green algae?
Why rely on somebody else to do that? Why shrink genome?
Copying its genome is one of the most time consuming things its gotta do, make mistakes everytime
Less time to copy, make more of itself faster, mitochondria , creates evolution within the cell
Copy themselves faster, make more likely for next generation
Lowers mutation
How does nucleus get stuff to mitochondria?
Label protein to move out of nucleus, chaperone walks out of nucleus to right organelle
Why do stuff when you can get it for free
What is carsonella?
smallest genome
What is parimecium?
single celled, genome so big that they can’t figure out of how many bases it has might have 39,000 geneswe have 3.3 billion
Where do lots of parasites live?
Lot of parasites live in anaerobic places
The G is anaerobic
Liberated hydrogen, comes out of hydrogenosomes
How many types of mitchondria using eukaryotes are there?
How did we get these three kinds of eukaryotes-one with mitochondria, without, and sort of
Full blown mitochondrial, lost stuff and then got some new stuff
what did giardia do with mitochondria?
Giardia just got rid of it, has mitochondrial genes in its genome
What is the relationship between the vaginal parasite and mitchondria?
Vaginal parasite looks a lot like mitochondria, anaerobic
What is another indicator we need mitochondria?
Make iron sulfer complexes, all of the stuff that does this is done in the mitchondria
Out in cytoplasm iron/sulfer exported form mitochondria
Chloroplasts make iron sulfers too
Are all things aerobic or anaerobinc
Some can operate in anaerobic conditions (eukaryote)
Need to have switches
What is the goal of a parasite?
To get smaller, Viruses are the extreme, get rid of everything else
What is up with glaucophyta?
Glaucophyta have a primitive chloroplast that is very much like a cyanobacterium, it’s chloroplant still has a peptidoglycan wall around it and it has no thalykouid membranes, but rather just stacked pigment molecules
What is Rickettsiaia?
Rickeettaia is probably the mitochondrial ancestor, it is an intracellular eukaryotic parasites
Rickettsia is a a-proteobacterium with 834 protein coding genes, reclinomonas is a protozoan wigth a large mitochondrial genomem, 67 protein coding genes, ours has 13 protein coding genes
How many mitochondria are there in a cell? how do they divide?
Each cell has tens to hundreads of mitochondria and plastids that replicate on their own
Mitochondria divide by simple fission, much like bacteria do, after replicating their genomes.
These organelles go throught tens to hundreds of generation for each cell generation
Why is DNA shrunk down?
Copying DNa genome is one of the most time consuming activities of aa cell
Every copy is made, mistakes in copying are made
Reduce genome because it decreases mutation rate and increase organelle division rate
Proteinds made by genes in the bucleus must be translocated into the mitochondrion
They each have a signal peptide sequence that identifies them for targeting to the mitochondrian
What do chaperones do?
Chaperone proteins help in uncoiling them so they can pass
The signal peptide binds to the TOM receptor on the outer mebrane of the mitochondrion, they are passed through the TIM translocators
Targeting genes to the mitochondrion is no easy task, but the pathway allows genes to be translocated from the mitochondrion to the nucleus
What are the modified organelles called?
mitosomes and hydrogenosomes
Why have mitochondria not been completely lost
Production of Fs-S complexes may be one of the most critical aspects of why mitcondriqa have not been completely lost in some of these organisms
Whats up with metazoans?
Even mitochondria in some metazoans have adaptations to anaerobic conditions
What do chaperones do?
Chaperone proteins help in uncoiling them so they can pass
The signal peptide binds to the TOM receptor on the outer mebrane of the mitochondrion, they are passed through the TIM translocators
Targeting genes to the mitochondrion is no easy task, but the pathway allows genes to be translocated from the mitochondrion to the nucleus
What are the modified organelles called?
mitosomes and hydrogenosomes
Why have mitochondria not been completely lost
Production of Fs-S complexes may be one of the most critical aspects of why mitcondriqa have not been completely lost in some of these organisms
Whats up with metazoans?
Even mitochondria in some metazoans have adaptations to anaerobic conditions
What is STAMP?
Antimicrobials kill all bacteria etc in mouth, only a few have cavities, bacterial cells use different peptides, identified peptides that communicate with streptococcus mutans to make a smart bomb called STAMP that kills streptococcus mutans so that the normal bacteria don’t get killed
What is a new weird art?
In a diploid then you have two alleles and each allele will have a different a fitness
Worm composting as art-amy young, made a table, the worms stay at the top, no meat or grease, and there is an LCD screen so she can watch
What are magnetic bacteria?
Magentic bacteria-, live in ponds and marshes, one strain may prove useful as a toxic chemical sensor, align with earths magnetic field, being magnetic helped them swim away from oxygen, reorient quickly, can get back to where the oxygen is lower, develop strain that makes them magnetic when toxins
What are soap lake scrubbers?
Soap lake scrubbers-the lake is a dead end, only evaporation carries stuff out so its very salty, created scores of cool microorganisms
What do R genes do?
The r genes are recognizing different effectors, that cell has to figure out that the pathogen is out there, over time different r genes have coevolved with the effectors
R gene codes for something that recognizes the receptor and marks cell for cell death
What are opines?
Opines are modified amino acids. Serve as C and N sources for agrobacteria
What are oncogenes?
Oncogenes encode enzymes necessary for hormone biosynthesis.
Will one gene do the trick?
So have to have an R gene for everything, can have multiple r genes
What is avr
Avr is recognized by the R gene
Avirulent because if it gets recognized it cannot mount a response
What is hypersensitive response?
Hypersenstive response is when cells die
What is the gene for gene hypothesis?
Gene for Gene-pathogens enter the plant through a wound, proteins and other molecules are released, r-gene products bbind to certain molecules from pathogens, binding activates R gene product and triggerts protective hypersensitive response, if no R and avr gene products are absent plant dies from disease
Do different alleles occur in different frequencies?
What is type IV?
Type IV-delivery system how the T DNA gets
What is NEF?
Another important viral protein, Nef, acts in the cytoplasm to prevent the cell from dying or being killed by other components of the immune system.
Nef inhibits apoptosis in various ways.
Nef also prevents the presentation of MHC epitopes.
Nef activates expression of FasL, which induces apoptosis in cytotoxic T cells that express Fas, and which may otherwise act to kill infected cells.
Nef down-regulates the expression of CD4, which prevents the cell from binding other ligands.
Nef in all these ways prolongs the life of an infected cell.
Prevents the cell from signaling help
What is tat?
The viral protein Tat is needed for elongation to proceed full-length.
What are neutrophils
Neutrophils are also phagocytic.
What does NEF do to FasL
ok, here nef is killing cytotoxic cells
to protect ther other infected cells from being destroyed, it activates FasL, which is a gene
and that gene codes for the apoptotic process, this is cytotoxic cells
What happens if there is no r gene?
A no R gene the PAMP only allows it to do a few things
What does the complement system do?
The complement system is an ancient protein cascade that works in parallel to antibody responses.
Complement proteins also cause blood vessels to leak (i.e., swelling) and inflammatory response.
The complement system builds a complex that ultimately punctures the cell wall and membranes of bacteria.
What do B cells do?
B cells sit at the top of one line fo defense
B cells secrete antibodiesw into blood and lymph to target extracellular antigens
B cells differntiate to produce one specific antibody
When a B cell encounters its target it replicates into many large plasma cells
What are plasma cells?
Plasma cells are simply factories for producing massive amounts of identical antibodies and releasing them into the blood and lymph
What do blood platelets do?
Blood platelets stimulate blood clotting and immune responses.
Whats up with manure products?
Manure Products-cow manure into building material, diugestor which captures methane gas uses for elcrticity, liquid is by product for crop irrigation and sterile fiber for animal bedding, made it into fiber board, unique solution
Whats up with waterborne illness?
Water borne illness-don’t drink water may not be enough, exposed in ways you may not suspect, ice, vegetables washed in water, wash hands and drink bottled water
Tap water travels through pipes, pipes lined with biofilms, potentially harmful bacteria can grow in the biofilms, rarely break free, suppressed immune systems might be at risk
Whats up with the tan oak?
Race to save the tan oak, pacific coast killed by fungus, can be protected, hitch hiked from rotary grown, trying to prevent from going to the east
What is this ancient herbal secret?
Ancient herbal secret-german naturalist, plants on Indonesian island, did they actually work? Atun tree nut for diarrhea, look at bacteria associated with diarhhea, strong antimicrobial affect, also effective against staphorius
What was up with cyano bacteria and that whole story?
before people etc there were microbes, cyanobacteria use co2 which let to byproduct of oxygen, other microbes evolved to take advantage first saw, oxygen using communities developed long before it was found in the atmosphere, halomonus can digest nitrates and cope with salt so can break down nitrates in fertilizer and explosives waste, may be great for waste water
What is the benefit of pamp plus
With PAMP can make reactive oxygen species etc this will happen no matter what the but the plant can do an enhanced response
What is very very general of the ti plamid thing?
So replace those genes with the genes we want
Agro finds wounded plant and the VIrA senses it which VIrG turns on
What are T cells?
T cells do not recognize freefloating antigens
Instead their cell surfaces contain antibody like receptors that see antigens on the surfaces of infected or cancerious cells
T cells differentiate into one of two type-helpers or killers
Helper T cells have primariliy CD4+ receptors on cell surface to recoghnize diseased or cancerous cells
Some forms stimulate nearby B cells to dump antibodies, other call on phagocytes, and other activate T cells
Killer T cells (or cytokine T lymphocytes [CTL]) have CD8+ receptors on cell surface to recognize foreign or abnormal molecules.
What are CTLs?
CTLs are especially good at attacking cells infected with viruses because they target small fragments of viruses on cell membranes.
Most CTLs only recognize antigens carried on MHC complexes on cell surface.
Natural Killer T cells (NK T cells) are filled with granules of potent chemicals to kill cells.
What are NKTs?
NK T cells target cells lacking self-MHC molecules (i.e., not self) and are thus general purpose killers
What are phagocytic cells/
Various phagocytic cells ingest debris, microbes and targeted cells by “phagocytosis”.
What are monophages?
Monophages differentiate into macrophages, which scavenge all kinds of foreign debris, dead and targeted cells.They also recruit other cells to the area by releasing “monokines”.
What are granulocyte?
All contain granules of potent chemicals to destroy microbes. Some (e.g., histamine) also contribute to the inflammation response.
Neutrophils are also phagocytic.
Eosinophils and basophils spray chemical onto harmful cells.
Why can HIV live dormant?
Multiple copies of the viral genome are integrated into each infected cell’s genome. Once integrated into the host genome, HIV can lay dormant for long periods if it is integrated into heterochromatin areas where transcription is repressed.
What does the LTR do?
The long terminal repeat (LTR) at the 5’ end of the viral genome serves as a eukaryotic transcriptional activation site, containing promoter and enhancer elements, a TATA box and three Sp1 sites to recruit the RNA polymerase II complex.
Whay is happening with misquitoes and resistance?
more and more can take DDT and insecticdes and plasmodium is now resistant to chloroquine
what is the problem even if malaria is dormant?
can infect others still
How does plasmodium reproduce in the misquito? in people?
sexually , but in people iits asexual first in the lover and then in the RBCs
What happens when a misquito bites?
She injects infectious forms of the parasit, the sporozite, this invades the liver where it develops into a schizont which is a strucutre that contains thousands of merozoites, when the schizont is mature it ruptures and releases the merozoites into the blood stream
How do merozoites fuel their activities?
consuming hemoglobin
What must misquitoes do to pass along the parasite?
live long enough for complete devleopment
what happens to plasmodium as the temp drops?
development slows
What is growijng misquito problem
farmers use the same pecticides on their crops so the problem of insecticide resistant midsquioes is growing
Why is p.falciparum so virulent?
can infect rbcs during all stages of devlopment, versus p vivax which infects only young rbcs
are mixed infections possible
When do the misquitoes like to feed
dusk through night
Where does the name for malaria vcome from?
bad air because romans thought it lurked nn marshes and swamps
What are higher plants the result of?
symbiosis between animal like hosts and ohotsyntheticbluegreen alage-guests who evolved when mitosis had been perfected
What are the considering for malaria prevention?
transmission blocking vacines that prevent the malaris parasite from devloping in the misquito
Where are genes also found?
outside the nucleus notably in chloroplasts and mitochondria
What group do chloroplasts belong to?
group of organelles known as plastids that have their own unique DNA unrelated to the DNA in the nucleus
What else do chloroplats have?
their own ribosomes where proteins are synthesized, they also contain specific transfer RNAs
What do people now think about plastids?
originally free living algae (this may also be true for cilia and flaqgella)
What is the difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes cilia and flagella/
What are cells with nuclei the product of?
a symbiotic union of several cells
What happened in the second process?
the uptake of hydrogen was accomplished by splitting water molecules-more free oxygen in air, blue green algae adapted to this
What was one success of the evolution of blue green algae?
evolution of new kinds of bacteria that utilized oxygen
What happened with flagella?
a second group of symbionts comprable to modern spriochetes attached to the host and increased motility, may have also become centrioles and mitotic spindles
What are plantibodies?
human antibodies synthesized by genetically engineering corn plants
What is a valuable way to deliver the ti plasmid?
from agrobacterium, causes crown gall, releases Ti plasmids into the plant and it inserts itself into the genome
What is the target for HIV and why?
the helper t cell because it bear s the cd4 receptor
What is a provirus
the synthesized DNA molecule
What is the primary problem with treatment of HIV and TB?
Access to essential drugs, access is the problem for TB and HIV especially
Diseases of third world, but medicines have third world prices
What is the problem when drugs are cheaper?
Drugs cheaper, but may take a hit in quality
What is MMR?
MMR for measles, mumps, and rubella, which normally gives life long immunity, all of these are viral
We no longer have measles circulating because we have a very good vaccine it’s called
Do we have a global response network?
There is a global response network, about 120 organization, ie doctors without borders
What is rotavirus?
Rotavirus causes many diarrheal diseases-lose water fast, children have small body mass
What are some of the problems with drugs?
Poor quality and counterfeit drugs
Lack of availability due to fluctuating production or prohibitive cost
Patent violations
Lack of R & D
What are the criteria for the Bill and Melinda gates foundation
Support efforts to prevent and treat diseases and conditions that meet three criteria:
(1) they cause widespread illness and death in developing countries;
(2) they represent the greatest inequities in health between developed and developing countries;
(3) they receive inadequate attention and funding.
What are the diseases on Bill and Melinda's list?
Acute diarrheal diseases - kills 2-3 million children a year
Acute lower respiratory illnesses like pneumonia - kills 2 million children a year
What wil change the world?
15 June 2007 is a key milestone in public health. The IHR(2005) are the world's first legally binding agreement in the fight against public health emergencies of international concern such as those caused by new and re-emerging diseases with epidemic potential, as well as those associated with acute chemical or radionuclear events. The 2005 revision of the 1969 version of the IHR broadens the scope of notification from cases of cholera, plague and yellow fever to ALL EVENTS which may constitute public health emergencies of international concern and the reporting of other serious international health risks, irrespective of origin or source.
What is up recently with Avian flu?
The Ministry of Health of Indonesia has announced a new case of human infection of H5N1 avian influenza. A 5-year-old female from Wonogiri district, Central Java Province developed symptoms on 8 May, was hospitalized on 15 May and died in hospital on 17 May. Initial investigations into the source of her infection indicate exposure to dead poultry.

Of the 97 cases confirmed to date in Indonesia, 77 have been fatal (15 cases since January 2007).
What is the current situation with measles?
Currently, numerous measles outbreaks are ongoing worldwide, including an outbreak in Japan in the Western Pacific Region, that has resulted in imported cases into the U.S. However, in 2007, the majority of US import-associated cases have been linked to India. Measles has not been endemic in the US since 1997.
What is the current situation with mumps
Recent cases of mumps have been reported in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Ontario, Canada. The large outbreak of mumps that occurred in the United Kingdom in 2005-6 has waned, although mumps remains endemic there.
What is the DALY?
disability-adjusted life years